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iftrlating to all ^grs antr Nations; 


















{.oNnoN : 



The design of the Author has been, to attempt the compression 
of the greatest body of general information that has ever appeared 
in a single volume, and to produce a Book of Reference whose 
extensive usefulness may render its possession material to every 
individual — ^in the same manner that a London Directory is indis- 
pensable, on business affiurs, to a London merchant. 

He grounds his hope of the Public^ taking an interest in this 
work altogether upon its own intrinsic utility. Its articles are 
drawn principally from historians of the first rank, and the most 
authentic annalists ; and the Dictionary of Dates will, in almost 
every instance, save its possessor the trouble of turning over volu- 
minous authors to refresh his memory, or to ascertain the date, 
order, and features of any particular occurrence. 

The volume contains upwards of Fifteen Thousand Abticlkis, 

alphabetically arranged ; and from the selection of its materials it 
must be important to every man in the British Empire, whether 
learned or unlearned, or whether connected with the professions or 
engaged in trade. 


It would be difficult to name all the authors from whose works 
the Compiler of this volume has copiously extracted ; but he may 
mention among the classics, Herodotus^ Livy, Pliny, and Plutarch. 
He has chosen in general chronology, Petavius, Usher, Blair, 
Prideaux^ and the Abbe L'Englet du Fresnoy. For the events 
embraced in Foreign history, he has relied upon Henault, Voltaire, 
La Combe, Rollin, Melchior Adam, the Nouveau Dictionnaire^ and 
chief authors of their respective countries. On subjects of general 
literature, his authorities are Cave's Historia Literaria^ Moreri, 
Bayle, Priestley, and others of equal repute. And English occur- 
rences are drawn from Camden, Stowe, Hall, Baker, Holingshed, 
ChamberlaynCj Rapin, Hume, Gibbon, Goldsmith, &c. Besides 
these, the Compiler has freely used the various abridgments that 
have brought facts and dates more prominently forward ; and he is 
largely indebted to Chambers, Aspin, Beat^on, Anderson, Beckmann, 
the CyclopcediaSf Annual Register^ Statutes at Large^ and numerous 
other compilations. In almost every instance the authority is 
quoted for the extract made, and date assigned, though inadvert- 
enoe may have prevented, in some few cases, a due acknowledgment. 

The leading events of every country, whether ancient or modern 
kingdoms, are to be found in the annals of each respectively, as 
in the cases, for instance, of Greece, Rome, the Eastern Empire, 
England, France, and Germany. But independently of this plan 
of reference, when any historical occurrence claims, from its impor- 
tance, more specific mention, it is made in a separate article, 
according to alphabetical arrangement. Thus, in the annals of 
England, the dates are given of the foundation of our univer- 
sities, the institution of honorary orders, and signature of Magna 
CJtarta; we find, in those annals, the periods of our civil wars. 


and remarkable eras in our history, set down as they have 
occurred; but if more ample information be necessary to the 
Reader, and if he desire to know more than the mere date of any 
fact or incident^ the particulars are supplied under a distinct head. 
In the same way, the pages of Battles supply the date of each, in 
the order of time ; yet in all instances where the battle has any 
relation to our own country, or is memorable or momentous, the 
chief features of it are stated in another part of the volume. 

The Compiler persuades himself that the Dictionary of Dates 
will be received as a useful companion to all Biographical works, 
relating, as it does, to things as these do to persons^ and affording 
information not included in the range or design of such pub- 

LfONDON, May, 1841. 

To this Edition is appended a copious INDEX of the leading 
Names occurring in the Work, and that directly relate to the 
articles respectively. The leading names only are given, because 
those that are incidentally mentioned would alone fill a volume. 
This Index will materially assist the Inquirer in finding any 
required incident or date. A name may be remembered, but the 
circumstances relating to it may be forgotten. We may know 
that Napoleon fought in Italy, and Wellinoton in India, but 
may not recollect the particular scene of action in either case; 
and the search for it may have been, hitherto, sometimes tedious 
and difficult. If the Reader now turn to the Index he will see, 
under the one name, Castiglione, Lodi, and Marengo^ and under 


the other, Assay e; and the desired information is at once obtained. 
Again^ a name may be connected with Science, but in what branch 
of it may have escaped the memory, and we might have looked 
through numerous articles, Astronomy, Chemistry, Mechanics, 
Physics, &c., before it was found. The Index serves in such 
instances to render reference more easy and certain, and will 
prove in various other respects a valuable, indeed a necessary^ 
addition to the volume. 

London, Novemhtr, 1845. 





ABACUS. The capital of the Corinthian order in architectnre, had its origin in a 
simple incident : — On the death of a young maid of Corinth, her lorer gaUiered the 
ornaments she had most valued when living, and placed them in a wicker-basket, 
covered by a tile, upon her tomb. Close to her grave an acanthus had taken root, 
and the flower shooting forth in the spring, its leaves twined around the basket, and 
convolved beneath the tile in the form of volutes. Attracted by this display, Calli- 
machus, the founder of the Corinthian order, made it the model for his capital ; the 
tile being the abacus, the foliage of the acanthus the volutes, and the whole forming 
the capital which adorns his column, about 540 b.c. — Perault. 

ABBEYS AND MONASTERIES, were first founded in the third century, near the close 
of which the sister of St Anthony is said to have retired to one. An abbey was 
founded by St Anthony at Phaim, in Upper Egypt, a.d. 305. The first founded 
in France was at Poitiers, in 360. The first in Ireland was in the fifth century : 
see Chgher^ Mtphin, Doum, The first in Scotland was in the sixth century : see 
Islet. And the first in Britain was in 560 : see Bangor. The abbey of Mount 
Cassino, near Naples, founded by St Benet in 529, was esteemed the richest in the 
world, and fomiahed many thousands of saints to the church. 110 monasteries and 
priories were suppressed in England by order in council, 2 Henry V. 141 4. — Salmon. 
The revenues of 193 abbeys which were dissolved at the Reformation amounted 
to 2,653,000/. These foundations were totally suppressed throughout the realm, 
31 Henry VIII. 1539. See Monasterie$. 

ABBOT : from Ab (father), a rank adopted by the Jewish doctors, and the heads of 
primitive monasteries. They are cardinal abbots, bishop abbots, mitred abbots, and 
crosiered abbots, when holding their dignities from the pope. In England, mitred 
abbots were lords of parliament ; twenty •seven abbots and two priors were thus dis- 
tinguished in the 4th Edward III. 1329, but the number was reduced to t?renty-five 
in Sie parliament 20 Richard II. 1396. — Coke. The abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, 
and St. John's, Colchester, hanged and quartered for denying the king's supremacy, 
and not surrendering their abbeys, 1539. See Glaetonbury. 

ABDICATION or KINGS. They are numerous in ancient history. Those in later 
times of most remarkable character and greatest political importance, and to which 
reference may more frequently be made, are the following : — 

Of James IT. of England . 1688 

Of Frederick Anguatus XL of Poland 1704 

Of Philip y. of Spain . . . '1724 

Of Victor of Sardinia . . , \ 1730 

Of Charles of Naples • • . . 17M 

Of Btanidaus of Poland • . . . 1795 

Of Henry IT. of Oeimany . 

Of Stephen ILof Hungary, sumamod 


Of Albert of Saxony . . . . 

Of Leetua V. of Poland 

Of UlAdislanB HL of Poland 

Of Baliol, of Scotland 

Of Otho, of Hungary . . . . 

Of Eric DL of Denmark . 

Of Erie Xm. of Sweden 

Of CTharlee V. Emperor . . 

Of Christina of Sweden 

Of John Caafanir of Poland . . 



Of Victor of Sardinia . Jane4» 1809 

Of Francia II. of Germany, who beoomea 
emperor of Anatria only . Aug. 11, 1804 

Of Charlea IV. of Spain, in favour of hia 
aon . . . . March 19, 1808 

He again abdicates in favour of the Buo- 
naparte fiunily. h^ Spain . Bfay 1,1806 


ADD [ 2 ] ABS 

Of Charles X. of Franco . . Aug. l>, 1830 
Of Pedro of Brazil . . April 7, 1831 
Of Don Miguel of Portugal (by leaving 

the kingdom) . . May 26, 1834 

Of William 1. of Holland Oct. 8, 1840 

Of Chribtina of Spain, queen dowager 

and queen regent . . Oct. 12, 1840 

ABDICATION of KINGS, continued. 

Of Joseph Buonaparte of Naples, to take I Of Pedro of Portugal . May 2, 18* 

the crown of Spain . . June 1, 1008 
Of the same (by flying before the British 

from Madrid) . . July 29, 1808 

Of Louis of Uolland . . July 1, 1810 
Of Jerome of Wc&tpbalia . Oct. 20, 1813 

Of Napoleon of France . April 5, 1814 

Of Emanuel of Sardinia . March 13, 1821 

ABELARD and HELOISE. Their amour, so celebrated for its passion and misfor- 
tunes, coini»^**nced at Paris, A.n. 1118, when HeloVse (a canon'« daughter) was 
under seventeen years of age, Abelard, after suflferiDg an ignominious injury, 
became a monk of the abbey of St. Denis^ and died at St. Marcel, of grief which 
never left his heart, in 1142. Heloise begged his body, and had it buried in the 
Paraclete, of which she was abbess, with the view of reposing in death by his side. 
She was famous for her Latin letters, as well as love, and died in 1163. The ashes 
of both were carried to the Museum or French Monuments in 1800 ; and the museum 
having been subsequently broken up, they were finally removed to the burying-grouml 
of P^re La Chaise, in Nov. 1817. 

ABERDEEN, a seat of learning of considerable antiquity, upon which Gregory the 
Great conferred peculiar privileges in a.d. 893. The university was founded by 
William Elphinstone ; for which purpose he had a bull from the pope, Alexander Vl., 
in 1494. King's College was erected in 1500 ; and Mareschal College was founded 
by George Keith, earl mareschal of Scotland, in 1 j93. 

ABERDEEN, See of. King Malcolm III. having gained a great victory over the Danes 
in the year 1010, resolved to found a new bishopric, in token of his gratitude for his 
success, and pitched upon Mortlich in Banff-shire, where St. Beanus was first 
bishop, 1015. The see was removed early in the twelfth century to Aberdeen, and 
was discontinued at the Revolution, 1G89. 

ABHORRERS, a political court-party in England, in the reign of Charles II. ; and so 
called from their address to the king, expressing their abhorrence of tho6e who 
endeavoured to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1G81. — Hume. 

ABINGDON LAW. In the civil war against Charles I., Lord Essex and Waller held 
Abingdon, in Berks ; this town was unsuccessfolly attacked by sir Stephen Haw- 
kins in 1644, and by Prince Rupert in 1645 : on these occasions the defenders put 
every Irish prisoner, without trial, to death ; hence the term *' Abingdon Law." 

ABJURATION of particular doctrines of the church of Rome was enjoined by statute 
25 Charles II. 1672. The oath of abjuration of the pope and the pretender, denying 
the anthority of the one and the claims of the other, was first administered by 
statute 13 WiUiam III. 1701. 

ABORIGINES, the original inhabitants of Italy ; or, as others have it, the nation 
conducted by Saturn into Latium, founded by Inachus, 1330 n.c. — Univ. Hist. 
Their posterity was called Latinif from Latinus, one of their kings ; and Rome was 
boilt in their country. They were called Aborigines, being absque origine, the pri- 
mitive planters here after the flood. — St. Jerome. The word signifies without origint 
or whose origin is not knowUf and is generally applied to any original inhabitants. 

ABOUKIR, the ancient Canopus, the point of debarcation of the British expedition 
to Egypt under general Abercromby. Aboukir surrendered to the British, after an 
obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, March 18, 1801. The bay is 
famous for the defeat of the French fleet by Nelson, August I, 1798. See Niir. 

ABRAHAM, Era of. Used by Kusebius ; it began October 1, 2016 b.c. To reduce 
this era to the Christian, subtract 2015 years and three months. 

ABIl\HAMITES. This sect adopted the errors of Paulus; but it was suppressed by 
Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch. In the ninth century there sprung up a sect of 
monks under this designation, and it, too, was suppressed, or rather exterminated, 
for worshipping images. 

ABSENTEES. The complaint is in Ireland, that the wealthy of that country retire to 
England ; and in Engknd, that the rich squander their fortunes abroad. According 
to late returns made to the prefect of police at Paris, the entire number of British 
residents in France was estimated at 54,000; but the thousands of Continental 
tourists who pass annually through France are not included in this estimate. The 

AB8 [ 3 ] ACA 

number of British settled in the Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, and 
Italj, is now supposed to far exceed 100,000, drawing from the country not less than 
five millions annually : '* a sum so large,'' observes Dr. Southey, ^* that if, instead of 
being scattered among strangers, it were spent in the deserted halls and mansions of 
these realms, it would materially alleriate the distress with which England now 
struggles." — Quar, Review. 

ABSENTEE TAX. In Ireland, a tax of four shillings in the pound was levied on profits, 
fees, emoluments, and pensions of absentees, in 1715. Iliis tax ceased in 1753. In 
1773, Mr. Flood, the great Irish orator, proposed a tax of two shillings in the pound, 
which was lost by a majority in the commons of 122 to 102. The question was 
renewed in the Irish parliament in 1783 by Mr. Molyneax, and again lost, on a 
division of 184 to 122. — Statuiee at large ; Pari, Reports, 

ABSTINENCE. St. Anthony lived to the age of 105, on twelve ounces of bread, and 

water. James the Hermit lived in the same manner to the age of 104. St. Epi- 

phanius lived thus to 115. Simeon, the Stylite, to 112 ; and Kentigem, commonly 

called St Mungo, lived by similar means to 185 years of age. — Spottiswood. A man 

may live seven, or even eleven, days without meat or drink. — Pliny Hut, Nat. lib. ii. 

Democritus subsisted for forty days by smelling honey and hot bread, 323 e.g. — 

Dtog. Laert, A woman of Normandy lived for 18 years without food. — Petrut de 

Albano, Gilbert Jackson, of Carse-grange, Scotland, lived three years without 

sustenance of any kind, 1719. A religious fanatic, who determined upon fasting 

forty days, died on the sixteenth. 1 789. — Phillips. A country girl, of Osnabruck, 

absUined four years from all food and drink, 1799. — Jiufeland*s Practical Journal, 

Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, supposed to have been an 

isBpostor, was laid to have lived twenty months without food, Nov. 1808. At Newry, 

in Ireland, a man named Cavanagh was reported to have lived two years without meat 

or drink ; Aug. 1840 ; his imposture was afterwards discovered in England, when* ha 

was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. See instances in HalUr's Elements Physiolo- 

pirn ; Comaro ; Prioher's Surgical Library, Ac. ; and in this volume, see Fasting. 

ABSTINENTS. The abstinents were a sect that wholly abstained from wine, flesh, and 
marriage ; and were a community of harmless and mild ascetics. They appeared in 
France and Spain in the third century ; and some authorities mention such a sect as 
having been numerous elsewhere in a.d. n(i,-^Bossuet. 

ABYSSINIAN ERA. This era is reckoned from the period of the Creation, which they 
place in the 5493rd year before our era, on the 29th August, old style ; and their 
dates consequently exceed ours by 5492 years and 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian 
time to the Julian year, subtract 5492 years and 125 days. 

ACADEMIES, or societies of learned men to promote literature, sciences, and the arts, 
are of early date. Aeademia was a shady grove without the walls of Athens 
(bequeathed to Hecademus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philo- 
sophy, and his followers took the title of Academics 378 b. c— Stanley. Ptolemy 
Soter is said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, about 314 b. c. Theodosius 
tibe Younger and Charlemagne are also named as founders. Italy has been celebrated 
for its academies ; and Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in the city of Milan. 
The first philosophical academy in France was established by Pere Mersenne, in 1635. 
Academies were introduced into England by Boyle and Hobbes ; and the Royal Society 
of London was formed in 1660. The following are among the principal academies :— 

Anoona, of the Caglinoti, 1G84. Florence, Belles Lettres, 127^ t Delia Crusea 

Berlin, Royal Society, 1700 ; (^Princes, 1703; 1582 ; AntiquliiM. 18r»7. 

Architeeture, 1799. 
BoIofDS, BodMlaatioal, 1107 : Mathematics, 

IflBO ; Seienees and ArU, 1712. 
Brescia, of the ErrantU 1026. 
Brest and Toolon, Bfilitary, 1082. 
BmaKls, Bellas Lettres, 1773- 
Caen. Belles Lettres, IJSO. 
Copenhagea, Polite Arts, 1742. 
Cortona, Antiqaitlee, 1726. 
Dublin. Arte, 1748; Science and Literature, 

1786; Painting, Soolpiuro, dec. 1823. 
Erfurt. Saxony. SoSenoes, 1754. 

Paenaa, the PhiloponU 1C12. 1 Manheim, Sculpture. 1775. 


Geneva, Medical. 1715. 

Genoa, Painting, Ac. 17/11 ; Sciences, 1783. 

Germany, Medioal. 1617; Natural History, 

1652 : Military. 1752. 
Haorlem. the Sdenoee, 1760l 
Lisbon. History. 1730 ; Sciences, 1779. 
London : its rarious Academies are described 

through the volume. 
Lyons, Sciences, 1700 ; had Physic and Ma- 

thcniatics added, 1758. 
Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713 ; History, 

1730 ; Painting and the Arts, 1753. 




Philadelphia, Arta and Sciences, 1749. 

Portsmouth, Naval, 17^ ; enlarged, 1800 

Rome, Umoristi, 1611; Fantoicicit 1635; 
Infecondi, 1653 ; Painting, 1665 ; Arcadi, 
1690 : English. 1752. 

Spain. Royal. 1713 ; Military. 1751. 

Stockholm, of Science, 1741 ; Belles LettrfSt 
1753 ; Agriculture, 1781. 

Toulon. Military, 1682. 

Turin, Soienoes. 1759 ; Fine Arts, 1778. 

Turkey, Military School, 1775. 

tJpsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720. 

Venice. Medical, die. 1701. 

Verona. Music, 1543 ; Sciences, 1780. 

Vienna, Sciilpture and the Arts, 1705; Sur- 
gery, 1783 ; Oriental, 1810. 

Warsaw, Languages and History, 1753. 

Woolwich, Military, 1741. 

ACADEMIES, continued, 

Mantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1704. 

Marseilles, Belle* Lettre*, 1726. 

Massaohusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. 

Milan, Architecture, 1380 ; Sciences, 1719. 

Munich, Arts and Sciences. 1750. 

Naples, Rottana, 1540; Mathematics, 1560; 
Sciences. 1695 ; Uereulaneum, 1755. 

New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. 

Nismes. Royal Academy, 1682. 

Padua, for Poetry, 1610 ; 'Sciences, 1792. 

Palermo, Medical, 1645! 

Paris, Sarbonnet 1256; Painting. 1391 ; Music, 
1543; French. 1635; Medals, 1663; Archi- 
tecture. 1671 ; Surgery, 1731 ; Military, 1751 ; 
Natural Philosophy, 1796. 

Parma, the InnomintUit 1550. 

Perousa, Insetuati, 1561 ; Filirffiti, 1574. 

Petersburgh, Sciences, 1725; Military. 1732; 
the School of Arts. 1764. 

ACAPULCO, Ship. This was the celebrated prize, a Spanish galleon, from Acapulco, 
laden with gold and precions wares, and estimated by some annalists at 1,000,000/. 
sterling and upwards ; taken by Lord Anson, who had previously acquired booty in 
his memorable voyage amounting to 600,000/. Admiral Anson arrived at Spithead 
in the Centurion with his gains, after having circumnavigated the globe, June 15, 1744. 

ACCENTS. The most ancient manuscripts are written without accents, and without 
any separation of words ; nor was it until after the ninth century that the copyists 
began to leave spaces between the words. Michaelis, after Wetstein, ascribes the inser- 
tion of accents to Euthalius, bishop of Sulca, in Egypt, a.d. 458 ; but his invention 
was followed up and improved upon by other grammarians in the various languages. 

ACCESSION, Thb. By this term is usually understood the accession of the house of 
Hanover to the throne of England, in the person of George I. the elector of Han- 
over, as the Protestant descendant of Elizabeth, the daughter of James I. ; he being 
the son of Sophia, who was the daughter of that princess. He succeeded to the 
crown August Ist, 1714, by virtue of an act of parliament passed in the reign 
of Anne, June 12, 1701. See article Hanoverian Succession, 

ACCUSERS. By the occult writers, such as Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of 
devils, whose chief is called Asteroth, or spy, and who, in tiie Revelation of St. John, 
is by way of eminence, called the accuser of the brethren. He is an accuser who 
charges another with a crime, whether the charge be true or false. False accusers 
were hanged in England by statute 4 Henry VI. 1446. They were burnt in the 
hce with an F by statute 37 Henry VIII. IbAb.—Stowe's Chron. 

ACHAIA. This country was governed by a race of kings, but even their names are all 
forgotten. The capital, Achaia, was founded by Achsus, the son of Xuthus, 1080 
B.C. The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the ^tolians until about 
284 B.C. The Achaei were descendants of Achseus, and originally inhabited the 
neighbourhood of Argos ; but when the Heraclida drove them thence, they retired 
among the lonians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pelene, 
.Agira, ^Sgeum, Bura, Trittea, Leontinm, Rhypss, Ceraunia, Olenos, Helice, Patrse, 
Dyme, and Pharse. 

The Achanm league . a.c. 281 

Fortress of Athenseum built . . 828 

Defeat of the Aehcans by the Spartans, 

and Lysiades killed . . . 226 

BatUe of Sallacia 222 

The Social war begnn . . 220 

The Peloponnesus ravaged by the^tolians 219 
Aratus poisoned at .£gium . . 215 

Battle of Mantinea ; Philopoemen defeats 

the Spartan tyrant Meohanidas . . 208 
Alliance with the Romans . .201 

The United States of America seem to have adopted the plan of the Achaean league 
in forming their constitution ; and the Svriss cantons also had a great resemblance to 
it in their confederacy. 

PhUopcemen defeated by Nabis, in a naval 
battle B.C. 

Sjuirta Joined to the league . . 

The Achcans overrun Measenla with fire 
and sword • • 

The Romans enter Achaia 

Metellns enters Greece 

The Aohcan league dissolved 

Greece subjected to Rome, and named 
the province of Aohala 




ACH LO ^^^ 

ACHONRY, BiSHOPRicK of, founded by St. Finiaiiy who erected the church of 
Achad, usually called Achonry, about the year 520. St. Finian hanng built this 
church, conferred it on his disciple Nathy, named in Irish, Dathy, or David, who 
was the first bishop, and a man of great sanctity. In the ancient annals of Ireland 
the prelates of this see are, for the most part, called bishops of Luigny, or Liny, 
from the subdivision of the county wherein it is situated. The see of Achonry has 
been held in comtnendam with Killala since 1612. — See Kiliala. 

ACOUSTICS. The doctrine of the different sounds of vibrating strings, and communi- 
cation of sounds to the ear by the vibration of the atmosphere, was probably first 
explained by Pythagoras, about 500 B.C. Mentioned by Aristotle, 300 b.c. The 
speaking-trumpet is said to have been used by Alexander the Great, 335 b.c The 
discoveries of Galileo were made about a.d. 1600. The velocity of sound was 
investigated by Newton before 1700. Galileo's theorem of the harmonic curve was 
demonstrated by Dr. Brook Taylor, in 1714 ; and further perfected by D'Alembert, 
Euler, Bernoulli, and La Grange, at various periods of the eighteenth century. 
See Sound, 

ACRE. This measure was formerly of uncertain quantity, and differed in various parts 
of the realm, until made standard by statute 31 Edward I., and fixed at 40 poles or 
perches in length, and 4 in breadth — or 160 square poles, containing 4840 square 
yards, or 43,560 square feet, a.d. 1303. — Pardon. 

ACRE, St. Jban d*. Taken by Richard I. and other crusaders in 1192, after a siege 
of two years, with the loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500barons,and 300,000 
soldiers. Retaken by the Saracens, when 60,000 Christians perished, 1291. This 
capture was rendered memorable by the murder of the nuns, who had mangled their 
faces to repress the lust of the Infidels. Acre was attacked by Bonaparte in July 
1798 ; and was relieved by sir Sydney Smith, who gallantly resisted twelve attempts 
during the memorable siege by the French, between March 6 and May 27, 1799, 
when, baffled by the British squadron on the water and the Turks on shore, Bona- 
parte relinquished his object and retreated. St. Jean d'Acre is a pachalic subject to 
the Porte ; seized upon by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted, July 2, 1832. It 
became a point of the Syrian war in 1840. Stormed by the British fleet under sir 
Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a few hours, the Egyptians 
losing upwards of 2,000 in killed and wounded, and 3000 prisoners, while the 
British had but 12 killed and 42 wounded, Nov. 3, 1840. See Syria and Turkey. 

ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS. The citadel of Athens was built on a rock, and accessible 
only on one side : Minerva had a temple at the bottom. — Pout, in Attic. The roof 
of this vast pile, which had stood 2000 years, was destroyed in the Venetian siege, 
A.D. 1687. — Aspin, The Acropolis of Mycenae was marked by terraces, and 
defended by ponderous walls, on which were high towers, each at the distance of fifty 
feet. — Euripides, 

ACTIUM, Battle of, between the fleets of Octavianus Csesar on the one side, and 
of Marc Antony and Cleopatra on the other, and which decided the fate of Antony, 
300 of lus galleys going over to Caesar ; fought Sept. 2, 31 b.c. This battle made 
Augustus (the title afterwards conferred by the senate upon Caesar) master of the 
world, and the commencement of the Roman empire is commonly dated from this 
year. In honour of his victory, the conqueror built the city of Nicopolis, and insti- 
tuted the Actian games. — Blair, 

ACTRESSES. Women in the drama appear to have been unknown to the ancients ; 
men or eunuchs performing the female parts. Charles II. is said to have first 
encouraged the public appearance of women on the stage in England, in 1662 ; but 
the queen of James I. had previously performed in a theatre at court. — Theat. Biog, 

ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. The first promulgated, 16 John, 1215. See Parliament. 
For a great period of years the number of acts passed has been annually large, 
although varying considerably in every session. Between the 4th and 10th of George 
IV. 1 1 26 acts were wholly repealed, and 443 repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the 
consolidation of the laws by Mr. Peel (afterwards sir Kobert) : of these acts, 1344 
related to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ireland solely. 

ADAM AND EVE, Era of, set down by Christian vrriters as being 4004 d.c. There 
have been as many as one hundred and forty opinions on the distance of time between 
the creation of the world and the birth of the Redeemer : some make it 3616 years, 
and some as great as 6484 years. See Creation, 




ADAMITES, a sect that imitated Adam's nakedness before the fall, arose a.d. 130. 
They assembled quite naked in their places of worship, asserting that if Adam had 
not sinned, there would have been no marriages. Their chief was named Prodicus ; 
they deified the elements, rejected prayer, and said it was not necessary to confess 
Christ — Eusebius, This sect, with an addition of many blasphemies, and teaching 
from the text '* increase and multiply," was renewed at Antwerp in the thirteenth 
century, under a chief named Tandeme, who, being followed by 3000 soldiers, 
violated females of every age, calling their crimes by spiritual names. A Flandrian, 
named Picard, again revived this sect in Bohemia, in the fifteenth century, whence 
they spread into Poland and existed some time. — Bayle ; Pardon. 

lion of Henry VIII. The following were the prime ministers, or favourites, or chiefs 
of administrations, in the respective reigns, viz. : — 


Bishop Fiflher and earl of Surrey . . 1509 
Cardixial Thomas Wolsey . . 1513 

Sir Thomaa More and Cranmer . 15i9 

Lord Audlcy, chancellor j archbishop 

Cranmer 1532 

And lord Cromwell (earl of Eaaex) . . 1534 
Duke of Norfolk, eurl of Surrey, and 

bishop Gardiner 1540 

Lord Wriothcaloy. earl of Hertford . 1544 


Tho earl of Hertford, continued 

John, duke of Northumberland . . 1559 


Bishop Gardiner 1553 


Sir Nicholas Bacon 1558 

Sir William Cecil, afterteardi lord Bur- 
leigh ; chief minister during almost the 
whole of this long reign 
Earl of Leicester, a favourite . . 1564 

Earl of Essex 1538 

Lord Buckhurst 1601 


Lord Bttokburst (earl of Dorset) 

Earls of Salisbury, Suffolk, and North- 
ampton 1608 

Sir R. Carr, created viscount Rochester, 
O/teruNirdf earl of Somerset . . . 1612 

Sir GeorgeVilliers, created earl, marquis, 
and duke of Buckingham . . 1615 


Duke of Buckingham continued 

Earl of Portland, archbishop Laud . . 1628 

Archbishop Laud, earl of Strafibrd, lord 

Cottington 1640 

Earl of Essex 1640 

Lord vis. Falkland, lord Digby . . .1641 
[The civil war commenced, and all went 

into ocmfusion.] 


Edward, earl of Clarendon . . . 1660 
Dukes of Buckingham and Lauderdale . 1687 
Lord Ashley, lord Arlington, sir T. Clif- 
ford, <(/tcriearc(/ lord CUlTord . . 1667 
Lord Arlington, lord Ashley, created 
earl Shaftesbury, and sir Thomas 

Osborne 1673 

Sir Thomas Osborne . . . . 1074 

Earl of Essex, duko of Ormond, earl 
a/Urwards marquess of Halifax, sir 
William Temple . . . 1677 

Duke of York, and his f^knds . . . 1689 


Earls of Sunderland and Tyroonnell, 
sir George afterwards lord JefMcs . 1685 

Lord Jeffries, earl of Tyroonnell, lord 
Bellasis, lord Arundel, earl of Middlo- 
ton, yisct Preston .... 1G»7 


Sir Jolm, afterwards lord Somers, lord 
Qodolphin, earl of Danby, (nfttrwards 
duke of Leeds, &c. .... 1608 
The earl of Sunderland, ^cc. . . . 1693 
Charles Montagu, afierwards carl of 
Halifax, earl of Pembroke, viscount 
Lonsdale, earl of Oxford, ^cc . . 1697 


Lord Oodolphin, R. Harley, esq., lord 

Pembroke, duke of Buckingham 
Duke of Marlborough, dec . . .1705 
Earl Godolphin, lord Cowpcr, dukes of 

Marlborough and Newcastle . 1707 

R. Harley, <|/tenoar(i# earl of Oxford . 1710 

Earl of Rochester, lord Dartmouth, and 

Henry St. John, esq. afterwards visct 

Bolingbroke ; lord Haroourt . . 1710 

Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, dec. 1714 


Lord Cowper, duke of Shrewsbury, mar 
quess of Wliarton, earl of Orford, duko 
ofMarlborough,visot.Townshcnd, &c. 1714 

Robert Walpole, esq. 
James, afterwards earl Stanhope 
Charles, earl of Sunderland, Ac. 
Robert Walpole, esq., afterwards sir 
Robert and earl of Orford . 


Lord Carteret, lord Wilmington, lord 

Bath, Mr. Sandys, &c. 
Hon. Henry Pelham, lord Carteret, earl 

of Harrington, duko of Newcastle 
Mr. Pelham, earl of Chesterfield, duke 

of Bedford, &c. .... 

Duko of Newcastle^ sir Thomas Robin- 
son, Henry Fox, Aa, lord Anson 
Duke of Devonshire. BIr. William Pitt, 

earl Temple, Hon. H. B. Legge . 
[Dismissed in April, 1757. Restored in 

June, same year.] 
William Pitt, Mr. Legge, earl Temple, 

duke of Newcastle, fto. . . . 






Earl of Bute, earl of Egremont, duke of 
Bedford 1761 

Earl of Bute, hoo. Geoive Grenville, sir 
Francis Dashwood, ko. . 1762 





Right hoD. George Orcnville, earl of 
Halifax, earl of Sandwich, duke of 
Bedford, &c 1763 

Marquess of Rockingham, duke of Graf- 
ton, earl of Shdbume, Sco. . July 1765 

Duke of Grafton, hon. Chas. Townshend, 
earl of Chatham, &c . Aug. 1766 

Duke of Grafton, right hon. Frederick, 
loid North, &c. ... Dec. 1767 

Lord North, lord Halifax, &c. . . 1770 

Lord North, lord Dartmouth, lord 8tor- 
mont, lord HUlsborongh, lord St. Ger- 
main, &c. . . . . • 1779 

Blarquess of Rockingham, right honbie. 
CTharles James Fox, 6to. . Mar. 30, 1782 

Earl of Shelbume, ^VilUam' Pitt, lord 
Grantham, &c. . July 10, 17tt2 

Duke of Portland, lord North, Mr. Fox, 
&C. (The CoaliUon Minihtry. See 
"Coalition") . . . April 5, 1783 

Rt. hon. William Pitt, lord Gower, lords 
Sidney, Carmarthen, and Tburlow, 
right hon. W. W. Grenrille, Henry 
Dnndas, lord Mulgrave, duke of Rich- 
mond, &C. . • . Dec. 27, 1783 

Mr. Pitt, lord Camden, marq. of Stafford^ 
lord Hawkesbury, &c. . . .1786 

Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, duke of Leed«, 
lend Camden, &c. .... 1790 

Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, earl of Chatham, 
lord Loughborough, &c. . . . 1793 

Mr. Pitt, duke of Portland, lord Gren- 
ville. Mr. Dundas, &c. . . . 1795 

Mr. Pitt, earl of Westmorland, earl of 
Chatham, lord Grenville, &c. . . 1798 

Right hon. Henry Addington, duke of 
Portland, lord Hawkesbury, lord Ho- 
bart, lord Eldon, ftc. Mar. 17, 1801 

Mr. Pitt, lord Melriile, rt hon. George 
Canning, lord Harrowby, lord West- 
morland, duke of Portland, Mr. Dun. 
das, 9co May 12, 1804 

Lord Grenville, lord Henry Petty, earl 
Spencer, rt. hon. William Windham, 
Mr. Fox, lord Erskine, rt. hon. Charles 
Grey, lord Sidmoutb, fto. (Bee '*.<<// 
Ou TaUnU.I) . . Feb. 5, 1806 

Duke of Portland, Mr. Canning, lord 
Hawkesbury, earl Camden, right hon. 
Spenoer Perceval, arc Mar. 25, 1807 

Duke of Portland, earl Bathurst, lord 
viscount Castlereagh, lord Granville 
Gower, Ac. 1808 

Mr. Perceval, earl of Liverpool, mar* 
qoeas Wellesley, viscount Palmerston, 
Mr. Ryder, dec . . . Oct 1809 


Mr. Perceval, the earl of Liverpool, Ac. 

Earl of Liverpool, Earl Bathurst, visot 

Sidmouth, visooont Castlereagh, Mr. 

Ryder, earl of Harrowby, tight hon. 

Nich. Yansittart, &c June 8, 1812 

OF GREAT BRITAIN, continued, 


Earl of Liverpool, viscount Sidmouth, 
Mr. Vansittart, arc. continued. 

Rt hon. George Canning, lord viscount 
Goderidw lord Lyndhnrst, Mr. Sturges 
Bourne^ &c . . . April 10, 1827 

Viscount Goderich, duke of Portland* 
right hon. William Huakisson, Mr. 
Herries, &o. . . . August II, 1827 

Duke of Wellington, right hon. Robert 
Peel, earl of Dudley, viscount Melville, 
earl of Ab^'deen, Mr. Goulbum, Mr. 
Herries, Mr. Grant, &o. January 25, 1828 

Duke of Wellington, earl of Aberdeen, 
sir George Murray* lord Lowther, sir 
Henry Hardinge, Ac, (Mr. Huakisson, 
vise Palmerston, Mr. Grant, earl of 
Dudley, &o. retiring) May 30, 1828 


Duke of Wellington and his cabinet, 

Earl Grey, viscounts Althorpe, Mel- 
bourne^ Goderich, and Palmenton, 
marquees of Lansdowne, lord Holland, 
lord Auckland, sir James Graham, 
Ac .... Nov. 22, 1830 

[Earl Grey resigns May 9 ; but resumes 
office May 18, 1832.] 

Viscount Melbourne, viscount Althorp, 
lord John Russell, visots. Palmerston 
and Duncannon, sir J. C. Hobhouse. 
lord Howick, Mr. S. Rice, Mr. Poulett 
Thomson, *o. . July 14, 1834 

Visoount Melbourne's administration 
dissolved: the duke of Wellington 
takea the helm of state provisionally, 
waiting the return of Sir Robert Peel 
from Italy . . . Nov. 14, 1834 

Sir Robert Peel, duke of Wellington, 
lord Lyndhurst, earl of Aberdeen, lord 
Ellenborough, lord Rosslyn, lord 
Wliamcliffe, sir George Murray, Mr. 
A. Baring, Mr. Herries, Mr. Goulbum, 
kc Deo. 15, 1834 

Visoount Melbourne and his colleagues 
return to office . . April 18» 1835 


Visot. Melbourne and the same cabinet, 

Viscount Melbourne resigns . May 7> 1839 

Sir Robert Peel receives the queen's 
commands to form a new administra- 
tion, May & 

This command is withdrawn, and lord 
Melbourne and his friends are rein- 
stated .... May 10, 1839 

Sir Robert Peel, duke of Wellington, 
earl of Aberdeen, earl of Haddington, 
earl of Ripon, lord Stanley, Mr. Goul- 
bum, Mr. W. E. Gladstone^ sir Henry 
Hardinge, sir Edward Knatchbull, 
Ac Aug. 30> 1841 

ADMIRAL. The first so called in Englaud was Richard de Lucy, appointed by 
Henry III. 1223. Alfred, AtheUtan^ Edgar^ Harold, and other kings, bad been 

ADM [ 8 ] ADU 

prenouily the commaaders of their own fleets. The first was appointed in France, 
in 1284. The rank of admiral of the English seas was one of great distinction, and 
was first given to William de Leyboume by Edward I. in 1297. — Spelman ; Rymer, 

ADMIRAL LORD HIGH, of ENGLAND. The first officer of this rank was created 
by Richard II. in December 1385 : there had been previously high admirals of dit' 
tricU — the north, west, and south. This office has seldom been entrusted to single 
hands, and was uninterruptedly executed by lords commissioners from 1709 until 
1827, when the duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV., was appointed, on the 
secession of lord Melville from the Admiralty. The duke resigned the rank 12th 
Aug. 1828, and it was again vested in a commission. A similar dignity existed in 
Scotland from the reign of Robert III. : in 1673, the king bestowed it upon his 
natural son, Charles Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond and Lennox, then an 
infant ; he resigned the office to the crown in 1703, and after the Union it was dis- 
continued. The dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland was conferred upon James 
Butler, in May 1534. See Navy, 

ADMIRALTY, Court of, erected by Edward III. in 1357. This is a civil court 
for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs. In criminal matters, which com- 
monly relate to piracy, the proceedings were formerly by accusation and information ; 
but this being found inconvenient, it was enacted, by two statutes made in the reign 
of Henry VIII., that criminal causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some 
of the judges at Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey,) assisting. The judge- 
ship of the Admiralty was established in 1640, and was filled by two or more 
functionaries until the Revolution, when it was restricted to one. — Beatson, There 
are appeals from the decisions of this court to the judicial committee of the privy 
council, by statutes 11 George IV. & 1 WilUam IV. 1830 and 1831. 

ADRIAN'S WALL. The wall of Adrian and Severus, to prevent the irruptions of the 
Scots and Picts, extended from the Tyne to Solway Frith, and was eighty miles 
long, twelve feet high, and eight in thickness, with watch-towers ; built a.d. 121. 

ADRIANISTS. These were the disciples of Simon Magus, who flourished about a.d. 
34. — TheodoreU Another sect of the same name, the followers of Adrian Hamp- 
itead, appeared in the sixteenth century. 

ADRIANOPLE, Battle of, which got Constantine the empire, was fought July 3, 
A.D. 323. Adrianople was taken by the Ottomans from the Greeks in 1360 ; and it 
continued to be the seat of the Turkish empire till the capture of Constantinople in 
1453. Mahomet II., one of the most distinguished of the sultans, and the one who 
took Constantinople, was bom here, in 1430. — Priestley. Adrianople was taken by 
the Russians, Aug. 20, 1829 ; but was restored to the sultan at the close of the war. 
Sept 14, same year. See Turkey, 

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic Sea was insti- 
tuted in A.D. 1 173. Annually, upon Ascension-day, the doge married the Adriaticum 
Mar0f by dropping a ring into it from his bucentaur, or state barge, and was attended 
on these occasions by all the nobility of the state, and foreign ambassadors, in 
gondolas. This ceremony was intermitted, for the first time for centuries, in 1797. 

ADULTERY, ancibnt laws against it. Punished by the law of Moses with the 
death of both the guilty man and woman. — LeviticuM xx. 10. This law was repealed, 
first, because the crime had become common ; and secondly, because, God's name 
should not be liable to be too often erased by the ordeal of the waters of bitterness. 
Leo, of Modena, says that the husband was obliged to dismiss his wife for ever, 
whether he willed it or not. — Calmet, Lycurgus punished the offender as he did a 
parricide, and the Locrians and Spartans tore out the offenders' eyes. The Romans 
had no formal law against adultery ; the emperor Augustus was the first to introduce 
a positive law to punish it, and he had the misfortune to see it executed in the 
persons of his own children. — Ltngkt. Socrates relates that women who were guilty 
of adultery were punished by the horrible sentence of public constnpration. In 
England the legal redress against the male offender has been refined into a civil 
action for a money compensation. — Lord Man^ld, 

ADULTERY, English Laws against it. The early Saxons burnt the adultress, 
and erected a gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer. — Pardon, 
King Edmund punished the crime as homicide. It was punished by cutting off the 

ADV [ 9 D ^^^ 

hair, stripping the female offender naked, and whipping her through the Btreets, if 
the husbuid so demanded it to be done, without distinction of rank, daring the 
Saxon Heptarchy, a.d. 457 to 828. — Stowe. The ears and nose were cut off under 
Canute, 1031. Ordained to be punished capitally, together with incest, under 
Cromwell, May 14, 1650 ; but there is no record of this law taking effect. In New 
England a law was ordained whereby adultery was made capital to both parties, eTcn 
though the man were unmarried, and several suffered under it, 1662. — Hardie, A.t 
present this offence is more favourably viewed ; to divorce and strip the adultress of 
her dower, is all her punishment among us ; but in Romish countries they usually 
shut up the adultress in a nunnery. — Ashe. 

ADVENT. In the calendar it signifies, properly, the approach of the feast of the 
Nativity ; it includes four Sundays, the first of which is always the nearest Sunday to 
Saint Andrew (the 30th November), before or after. Advent was instituted by the 
council of Tours, in the sixth century. 

ADVENTURE BAY. Captain Fumeaux visited this bay, which lies at the south-east 
end of Van Diemen's lAnd, in his first voyage to the Pacific, and called it Adventure 
Bay from the ship Adventure in which he sailed, 1778. It was visited by captain 
Bligh in 1788. 

ADVENTURERS, MERCHANT, a celebrated and enterprising company of merchants, 
was originally formed for the discovery of territories, extension of commerce, and 
promotion of trade, by John duke of Brabant, in 1296. This ancient company 
was afterwards translated into England, in the reign of Edward III., and queen 
Elizabeth formed it into an English corporation in 1564. — Anderson. 

ADVERTISEMENTS in NEWSPAPERS. As now published, they were not general 
in England until the beginning of the eighteenth century. A penalty of 50/. was 
inflicted on persons advertising a reward with " No questions to be asked" for the 
return of things stolen, 'and on the printer, 25 Geo. II. 1754. — Statutes, The 
advertisement duty was formerly charged according to the number of lines ; it was 
afterwards fixed, in England at 3f. 6</., and in Ireland at 2s. 6^. each advertisement. 
The duty was farther reduced, in England to Is. 6</., and in Ireland to Is, each, by 
statute 3 and 4 Will IV. 1833. 

ADVOCATE, The KING'S. This office was instituted about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century ; and the advocate waa empowered to prosecute at his own instance 
certain crimes f\h97 .'-'Statutes, Lord Advocatb, in Scotland, is the same as the 
attorney-general is in England. It was decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, 
that the king's advocate of France might at the same time be a judge ; and so in 
like manner it was allowed in Scotland, where sir John Nisbet and sir William 
Oliphant were lord advocates and lords of session at the same time. — Beatson, 

^DILES, magistrates of Rome, first created 492 B.C. There were three degrees of 
these officers, and the functions of the principal were similar to our justices of the 
peace. The plebeian sediles presided over the more minute affairs of the state, good 
order, and the reparation of the streets. They procured all the provisions of the 
city, and executed the decrees of the people. — Varro. 

J£NIGMA. The origin of the senigma is doubtful : Gale thinks that the Jews borrowed 
their senigmatical forms of speech from the Egyptians. The philosophy of the 
Druids was altogether senigmaticaL In Nero's time, the Romans were often obliged 
to have recourse to this method of concealing truth under obscure language. The 
following epitaph on Fair Rosamond is an elegant specimen of the senigma :— 

HI Jacet in tombi, Rosa mnndl, non Ron munda ; 

Non redolet. Bed olet, que redolere solet 

^OLIAN HARP. The invention of this instrument is ascribed to Kircher, 1653 ; 
but Richardson proves it to have been known at an earlier period than his time.-.- 
Dissertation on the Customs of the East. There is a Rabbinical story of the aerial 
harmony of the harp of David, which, when hung up at night, was played upon by 
the north wind. — Baruch. 

AERONAUTICS. To lord Bacon, the prophet of art, as Walpole calls him, has been 
attributed the first suggestion of the true theory of balloons. The ancient specula- 
tions about artificial wings, whereby a man might fly as well as a bird, refuted by 
Borelli, 1670. Mr. Henry Cavendish ascertained that inflammable air is at least 
seven times lighter than common air, 1766. The true doctrine of aeronautics 
announced in France by the two brothers Montgolfier, 1782. — See Balloon. 

^1 C 10 ] AFR 

.£SOP'S FABLES. Written by the celebrated fabulist, the supposed inveutor of this 
species of entertainment and instruction, about 540 b.c. ^sop's Fables are, no 
doubt, a compilation of all the fables and apologues of wits both before and after his 
own time, conjointly with his own. — Plutarch. 

iBTHIOPIA. The inhabitants were little known to the ancients, though Homer has 
styled them the justest of men, and the favourites of the deities. They were the 
first inhabitants of the earth. — Diod, And first to worship the gods ; on which 
account, some say, their country had never been invaded. 

^TOLIA. This country was named after ^tolus of Elis, who, having accidentally 
killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and settled here. 
The inhabitants were very little known to the rest of Greece, till after the ruin of 
Athens and Sparta, when they assumed a consequence in the country as the opposers 
^d rivals of tiie Achaeans, to whom they made themselves formidable as the allies 
of Rome, and as ita enemies. They were conquered by the Romans under Fulviut. 

Therma, Xenia, Cyphara, and other 
cities, and destroy with fire all the 
country they invade . . b.c 201 

They next invite the kings of Maoedon, 
Syria and Sparta, to coalesce with them 
against the Romans . .199 

They seize Calohis, Sparta, and I>eme- 

trias, in Thessaly .194 

Their defeat near Thermopyls . . . 193 
They lose Lamia and Amphissa . 198 

Made a province of Rome . . ..144$ 

The iEtollans begin to ravage the Pelo* 
poxmeeus b.c. 282 

They dispute the passage of the Macedo- 
nians at Thermopylte .... 223 

Acamania ceded to Philip as the price of 
peace 218 

Battle of Lamia; the iEtolians, com- 
manded by Pyrrhus, are defeated by 
Philip of Maoedon . . .214 

With the assistance of allies, they seize 
Oreum, Opus, Tribon, and Dryne . 212 

They put to the sword the people of 

AFFINITY, Dko&bbs of. Marriage within certain degrees of kindred was prohibited 
by the laws of almost all nations, and in almost every age. Several d^^rees were 
prohibited in scriptural law, as may be seen in Leviticus, chap, xviii. In England, a 
table restricting marriage within certain near degrees was set forth by authority, a.d. 
1563. Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the 
ninety-ninth Canon, in 1603. Ail marriages celebrated within the forbidden degrees 
of kindred are declared to be absolutely void by statute 5 and 6 WilL IV. 1835. 

AFFIRMATION ov the QUAKERS. This was first legally accepted as an oath 
A.D. 1696. The affirmation was altered in 1702, and again altered and modified 
December 1721. Quakers were relieved from oaths when elected to municipal 
offices, by an act which extended relief, generally, to all conscientious Christians not 
of the Established Church, 9 Geo. IV. 1828. Declaration to be made by Quakers, 
statute of 1 Victoria, 1837 : extension of this act to persons who were formerly 
Quakers, but who have seceded from that sect, 2 Vict. 1838. 

AFFIRMATION of thkTRUTH. <<Truth being of universal obligation on the followers 
of Jesus, it follows that, with true Christians, a deliberate, vet simple affirmation or 
negation possesses a force perfect in its kind, and incapable of any real augmentation : 
hence there arises a plain moral obligation, in conformity with the precept of the 
apostle James, that our yea should be yea, and our nay, nay : for if a man swear in 
addition to his yea and nay, in order to render them more convincing, their force 
becomes comparatively weak at other times, when they receive no such confirmation. 
Countenance is thereby given to the notion, that the oath of a Christian is more 
binding upon his conscience, and therefore more credible, than his deliberate word ; 
and thus he lowers the standard of the law of truth.'' — Gurney*t Peculiarities rfthe 
Friends, 1824. 

AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and 
the greatest peninsula of the universe, first peopled by Ham. It was conquered by 
Belisarius in a.d. 553 et seq. In the seventh century, about 637» the Mahometan 
Arabs subdued the north of Africa ; and their descendants, under the name of Moors, 
constitute a great part of the present popidation. See the several countries of Africa 
through the volume. Among the late distinguished travellers in this quarter of 
the world, may be mentioned Bruce, who commenced his travels in 1768; Mungo 
Park, who made his first voyage to Africa, May 22, 1795 ; and his second voyage, 
January 30, 1804, but from which he never returned. See Parh, Richard Lander 
died of shot-wounds (which he had received when ascending the river Nunn) at 
Fernando Po, Jan. 31, 1834. The African expedition, for which ptrliameot voted 
61,000/., tailed in 1841 ; ita reanlt wai disastrou, Oct. lame year. 

AFR C ^O ^^^ 

AFRICAN COMPANY, a society of merchants trading to Africa. An association in 
Exeter, which was formed in 1588, gave rise to this company. A charter was 
granted to a joint stock company in 1618 : a third company was created in 1631 ; a 
fourth corporation in 1662 ; and another formed by letters patent in 1672, and 
remodelled in 1695. The rights vested in the present company, 23 Geo. II. 1749. 

AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807, with a view to the civili- 
sation of Africa, and to afford moral and social instruction to its people — an immense 
but laudable undertaking. Many schools have been established, particularly at 
Sierra Leone, where the number of scholars, male and female, is said to approach 
2000. The schools are usually well attended? and both males and females appear 
sealous to reap the advantages of instruction. — Leigh, 

AGE. Historians and chronologers have, commonly, divided the time that elapsed 
between the Creation and the birth of Christ into six periods, called ages. The 
first age was from the Creation to the Deloge, and comprehended 1656 years ; the 
second age was from the Deluge to the coming of Abraham into the land of promise, 
and comprehended 426 years, terminating in the year of the world 2032 ; the third 
age, from Abraham to Moses quitting Egypt, comprising 430 years, and ending in 
the year of the world 2513 ; the fourth age, from the going out of Egypt to the 
foundation of the temple of Solomon, being 479 years, and ending in the year of the 
world 2992 ; the fifth age, from the building of the temple to the destruction of 
Jerusalem, 424 years, ending in the year of the world 3416 ; and the sixth age, 
from the Babylonish captivity to the birth of the Rbdbembr, 584 years, ending in 
the year of tlie world 4000, and fourth year before the vulgar era, or 4004. See 
nest article, 

AGE : GrOLDEN Age, Middle Age, &c. Among the ancient poets, an age was the 
space of thirty years, in which sense age amounts to much the same as generation. 
The interval since the first formation of man has been dirided into four ages, 
distinguished as the golden, silver, brazen, and iron ages ; but a late author, 
reflecting on the barbarism of the first ages, will have the order assigned by the poets 
inverted — the first, being a time of ignorance, would be more properly denominated 
an iron, rather than a golden age. Various divisions of the duration of the world 
have been made by historians : by some the space of time commencing from Con- 
stantine, and ending with the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, in the fifteenth 
century, is called the middle age ; the middle is also styled the barbarous age. The 
ages of the world may be reduced to three grand epochs, vix., the age of the law of 
nature, from Adam to Moses ; the age of the Jewish law, from Moses to Christ ; 
and the age of grace, from Christ to the present year. 

AGE, OF. In England the minority of a male terminates at twenty-one, and of a 
female in some cases, as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of 
Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen years ; previously to 
completing which age, Henry Till, had himself assumed the reins of government, 
in 1509. A male of twelve may take the oath of allegiance ; at fourteen he may 
consent to a marriage, or choose a guardian, or make a will; at seventeen 
he may be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of age. A female at twelve may 
consent to a marriage ; at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at twenty-one 
she is of age. 

AGINCOURT, Battle of, between the French and English armies, gained by Henry 
y.-— one of the most glorious of our victories. Of the French, there were 10,000 
killed, and 14,000 were taken prisoners, the English losing only 100 men. Among 
the prisoners were the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, 
and gentlemen, and men more numerous than the British themselves! Among 
the slain were the dukes of Alen9on, Brabant and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, 
one marshal, thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights, Oc. 25, 1415. 
— Goldsmiih, 

AGITATORS, in English history, officers appointed by the army to take care of its 
interests : each troop or company had two, instituted by Cromwell, 1647. The 
Protector himself was, however, obliged to repress the power and influence of 
the agitators, owing to the sedition they excited. At a review he seised the 
ringleaders of a mutiny, shot one instantly, in the presence of hitf> companions 
and the forces on the ground, and thus, by a bold act, restored the discipline of 
the army. — Hume, 




AGRA, Fortress of. termed the key of Hindostan, surrendered, in the war with the 
Mahrattas, to the British forces, Oct. 17, 1803. This was once the most splendid 
of all the Indian cities, and now exhibits the most magnificent rains. In the 17th 
century the great mogul frequently resided here ; his palaces, and those of the 
Omrahs, were very numerous ; Agra then contained above 60 caravansaries. 800 
baths, and 700 mosques. — See Matuoleunu. 

AGRARIAN LAW, Agraria Lex, This was an equal division among the Roman 
people of all the lands which they acquired by conquest, limiting the acres which 
each person should enjoy, first proposed by Sp. Cassius, to gain the favour of the 
citizens, 486 b.c. It was enacted under the tribune Tiberius Gracchus, 132 b.c. ; 
but this law at last proved fatal to the freedom of Rome under Julius Caesar. — 
Livy { Vossitu. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. The first society for the promotion of agriculture 
in the British Isles, of whose history we have any account, was the Society of 
Improvers of Agriculture in Scotland^ instituted in 1723. The establishment of the 
Dublin Agricultural Society y in 1749, gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland ; but 
the origin of this society may be traced as early as 1731, when Mr. Prior, of Rath- 
downey. Queen's County, and a number of gentlemen, associated themselves for the 
improvement of husbandry. Miss Plumptre considers this the first association of the 
kind formed within the British dominions; but she errs : societies for the promotion 
of agriculture multiplied in every direction during the eighteenth century; among 
them the highest rank may be claimed for the Bath and West of England Society, 
in 1777, and the Highland Society of Scotland, in 1793. The London Board of 
Agriculture was established, by act of parliament, same year. The good and 
illustrious Francis, duke of Bedford, who died March 2, 1802, was a great promoter 
and patron of agrioolture : a fine statue to his memory, by Westmacott^has been erected 
in Russell-square, London. 

AGRICULTURE. The science of agricnlture may be traced to the period immediately 
succeeding the Delnge. In China and the eastern countries it was, perhaps, ooeval 
with their early pluitation and government Of the agriculture of the ancients 
little is known. The Athenians pretend that it was among them the art of sowing corn be- 
gan; and the Cretans, SicUians, and Egyptians lay daim, the last with most probability, 
to the honour. Brought into England by the Romans, as a science, about a. d. 27. 
Official account of the cultivated, uncultivated, and unprofitable land of the United 
Kingdom, from the Third Report of the Emigration Committee : — 




CAp«U« of 




England .... 


Scotland .... 
Ireland .... 
British lalands . 





















These numbers are considerably below some former computations, but the quantities 
may perhaps be correct in relation to each other. Much of the waste land of the 
three countries has been brought into cultivation in the few years that have elapsed 
since the above report was made. At that period it was computed that the soil of 
the United Kingdom was annually cropped in the following proportions :— 





Brought forward . .21,210.000 

Barley and rye 


Nursery-grounds . , . 20,000 

Potatoes, oats, and beans 


Inclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and 

Turnips, cabbages, and other vege- 

other gardens .... 110,000 



Pleasure-grounds . . . . 100,000 

Clover, rye-grass, ftc 


Land depastured by catUe . .21.000,000 



Hedge-rows, copses, and woods . 2,000,000 



Ways, water. &o. ... 2,100,000 



CulUvated land . . 46,540.000 

AOY C ^3 ] ALB 

It if computed by the Agricultural Committee, that the cultivation of waste lands 
would yield to the nation an income of above 20,000,000/. a-year. In the Report 
on the inquiry into the state of the Irish poor, the commissioners remark, that while 
in Great Britain the agricultural fiimilies constitute little more than a fourth, in 
Ireland they constitute about two^-thirds of the whole population ; that there were, 
in 1831, 1,065,982 agricultural labourers in Great Britam, and in Ireland 1,131,715; 
while the cultivated Und of Great Britain amounts to about 34,250,000 acres, and 
that of Ireland only to about 14,000,000. There are in Ireland, therefore, about 
five agricultural labourers for every two that there are for the same quantity of land 
in Great Britain. See Wheat, 

A.6YNNIANS. This sect arose about a.d. 694, and alleged that God forbade the 
eating of flesh, assuming the first chapter of Genesis to be the authority upon which 
the doctrine was founded. A revival of this ancient sect now flourishes at Man- 
chester and other towns of England, and has been public there since 1814. 

AILESBURT, reduced by the West Saxons in 571. St. O'Syth, beheaded by the 
Pagans in Essex, was buried here, a.d. 600. William the Conqueror invested his 
favourites with some of its lands, under the tenure of providing ** straw for his bed- 
chamber ; three eels for his use in winter ; and in summer, straw, rushes, and two 
green geese, thrice every year." Incorporated by charter in 1553. 

AIR. Anaximenes of Miletus declared air to be a self^existent deity, and the first cause 
of everything created, 530 b.c. The pressure of air was discovered by Torricelli, 
A.D. 1645. It was found to vary with the height by Pascal, in 1647. Halley, 
Newton, and others, up to the present time, have illustrated the agency and influences 
of this great power by various experiments, and numerous inventions have followed 
from tli^m ; among others, the air-gun by Guter of Nuremberg in i 656 ; the air- 
pump, invented by Otho Guericke at Magdeburg in 1650, and improved by the 
illustrious Boyle in 1657 ; and the air-pipe, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of 
London, about 1 756. See Balloon, 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Psacs of. The first treaty of peace signed here, was between 
France and Spain, when France yielded Franche-Comt^, but retained her conquests 
in the Netherlands, May 2, 1668. The second, or celebrated treaty, was between 
Great Britain, France, Holland, Hungary, Spain, and Genoa. By this memorable 
peace the treaties of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1679, of Ryswick 
in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the Triple Alliance 1717, of the 
Quadruple Alliance in 1718, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed. 
Signed on the part of England by John Earl of Sandwich, and Sir Thomas 
Robinson, Oct. 7, 1748. A congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and 
Prussia, assisted by ministers from England and France, was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
and a convention signed, Oct. 9, 1818. The sum then due from France to the 
allies, was settled at 265,000,000 of francs. 

ALBA. Founded by Ascanius, 1152 b.c, and called Longa^ because the city extended 
along the hill Albanus, This kingdom lasted 487 years, and was governed by a race 
of kings, the descendants of ^neas, in the order following ; but little of their history 
is known : — 

Aaoaniiu, MO of JEneas . b.c. 1152 stream, is drowned, and hence this 

BjlTius Posthumns 1143 river is now called the I^td^r . b.c. 895 

Sylrios ..... 1114 Agrippa 

Romulus 864 

Ayentinus 845 

Procas 808 

Numitor 795 

Amullus, the brother of Numitor, seises 

the throne 794 

He is restored by his grandson, Romulus, 

who puts Amulius to death . . 754 

The kingdom is conquered by TuUius 
Hostilius. who Incorporates it with his 
Roman dominions . . .665 

Reign of Latinns .... 1043 

Alba reigns 1038 

Atys, or Capetns .... 1002 
RdgnofCapys 976 

Gklpetos 916 

Reign of TiberlnoB 903 

Being defeated in battle near the rirer 
AUnUa, he throws himself into the 

When Amulius dethroned his brother, he condemned Ilia, the daughter of Numitor, to 
a life of celibacy, by obliging her to take the vows and office of a vestal, thereby to 
aisore his safety in the usurpation. His object was, however, frustrated ; violence 
was offered to Iliay and she became the mother of twins, for which Amulius ordered 

ALB [ 1^ ] 


her to be buried alive, and her offspring to be thrown into the Tiber, 770 b.c. Bat 
the little bark in which the infiants were sent adrift stopped near Mount Aventine, and 
was brought ashore by Faostulus, the king's chief shepherd, who reared the children 
as his own, and called them Romulus and Remus. His wife, Acca-Laurentia, was 
snmamed Lupa ; whence arose the fable that Romulus and his brother were suckled 
by a she-wolf. At sixteen years of age, Romulus avenged the wrongs of Ilia and 
Nnmitor, 754 B.C., and the next year founded Rome. — Varro. 

ALBAN*S, ST. The name of this town was anciently Verulam ; it was once the 
capital of Britain, and previously to the invasion of Julius Cesar was the residence of 
British princes. It takes its present name from St. Alban, who was bom here, and 
vrho is said to haf e been the first person who suffered martyrdom for Christianity in 
Britain. He is hence commonly styled the proto-martyr of this country, and was de- 
capitated during the persecution raised by Diocletian, June 23, a.d. 303. A stately 
monastery was erected here to his memory by Offa, king of Mercia, in 793. St. 
Alban's was incorporated by Edward TI. 1552. 

ALBAN'S, ST., Battlss of. The first, between the houses of York and Lancaster, in 
which Richwrd duke of York obtained a victory over Henry VI., of whose army 
5000 were slain, while that of the duke of York suffered no material loss, fought 
May 22, 1455. The second, between the Yorkists under the earl of Warwick, 
and the Lancastrians, commanded by queen Margaret of Anjou, who conquered : 
in this battle 2500 of the defeated army perished ; fought on Shrove Tuesday, 
February 2, 1461. 

ALBIGENSES. This sect had its origin about a.d. 1160, at Albigeois, in Languedoc, 
and at Toulouse ; they opposed the disciples of the Church of Rome, and professed 
a hatred of all die corruptions of that religion. Simon de Montfort commanded 
against them, and at. Bezi^res he and the pope's legate put friends and foes to the 
•word. At Minerba, he burnt 1 50 of the Albigenses alive ; and at La Vaur, he 
hanged the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning the governor's wife, 
and murdering other women. They next defeated the couct of Toulouse, with the loss 
of 17,000 men. Simon de Montfort afterwards came to England. See Watdenset, 

ALBION. The island of Great Britain is said to have been first so called by Julius 
Ceesar, on account of the chalky cliffs upon its coast, on his invasion of the country, 
54 B.C. The Romans conquered it, and held possession about 400 years. On their 

auitting it, it was successively invaded by the Scots, Picts, and Saxons, who drove 
le original inhabitants from the plain country, to seek refuge in the steeps and 
wilds of Cornwall and Wales; the Danes and Normans also settled at various 
times in England : and from a mixture of these nations, the present race of 
Englishmen is derived. See Britain, — New Albion, district of California, was 
taken possession of by sir Francis Drake, and so named by him, in 1578 ; explored 
by Vancouver in 1792. 

ALBUERA, Battle of, between the French, commanded by marshal Soult, and 
the British and Anglo-Spanish army, commanded by marshal, now lord Beresford, 
May 16, 1811. After an obstinate and sanguinary engagement, the allies obtained 
the victory, justly esteemed one of the most brilliant achievements of the Penin. 
Bular war. The French loss exceeded 9000 men previously to their retreat. 

ALCHEMY. This was a pretended branch of chemistry, which effected the transmu- 
tation of metals into gold, an alkahest, or universal menstruum, a universal ferment, 
and other things equally ridiculous. If regard may be had to legend and tradition, 
alchemy must be as old as the Flood : yet few philosophers, poets, or physicians, 
from Homer till 400 years after Christ, mention any such thing. Pliny says, the 
emperor Caligula was the first who prepared natural arsenic, in order to make gold 
of it, but left it off because the charge exceeded the profit. Others say, the Egyptians 
had this mystery ; which if true, how could it have been lost ? The Arabians are 
laid to have invented this mysterious art, wherein they were followed by Ramond 
LuUius, Paracelsus, and others, who never found anything else but ashes in their 
furnaces. Another author on the subject is Zosimus, about a.d. 410. — Fab. Bib, 
Grac. A licence for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and minerals granted 
to one Richard Carter, 1476.— Aymer'x Fad. Doctor Price, of Guildford, published 
an account of his experiments in this way, and pretended to success : he brought his 
•pecimeus of gold to the king, affirming that they were made by means of a red and 

ALC C 15 ] ALB 

white powder ; but being a Fellow of the Royal Society, he was required, upon pain 
of expulsion, to repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and Woulfe ; but 
after some equivocation, he took poison and died, August 1 763. 

ALCORAN. The book which contains the revelation and credenda of Mahomet : it is 
confessedly the standard of the Arabic tongue, and as the Mahometans beliere, 
inimitable by any human pen ; hence they assume its divine origin. It is the com- 
mon opinion of writers, that Mahomet was assisted by Batiras, a Jacobin, Sergius, a 
Nestorian monk, and by a learned Jew, in composing this book, most of whose prin- 
ciples are the same with those of Arius, Nestorius, Sabellins, and other heresiarchs. 
The Mahometans say, that God sent it to their prophet by the Angel Gabriel : it 
was written about a. d. 610. — See Korariy Mahomelism, Mecca, &c 

ALDERMEN. The word is derived from the Saxon Ealdormarif a senior, and among 
the Saxons the rank vras conferred upon elderly aud sage, as well as distinguished 
persons, on account of the experience their age had given them. At the time of 
the Heptarchy, aldermen were the governors of provinces or districts, and are so 
mentioned up to a. d. 882. After the Danes were settled in England, the title 
was changed to that of earl, and the Normans introduced that of count, which 
though different in its original signification, yet meant the same thing. Henry III. 
may be said to have given its basis to this city distinction. In modem British polity, 
an alderman is a magistrate next in dignity to the mayor. Appointed in London, 
where there are twenty.six, in 1242 ; and in Dublin, where there are twenty-four, 
in 1323. Chosen for life, instead of annually, 17 Richard II. 1394. Present mode 
of election established 11 George I. 1725. Aldermen made justices of the peace 
15 Geofge II. 1741. 

ALDERNEY, Race of. Through this strait the French made their escape after 
their defeat at the battle of La Hogue, by admiral Rooke, in 1692. It is celebrated 
for two memorable and fatal occurrences : Henry of Normandy, son of Henry 1. of 
England, with a vast crowd of younr nobility, (as many as 140 youths of the prin- 
cipal families of France and Britain,) was overtaken by a storm, and all were lost, 
in 1119. The British man-of-war Victory, of 110 guns and 1100 men, was 
also wrecked here, October 8, 1744, when the admiral, sic John Balchan, and all 
his crew, perished on the rocks. 

ALE AKD WINE. They are said to have been invented by Bacchus ; the former 
where the soil, owing to its quality, would not grow grapes. — Tooke't Pantheon, 
Ale was known as a beverage at least 404 b.c. Herodotus ascribes the first discovery 
of the art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the wife of As3rri8. The Romans and 
Germans very early learned the process of preparing a liquor from com by means of 
fermentation, from the Egyptians. — Tacitus, Alehouses are made mention of in 
the laws of Ina, king of Wessex. Booths were set up in England a.d. 728, when 
laws were passed for their regulation. Ale-houses were licensed 1621 ; and exdse 
duty on ale and beer was imposed on a system nearly similar to the present, 13 
Charles II., 1660. See Beer^ Porter. 

ALEMANNI, or All Mkn, (i. e, men of all nations,) a body of Suevi, defeated by 
Caracalla, a.d. 214. On one occasion 300,000 of this warlike people are said to have 
been vanquished, in a battle near Milan, by Gallienus, at the head of 10,000 Romans* 
Their battles were numerous with the Romans and Gauls. They ultimately sub- 
mitted to the Franks. — Gibbon, 

ALESSANDRIA, Battlb of, between the Austro-Russian army under Suwarrow, 
and the French under Moreau, when the latter was defeated with the loss of 4000 
men. The French had possessed themselves of Alessandria the year before, but 
they were now driven out, May 17, 1799. It was again delivered up to them after 
the battle of Marengo, in 1800. 

ALEXANDER, E&a of, dated from the death of Alexander the Great, November 12, 
324 B.C. In the computation of this era, the period of the creation was con- 
sidered to be 5502 years before the birth of Christ, and, in consequence, the year 
1 A.D. was equal to 5503. This computation continued to the year 284 a.d., which 
was called 5786. In the next year (285 a.d.), which should have been 5787, ten 
years were discarded, and the date became 5777. This is still used in the Abys- 
sinian era, whieh see. The date is reduced to the Christian era by subtracting 
5502 until the year 5786, and after that time by subtracting 5492. 

ALE ^ 16 ") AU 

ALEXANDRIA, m Kcfpie, tU «»Ib whtrwt wign di maUm n eirSBie, VvOt^Sf 
Mider tie Gnut, 3^2 »,e. ; uk«» by C«a«r. 47 su:,, tai cW Ehvary 4# tW 
coataifixa^ ^^^/I'lO n^uM* ««rlu m M.S., hmmt, C^^ynr e d hfjrtke Scnaow. «iu& 

vkton, «k> Ibettnl tt« vitcr lr>r t^/ bt2hs f^r nx »«»dM by famuf ^aufcj 
ifijUad o< irM>i, by aimmand tA tite e»*ip& Onar, ad. ^2« T1u» ra tiraMvi? t 
pbee /^ fprest trifle, aH tbe Ut* m utM «4 tite Emc heme 4i!po«Kted h«TC Iscfaee'tke 
Saaifwisrj td f be rvxte by the Ctpe of G#Md Hofe. Ttkim bj tke Fme& o^Br 
BMdiptfte, vfaflk • ■iiMtrn? eoMeii, Jmlj S, 17^ : »4 Urm. tbem hj tfce Erxab 
ia tte BeK^snbie bftttk ae&twMeii ia aczt «rtkiey m i«y>l. k>t»tJnm 
Ukt^ by tb« Bfitidib, cader fin»enl Pnoer. Mardi 21, \¥i7 ; bwt «ai 
by tb«B, fiept. 2d, Mflce jev. F'vr UJ!e ereaU, tee J^rrig ca4 Turkey. 

ALEXANDRIA, Battlk or, betvtea the Preadk, sx^der Menr^, «V> 

atuek, and Ue Krit:it aroaj, oanier lir Rklph Aherery!mh.«e, iT/MwiTwy t^ tcMoC 
lS<4^/> flu», vLaea bad bat^ deh«riceil fvo^t MArttk 21, L^l, Tli/e Brjc;ab 
were tietorvMM, b«t tcr Ralpb A-vererocabie wm ■cMrtaHj vovaded ; tad itfbcr ^ 
retnat tA yieum, be «« etrried to tike M(«btral*« laip, «ad «l»d oa tke 2!«k. "ne 
erM&auad deT<r[ved ca Bfi3<«'f*rier»l HnViuaAoa, wio btfled aH tke afii ■<(■ if 
Mea/A, «hil obii^nl bim to mrrfoiii^, 5tep^ 2 foiXovia^ the ^^etor p»mse8iD^ 
tbe <ir«Y^iaee r^ the Preaeh 'vb^Me aiubVer exceeded Vr/Mj to a Preaes ^4rt a 
the M^^termeaa. 

ALEXANDRINE VZRSE, Vene of t«etv« feet, or fTOabiea, int wrtoea 'nf 
Aletaader tA P«ria, sad tiaee cti>d, a/vtr hiau .^kxtadriaca, ahoas a. a, llvft." 
Svmn. thet. F*'j^, ia bia £w»p 4^ Cri^Hna. oaa the felkyvia|^ ae&iiaflMini ews^ieC 
ia which Sk AJextadnae it htfy.ij tuxti^Jt^ -. — 

TluU. tic* a trvitwl^wl «Mka. 4n<» it« ilc.-v kaqifik a^ji*.' 

ALPORD, BAma or, Geaeral Bailie aith a larfs body «^ Oyveaotaecn delbtfai 
by the Kar<;«efla of MoatnMe, Jaly 2, 1^4i^» There «aa ifaiwirerad ■oaie jcan 
vace, la oae f4 the aw at en aear thia piaecy a aaa ia ana««r oa kora^aef 
psaed to hare beea d ro wac d ia atteaKftiaf to caeape IroK thta hattk. 

ALGEBRA. Where ai^pebra wai irat aaed, aad by vb^i. if aot piaKfy 

Diophaataa tnt wroee apoa it, yt^htitAj iSti^m, a. a. 170; he ia aad to be ;he 
iavenf^vr, Broafht tato 5!^a bf the S araeea a, abo>%t ¥^% aad kKo Isaty >iy 
LeoaciiTdo of Rta, ta 12^, The ftrat writer vb> aaed alfebraatal flfaa arte V ifeC wa 
«f N«rem?>er;;^ ia I^i4. The iatrodaetaoa id lymhoit fr>r fjiiinirifi vat by Pnada 
Tieta, m l^J^K vhea alcebra pjbn? iato geaeral aae^ — M^reri. The baoaaai thearaA 
«f Ncvtoa, the bwa of the doetriae of fiaxioaty aad 'he aev aaafyaa, I<4d. 

Al/ilEZS. Tint acieBA fcsA^dMa of Nawdia. nA^cM to a Roauui prvnaee, 44 a^. 
It aftenrarda heeaaae tadepeadeait, tiH, ins^daA^ the pyver of the ^ataaapia, aie 
aatioa mnsM Bar%«roMa, the pinte, to aiaut it aad he teixed the fnweruHcac 
A.a, U!^ ; bat it afterwarda Ml to the lot of Tar'iKey. — PrUiUef. The Al^riaea 
hr afta brared the r«i«B£abent of the awtt powerful itacet ia Chnateadoaa, mi the 
ca&pi»ror f\ui^ T, Wit a tae fleet aad armj ia aa aaaaeeeatfal czpedtsiaw 
afaiaat the*, m VA\, AUpm wm n^atxd by adatirtl Btake. ia 1<2^). aad serr^ 
fted iato paeiie BMaacna wtth Eo^;iaad ; b«t i: r^fnl»t4 the viforvaa attaeka fd't^a 
tMmyam p^>ven, p>«rtka!ar{y thoae o# Pnaee, jn 14^, aad IT^l ; aad of S^iaa. 
m 177:^. 17^% aad 17%4. ft waa b^m-harded tvy the BritMh ieet, aiader kri Ex- 
BV/vth, kxi4i, 27, I^ < ^, whea a aev treaty fe£tfyv«d, aad (Jhitwaam ikxttrj waa abr^ 
bthed. Ai^ien i a/ r e fldi er e d to a Preaeh a n a ameat , aader Boa i aa ut aad Dapcrr^ 
after Ma&e terera eoaib-ta, i«iy S, 1^30, ahea the dey vaa ity:mtft, wad dba bar- 
heaiaa forenuBent aV>Qy orer^rowa. The Prebeh nhkicery aaaoaaeedthcar aacea- 
tSoa to retam kUp^tn, penuaeatly, May 24, 1%:M, Manhai Cfaaaei dctfuecd the 
Arabt hk two eafaceaMWta ^ta oae fA wfauh the dake of Orieaaa waa w awded , aal 
catered Maaeara, Uee. 4, 143^. fieaeral Daaireaaoat attadud Coaataalaaa fmkmk 
a«ir>. f>!t. 13, i^7 ; «ace whea l ar ioai other §%^^f.m^vA% h0ixmitetk the Pfcaek aal 
the aatrrca, who are a«vt jet whoCy atbdaed, hare tafcca pUee. Sac M^fneem. 

ALIf fta^'f '>^- Poaaded by a ftauyaa Mahoawtaa ehiel^ the loruii^^iaw of Mabrtawe, 
^wbA a:j»rr^ hat daa^^isr Patiau,) ab«Mit a« a. 6^^ All waa eaOed by the Ptraphet, 
Ue Liriva of Oo«£t •i'vayt rirjtorioaa ; " aad the PcrnjoM feC&w the iac ey p ra tt aita W 



the Alcoran according to Ali, while other Mahometans adhere to that of Abubeker 
and Omar. It is worthy of remark, that the first four saccessors of Mahomet — 
Abubeker, Omar, Othman, and Ali, whom he had employed as his chief agents in 
establishing his religion, and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he 
styled the " cutting swords of God,'' all died violent deaths ; and that this bloody im. 
po8tor*s fomily was wholly extirpated within thirty years after his own decease. Ali 
was assassinated in 660. 

ALIENS. In England, aliens were grievously coerced up to a.d. 1377. When they 
were to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half foreigners, if they so desired, 
1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483. 
The celebra^ Alien Bill passed, January 1793. Act to Register Aliens, 1795. 
Bill to Abolish their Naturalization by the holding of Stock in the Banks of Scot- 
land, June, 1820. New Registration Act, 7 George IV. 1826. This last act was 
repealed, and another statute passed, 6 William IV. 1836. The celebrated baron 
Geramb, a conspicuous and fashionable foreigner^ known at court, was ordered out of 
England, April 6, 1812. 

ALL SAINTS. The festival instituted a. d. 625. All Saints, or All Hallows, in the 
Protestant church, is a day of general commemoration of all those saints and martyrs 
in honour of whom, individually, no particular day is assigned. The church of Rome 
and the Greek church have saints for every day in the year. The reformers of the 
English church provided offices only for very remarkable commemorations, and struck 
out of their calendar altogether a great number of anniversaries, leaving only those which 
ai their time were connected with popular feeling or tradition. ** Our reformers," says 
Nicholls, in his Paraphrase on the Common Prayer, ** having laid aside the cele- 
bration of a great many martyrs' days, \ihich had grown too numerous and cumber- 
some to the churclL, thought fit to retain this day (All Saints') wherein, by a general 
commemoration, our church g^ves thanks for them all." 

"ALL THE TALENTS" ADMINISTRATION. On the death of Mr. Pitt, 
(Jan. 23, 1806) Lord Grenville succeeded to the ministry, and united with Mr. Fox, 
and his friends. This administration consisted of lord Grenville^ lord Henry Petty, 
earl Fitzwilliam, viscount Sidmouth (late Mr. Addington), Mr. Fox, earl Spencer, 
Mr. Windham, lord Erakine, lord Ellenborough, lord Minto, right hon. Charles 
Grey (afterwards earl Grey), right hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, lord Moira,as roaster 
of Uie ordnance ; and Mr. Sheridan, as treasurer of the navy. The friends of this 
ministry gave it the appellation of ** All the Talents," which, being echoed in derision 
by the opposition, became fixed upon it ever after, Feb. 5, 1806. 

ALLEGIANCE. The oath of allegiance, as administered in England for 600 yeare, 
contained a promise '* to be true and faithful to the king and his heirs, and truth and 
futh to bear of life and limb and terrene honour *, and not to know or hear of any 
ill or damage intended him, without defending him therefrom." A new oath of 
allegiance was administered in 1605. Altered by the convention parliament, 1688. 

ALLEGORY. Of very ancient composition. The Bible abounds in the finest instances, 
of which Blair gives Psalm Ixxx. ver. 8, 16, as a specimen. Spenser's Faerie 
Queene is an allegory throughout ; Addison, in his Spectator, abounds in allegories ; 
and the Pilgrim*s Progress of Bunyan, 1663, is perfect in this way. Milton, among 
other English poets, is rich in allegory. 

ALLIANCES, Tkkatibs op, between the high European Powers : The following are 
the principal treaties distinguished by this name, and which are most commonly 
referred to. See Coalition , Treaties, &c. 

AUiaaoeofLeipsio . . AprU9, 1631 

AUianc* of Vienna May 27. 1657 

Alliance, the Triple . . Jan. 28, 1668 

Alliance of Warsaw . March 31, 1683 

Alliance, the Grand . . May 12, 1689 

Alliance, the Hague Jan. 4, 1717 
AlliancB, the Quadruple . . Aug. 2. 1718 

Alliance of Versailles May 1, 1756 

Germanic Alliance July 23, \7SS 

Alliance of Paris . . . May 16, 1796 

Alliance of Petersburg . April 8, 18(>5 

Austrian Alliance . March 14, 1812 

Alliance of Sweden . . Alarch 24, 1818 

AUiance of TopliU . . Sept. 9, 1813 

Alliance of Vienna . ftlarch 16, 1731 | Alliance, the Holy . Bopt. SS, 1815 

ALMANACKS. The Egyptians computed time by instruments. Log calendars were 

anciently in use. Al-mon-aght, is of Saxon origin. In the British Museum and 

vniversittes are curious specimens of early almanacks. Michael Nustrodamns, the 

celebrated astrologer, wrote an almanack in the style of Merlin, 1566. — Du/reanoy. 

Poor Robin's Almanack . 


. . 16S2 

Lady's Diary 


. I7U5 

Moore's Almanack 


. . 1713 

Season on tho Seasons . 


. 1735 

Gentleman's Diary 


. . 1741 

Nautical Almanack . 

• • 


ALM C 18 ] ALP 

ALMANACKS, continued, 

John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford 1 380 
Ono in Lambeth palace, written in . 1460 
First printed one, published at Buda . 1478 
First printed in England, by Richard 

Psmson 1497 

Tybault's Prognostications . . . 1533 
Lilly's Ephcmeris .... 1644 

Of Moore's, at one period, upwards of 500,000 copies were annually sold. The Sta- 
tioners' company claimed the exclusive right of publishing, until 1790, in virtue of 
letters patent from James I., granting the privilege to this company, and the two 
universities. The stamp duty on almanacks was abolished in August, 1834. 

ALMANZA, Battle of, between the confederate forces under the earl of Galway, and 
the French and Spanish commanded by the duke of Berwick (the illegitimate son of 
James II.), when most of the English were killed or made prisoners of war, having 
been abandoned by the Portuguese at the first charge, April 14, 1707. 

ALMEIDA, Battle of, between the British and Anglo-Spanish army, commanded 
by lord Wellington, and the French army under Massena, who was defeated with 
considerable los8» August 5, 1811. Wdlington compelled Massena to evacuate 
Portugal, and to retreat rapidly before him ; but the route of the French was tracked 
by the most horrid desolation. 

ALMONER. The precise date of this office is not certain ; but we read of a lord 
almoner in various reigns, and in various countries. The rank was anciently allotted 
to a dignified clergyman, who had the privilege of giving the first dish from the 
royal table to the poor ; or instead thereof, an alms in money. By the ancient 
canons, all monasteries were to spend at least a tenth part of their income in alms to 
the poor. By an ancient canon all bishops were required to keep almoners. The 
grand almoner of France (le grand aumonier) was the highest ecclesiastical dignity 
in that kingdom before the revolution, 1789. 

ALNEY, Battle of, or rather single combat, between Edmund Ironside and Canute 
the Great, in sight of their armies ; the latter was wounded, when he proposed 
a division of the kingdom, the south part falling to Edmund, a. d. 1016; but 
this prince having been murdered at Oxford, shortly after the treaty, according to 
8ome» by the treachery of iEdric Streon, Canute was left in the peaceable possession 
of the whole kingdom in 1017. — GoUUmith, 

ALPHABET. Athotes, son of Menes, was the author of hieroglyphics, and wrote thus 
the history of the Egyptians, 2122 b. c. — Blair, But Josephus affirms that he had 
seen inscriptions by Seth, the son of Adam ; though this is doubted, and deemed a 
mistake, or fabulous. The first letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet was 
aleph, called by the Greeks aipha^ and abbreviated by the modems to A. Tha 
Hebrew is supposed to be derived from the Phoenician. Cadmus, the founder of 
Cadmea, 1493 b. c, brought the Phoenician letters (fifteen in number) into Greece ; 
they were the following : — 

A, B, r, A, I, K, A, M, N, O. H, P, 2, T, T. 
These letters were originally either Hebrew, Phoenician, or Assyrian characters^ and 
changed gradually in form till they became the ground of the Roman letters, now 
used all over Europe. Palamedes of Argos invented the double characters, e, X, #, B, 
about 1224 b. c. ; and Simonides added Z, Y, H, n, about 489 b. o. — Arundelian 
Marbles, When the E was introduced is not precisely known. The Greek alphabet 
consisted of sixteen letters till 399 b. c, when the Ionic, of 24 characters, was intro- 
duced. The small letters are of late invention, for the convenience of writing. The 
alphabets of the different nations contain the following number of letters : — 


. 86 



Greek . 

. 24 


. 33 

French . 

. . S3 


. .27 

nebrew . 

. . 22 


. . 50 


. 20 


. 41 


. 2» 


Spanish . 

. .27 


. . 22 

Persian . 

. . 32 

Chinese . 

. 814 

ALPHONSINE TABLES : Celebrated astronomical tables, composed by command, and 
under the direction of, Alphonsus X. of Castile, sumamed the Wise. This learned 
prince is said to have expended upwards of 400,000 crowns in completing the irork, 
whose value was enhanced by a preface, written by his own hand : he commenced 
his reign in 1252. 

ALT Q 19 ] AMB 

A LT-RANSTADT, Peace of. This celebrated treaty of peace between Charles XI I. 
of Sweden, and Frederick Angustiu of Poland, waa sig^ned September 24, 1706. 
Frederick Angngtus, who was deposed in 1 704, was afterwards restored to his throne. 

ALTARS, were first raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Cecrops. who also instituted and 
regulated marriages, 1556 b. c. He introduced among the Greeks the worship of 
those deities which were held in adoration in Egypt — Herodotus, Christian altars in 
churches were instituted by pope Siztus I. in 135 ; and they were first consecrated 
by pope Sylvester. The first Christian altar in Britain was in 634. — Stowe. The 
Church of England, and all the reformed churches, discontinue the name, and have 
abolished the doctrhie that supported their use. 

ALUM, is said to have been first discovered at Rocha, in Syria, about a. d. 1300 ; it 
was found in Tuscany, in 1460 ; was brought to perfection in England, in 1608 : 
was discovered in Ireland in 1757 ; and in Anglesey, in 1790. Alum is a salt used 
as a mordant in tanning : it is used also to harden tallow, and to whiten bread. It 
may be made of pure clay exposed to vapours of sulphuric acid, and sulphate of 
potash added to the ley ; but it is usually obtained by means of ore called alum slate. 

AMAZONIA, discovered by Francisco Orellana, in 1580. Coming from Peru, Orel- 
lana sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic, and observing companies of 
women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and gave the name of 
Amazon to the river, which had previously been called Maranon. 

AMAZONS. Their origin is fabulous. They are said to have been the descendants of 
Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, where their husbands having made incursions, 
were all slain, being surprised in ambuscades by their enemies. Their widows, 
reflecting on the alarms or sorrows they underwent on account of the fate of their 
husbands, resolved to form a female state, and having firmly established themselves, 
they decreed that matrimony was a shameful servitude ; but, to perpetuate their race, 
they, at stated times, admitted the embraces of their male neighbours. — Quintug 
CurtiuM, They were conquered by Theseus, about 1231 b. c. The Amazons were 
constantly employed in wars; and that they might throw the javelin with more 
force, their right breasts were burned off, whence their name from the Greek, 
non and mamma. Their queen, Thalestris, visited Alexander the Great, while 
he was pursuing his conquests in Asia, and cohabited with him, in the hope 
of having issne by so illustrious a warrior ; three hundred females were in her 
train. — Herodotus. 

AMBASSADORS, accredited agents and representatives from one court to another, 
are referred to early ages, and to almost all nations. In most countries they have 
great and peculiar privileges ; and in England, among others, they and their servants 
are secured against arrest. The Portuguese ambassador was imprisoned for debt, in 
1663 ; and the Russian, by a lace- merchant, in 1709, when a law, the statute of 
8 Anne, passed for their protection. Two men were convicted of arresting the servant 
of an ambassador. They were sentenced to be conducted to the house of the ambas* 
sador, with a label on their breasts, to ask his pardon, and then one of them to be 
imprisoned three months and the other fined. May 12, 1780. — Phillips, 

AMBASSADORS, Interchanob of. England has about thirty ambassadors, envoys, 
or other high diplomatic residents at foreign courts, exclusively of inferior agents ; 
and the ambassadors and other high agents from abroad exceed that number in Lon- 
don. Among recent memorable instances of interchange may be recorded, that the 
first ambassador from the United States of America to England was John Adams, 
presented to the king, June 2, 1785 ; and the first from Great Britain to America, 
was Mr. Hammond, in 1791. 

AMBER. Of great repute in the world from the earliest time ; esteemed as a medicine 
before the Christian era : Theophrastus wrote upon it, 300 b.c. Upwards of 150 
tons of amber have been found in one year on the sands of the shore near Pillau. — 
Phillips. Much diversity of opinion still prevails among naturalists and chemists, 
respecting the origin of amber, some referring it to the vegetable, others to the 
mineral, and some to the animal kingdom ; its natural history and its chemical ana- 
lysis affording something in favour of each opinion. 

AMBOYNA. Memorable massacre of the English factors at this settlement by the 
Dutch : they were cruelly tortured and put to death on an accusation of a conspiracy 
to eznei the Dutch from the island, where the two nations resided and jointly shared 
^ c2 




in the pepper trade of Java, February 17, 1623. Amboyna was seized by the En- 
glish, February 16, 1796, but was restored by the treaty of Amiens in 1802. It was 
again seized by the Britbh, Feb. 17, 1810 ; and was restored at the peace of 1814. 

AMEN. This word is as old as the Hebrew itself. In that language it means truff 
faithful f certain. Employed in devotions, at the end of a prayer, it implies, sobeit; 
at the termination of a creed, so it is. It has been generally used, both in the Jewish 
and Christian churches, at the conclusion of prayer. 

AMENDE Honorable, originated in France in the ninth century. It was first an 
infamous punishment inflicted on traitors and sacril^ious persons : the offender was 
delivered into the hands of the hangman ; his shut was stripped off, a rope put 
about his neck, and a taper in his hand ; he was then led into court, and was obliged 
to pray pardon of God, the king, and the country. Death or banishment sometimes 
followed. Amende honorable is now a term used for making recantation in open 
court, or in the presence of the injured party. 

AMERCEMENT, in Law. A fine assessed for an offence done, or pecuniary punish- 
ment at the mercy of the court. By magna charta a freeman cannot be amerced for 
a small fault, but in proportion to the offence he has committed, 9 Henry III. 1224. 

AMERICA : See United Slates. Discovered by Christopher Colombo, a Genoese, 
better known as Christopher Columbus, a.d. 1492, on the 11th of October, on which 
day he came in sight of St Salvador. See Bahama Islands, This great navigator 
found the continent of America in 1497, and the eastern coasts were found by 
Amerigo Vespucci (Amencus Vespucius) in 1498 ; and fi-om this latter discoverer 
the whole of America is named. 

Newfoundland, the first British colony 
In this quarter of the world, discovered 
by Cabot, and by him called Prima 

Vista 1497 

Virginia, the first English settlement on 

the main land .... 1606 

New England, the second, by the Ply- 
mouth company .... 1614 
New York, setUed by tho Dutch . .1014 
A large body of diasenters, who fled from 
church tyranny in England, built New 

Plymouth 16?0 

Nova Scotia settled, under Sir William 

Alexander, by the Scotch . 1632 

Delaware, by tho Dutch . . . . 1623 
Massachusetts, by Sir H. Roswell . . 16^ 
Maryland, by Lord Baltimore . . . 1633 
Connecticut granted to Lord Warwick 
in 1630; but no English settlement 
was made here till .... 1633 
Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams 

and his brethren . . . 1035 

Now Jersey, grant to Lord Berkeley . 1644 
New York settled, first by the Dutch, 
but the English dispossessed them and 

the Swedes 1664 

Carolina, by the English . . . 16G7 

Pennsylvania, settled by William Penn, 

the celebrated Quaker . . 1680 
Georgia settled by general Oglethorpe, in 1732 
Kentucky settled . .1764 
Canada attempted to be settled by the 
French in 1534 ; they built Quebec in 
1606; but the whole country was con- 
quered by the English . 1759 
Louisiana discovered by Ferdinand de 
Beta, in 1541 ; settled by the French 
in 1718 : but eastward of the Missia- 
slppi was ceded to England, in . . 1763 
Florida discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 
1 497: re-discovered by Ponce dc Leon in 
15 IS ; It belonged alternately to France 
and Spain ; ceded by the latter to the 
Rnglitih in ]76-) 

The memorable American Stamp Act 
passed .... March S2, 1765 

The obnoxious duty on tea, paper, 
painted glass, dec. . June, 1767 

The populace destroy the tea from ships 
newly arrived from Eufi^and, at Boe- 
t<», and become boldly diacon- 
toited . . Nov. 1773 

The Boston Port Bill, by which that 
port was to be shut up until satis- 
faction should be made to tho East 
India Company for the tea destroyed, 
passed March 25, 1774 

The first general congress met at Phila- 
delphia .... Sept. 5, 1774 

The revolution conunenced ; first action 
between the Americans and kingls 
troops see (Lexington) April 19 .177^ 

The colonies agree on articles of confede- 
ration and perpetual union. May 90, 1 775 

Gen. George Washington appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the American ar- 
mies .... Jane 16, 1775 

Thirteen colonies declare themselves 
independent . . July 4, 1776 

[For the several actions fought during 
the war, see them severally.] 

The independence of the colonies is ac- 
knowledged by France, and Franklin 
and others are received there as am- 
bassadors . . Alarch 21, 1778 

American independence Is recognised by 
Holland . . . April 19, 1782 

And by England, in provisional articles 
of peace, signed at Paris . Nov. .K), 1782 

Definitive treaty signed at Paris, Sept. 3, 17R3 

And ratified by congress . Jan. 4, 1784 

John Adams was received as ambassador 
from America by Ctoorge HI. June 2, 1785 

And Mr. Hammond was first ambassador 
from Great Britain to tho United 
States, in * . .1791 

[For other occurrences, see United 


AMERICA, SOUTH. The Spaniards, as being the first discoverers of this vast 
portion of the Western world, had the lai^est and richest share of it. When they 
landed in Peru, a.d. 1530, thej found it governed bj sovereigns called Incas, who 
were revered by their subjects as divinities, but they were soon subdued by their in- 
vaders under the command of Francis Pizarro. The cruelties practised by the new 
adventurers wherever they appeared, will be a reproach to Spain for ever*. Span- 
ish America has successfully asserted its freedom within the present century : it first 
declared its independence in 1810 ; and the provinces assembled, and proclaimed the 
sovereignty of the people in July, 1814 ; since when, although the wars of rival and 
contending chiefs have been afflicting the country, it has released itself from the 
yoke of Spain for ever. Its independence was recognised by England, in sending 
consuls to the several new states, Oct. 30, 1823, ei seq. ; and by France, Sept. 30, 
1830. See Brazil^ Columbia, Lima, Peru, &c. 

AMETHYSTS. When this stone was first prized is not known ; it was the ninth in 
place upon the breastplate of the Jewish high priests, and the name Issachar was 
engraved upon it It is of a rich violet colour, and according to Plutarch, takes its 
name from its colour, resembling wine mixed with water. One worth 200 rix-doUars 
having been rendered colourless, equalled a diamond in lustre valued at 18,000 gold 
crowns. — De Boot Hitt. Gemmarum. Amethysts were discovered at Kerry, in Ire- 
land, in 1755. — Bums, 

AMIENS, PsACK OF, between Great Britain, Holland, France and Spain ; the pre- 
liminary articles, fifteen in number, were signed by lord Hawkesbnry and M. Otto, 
on the part of England and France, Oct. 1 , 1801 ; and the definitive treaty was 
subscribed on March 27, 1802, by the marquis Comwallis for England, Joseph 
Bonaparte for France, Azara for Spain, and Schimmelpeoninck for Holland. 

AMMONITES. Descended from Ammon, the son of Lot ; they invaded the land of 
Canaan and made the Israelites tributaries, but they were defeated by Jephthah, 
1188 B.C. They again invaded Canaan in the reign of Saul with an intention to put 
out the right eye of all those they subdued, but Saul overthrew them, 1093 B.C. 
They were afterwards many times vanquished ; and Antiochus the Great took Rab 
boath their capital, and destroyed all the walls, 198 B.c.-^osephtu. 

AMNESTY. The word as well as the practice was introduced into Greece by Thrasy- 
bulus, the Athenian general and patriot, who commenced the expulsion of the 
thirty tyrants with the assistance of only thirty of his friends : having succeeded, the 
only reward he would accept was a crown made with two branches of olive. 409 
B.C. — Hume's Essays. 

AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL : EsUblished at Thermopylse by Amphictyon, for the 
management of all affairs relative to Greece. This celebrated council, which was 
composed of the wisest and most virtuous men of some cities of Greece, consisted of 
twelve delegates, 1498 b.c. Other cities in process of time sent also some of their 
citizens to the council of the Amphictyons, and in the age of Antoninus Pius, they 
were increased to the number of thirty. — Suidas, 

AMPHION. British frigate, of 38 guns, blown up while riding at anchor in Plymouth 
Sound, and the whole of her crew then on board, consisting of more than two 
hundred and fifty persons, officers and men, perished, Sept 22, 1796. — Butler. 

AMPHITHEATRES. They may be said to be the invention of Julius Csesar and 
Curio : the latter was the celebrated orator, who called the former in full senate 
" Omnium mulierum virum, et omnium virorum mulieremJ* In the Roman 
amphitheatres, which were vast round and oval buildings, the people assembled to 
see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhibitions ; they were 
generally built of wood, but Statilius Taurus made one of stone, under Augustus 
Caesar. The amphitheatre of Vespasian was built a.d. 79 ; and is said to have been 
a regular fortress in 1312. The amphitheatre of Verona was next in size, and then 
that of Nismes. 

* Laa Cans, in deacribiiig the barbarity of the Spaniards while porsuiog their conquests, records 
many inatancee of it that fill the mind with horror. In Jamaica, he says, they hanged the unresist- 
ing natives lor thirteen at a time, in honour of the thirteen apostles ! and he has beheld them throw 
the Indian inianta to their dogs for food I " I have heard them," says Las Casas, "borrow the limb 
of a human being to feed their dogs, and have seen them the next day return a quarter of another 
victim to the lender!" 

AMP [ 22 ] AKA 

AMPHITRITE, the ship. This vessel, conveying convicts to New South Wales, and 
having on board 103 female convicts, with twelve children, and a crew of sixteen men, 
was driven on the Boulogne sands, in a heavy gale. Those on board might proba- 
bly have been saved before the return of the tide, but, apparently through the cap- 
tain's doubt as to his authority to allow the convicts to escape to the shore, and the 
uncompromising dignity of a lady passenger, all, except three of the crew, were 
drowned, Aug. 30, 1833. 

AMSTERDAM. This noble city was the castle of Amstel in a.d. 1100 ; and its build- 
ing, as a city, was commenced about 1203. Its famous exchange was built in 1634 ; 
and the stadthouse, one of the noblest palaces in the world, in 1648 ; this latter 
cost three millions of guilders, a prodigious sum at that time. It is built upon 
1 3,659 piles, and the magnificence of the structure is, for its size, both in external 
and internal grandeur, perhaps without a parallel in Europe. Amsterdam sur- 
rendered to the king of Prussia, when that prince invaded Holland in favor of the 
stadtholder, in 1787. The French were admitted without resistance, Jan. 18, 1795. 
The ancient government was restored in November, 1813. See Holland. 

AMULETS, OR CHARMS. All nations have been fond of amulets. The Egyptians 
had a great variety ; so had the Jews, Chaldeans, and Persians. Among the 
Greeks, they were much used in exciting or conquering the passion of love. They 
were also in estimation among the Romans. — Pliny. Ovid, Among the Christiana 
of early ages, amulets were made of the wood of the true cross, about a.d. 328. They 
have been sanctioned by religion and astrology, and even in modem times by medi- 
cal and other sciences — ^witness the anodyne necklace, &c. The pope and Catholic 
clergy make and sell amulets and charms even to this day. — Ashe, 

ANABAPTISTS. This sect arose about a.d. 1525, and was known in England before 
1549. John of Leyden, Muncer, Storck, and other German enthusiasts, about the 
time of the reformation, spread its doctrines. The anabaptists of Munster (who are, 
of course, properly distinguished from the existing mild sect of this name in Eng- 
land) taught Uiat infant baptism was a contrivance of the devil, that there is no 
original sin, that men have a free will in spiritual things, and other doctrines still 
more wild and absurd. Munster they called Mount Zion, and one Mathias, a baker, 
was declared to be the king of Zion. Their enthusiasm led them to the maddest 
practices, and they, at length, rose in arms under pretence of gospel liberty. 
Munster was taken about fifteen months afterwards, and they were all put to death. 
The anabaptists of England differ from other Protestants in little more than the not 
baptizing children, as appears by a confession of faith, published by the representa- 
tives of above one hundred of their congregations, in 1689. 

ANACREONTIC VERSE. Commonly of the jovial or Bacchanalian strain, named 
after Anacreon, of Teos, the Greek lyric poet, about 510 b.c. The odes of Anacreon 
are much prized ; their author lived in a constant round of drunkenness and 
debauchery, and was choked by a grape stone in his eighty-fifth year. — Stanley't 
Lives of the Poets, 

ANAGRAM, a transposition of the letters of a name or sentence ; as from Mary, the 
name of the Virgin, is made army. On the question put by Pilate to our Saviour, 
** Quid est Veritas 9** we have this admirable anagram, " Est uir qui adest,** The 
French are said to have introduced the art, as now practised, in the reign of 
Charles IX., about the year 1560. — Henault, 

ANATHEMAS. The word had four significations among the Jews : the anathema, or 
curse, was the devoting some person or thing to destruction. We have a remarkable 
instance of it in the city of Jericho (see Joshua vi. 17). Anathemas were used by 
the primitive churches, a.d. 387. Such ecclesiastical denunciations caused great 
terror in England up to the close of Elizabeth's reign. — Rapin. The church ana- 
thema, or curse, with excommunication, and other severities of the Romish religion, 
are still practised in catholic countries to this day. — Ashe. 

ANATOMY. The structure of the human body was made part of the philosophical 
investigations of Plato and Xenophon ; and it became a branch of medical art under 
Hippocrates, about 420 b.c. But Erasistratus and Herophilus may be regarded as 
being the fathers of anatomy : they were the first to dissect the human form, as 
anatomical research had been confined to brutes only : it is mentioned that they 
practised upon the bodies of living criminals, about 300 and 293 b.c. In England, 

ANA L 23 ] ANO 

the schools were supplied with subjects uolawfully exhumed from graves ; and, until 
lately, the bodies of executed criminals were ordered for dissection. See next article. 
The first anatomical plates were designed by Vesalias, about a.d. 1538. The 
discoveries of Hanrey were made in 1616. The anatomy of plants was discovered in 
1680 FreifuTs History of Physic, 

ANATOMY LAWS. The first law regulating the science was enacted in 1540 ; and 
laws relating to it, and encouraging schools, have been framed, altered, and amended 
in almost every reign to the present time. A new statute was enacted, regulating 
schools of anatomy, 3 William IV. 1832. This act repealed so much of the 9th of 
George IV. as stiU empowered the judges to direct the body of a murderer, after 
execution, to be dissected ; '* but the court may direct that such criminal be buried 
within the precincts of the jail.'' — Statutes at large, 

ANCHORITES. Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, were the first anchorites. Many of the 
early anchorites lived in caves and deserts, and practised great austerities. Some 
were analogous to the fakeers, who impose voluntary punishments upon themselves 
as atonement for their sins, and as being acceptable to God ; and their modes of tor- 
troe were often extravagant and criminal. The order first arose in the fourth century. 

ANCHORS FOR SHIPS, are of ancient use, and the invention belongs to the Tuscans. 
— Pliny, The second tooth, or flake, was added by Anacharsis, the Scythian. — 
Strabo, Anchors were first forged in England a.d. 578. The anchors of a first-rate 
ship of war (of which such a ship has four) will weigh 90 cwt. each, and each of them 
will cost £A50.^Phillips. 

ANCIENT HISTORY and MUSIC. Ancient history commenced in the obscurity of 
tradition, about 1800 b.c., and is considered as ending with the destruction of the 
Roman empire in Italy, a.d . 476. Modem history began with Mahomet or 
Charlemagne, and has lasted about 1200 or 1000 years, commencing in almost as 
great obscurity as ancient history, owing to the ignorance of those times, a.d. 600 
and 800. Ancient Music refers to such musical compositions as appeared from 
the time of Palestrini to that of Bach; that is, from the year 1529 to 1684. See 
History, — Music. 

ANDRE', MAJOR, bis EXECUTION. This gaUant and lamented soldier was an 
adjutant-general in the British army, and was taken on his return from a secret 
expedition to the American general Arnold, in disguise, Sept 23, 1780. He was 
sentenced to execution by a court of general Washington^ officers, at Tappan, New 
York, and suffered death Oct. 2, following. Andrl's remains were disinterred at 
Tappan for removal to England in a sarcophagus, Aug. 10, 1821, and are now 
interred in Westminster abbey. 

ANDREW, ST., martyred by crucifixion, Nov. 30, a.d. 69, at Patrse, in Achaia. The 
festival was instituted about 359. Andrew is the titular saint of Scotland, owing to 
Hungus, the Pictish prince, having dreamed that the saint was to be his friend in a 
pending battle with the Northumbrians ; and accordingly a St. Andrew's X appeared 
in the air during the fight, and Hungus conquered. The collar of an order of knight- 
hood, founded on this legend, is formed of thistles (not to be touched), and of rue (an 
antidote against poison) ; the motto is Nemo me impune lacessit. It was instituted 
by Achains in the year 809, and was revived by king James V. in 1540. See Thistle, 

ANEMOMETER, to measure the strength and velocity of the wind, was invented by 
Wolfios, in 1709. The extreme velocity was found by Dr. Lind to be 93 miles 
per hour. See article Winds* 

ANGELIC KNIGHTS of ST. GEORGE. Instituted in Greece, a.d. 456. The Ange^ 
/•ct were instituted by Angelus Comnenus, emperor of Constantinople, 1191.' The 
Angeliem^ an order of nuns, was founded at Milan by Louisa Torelli, a.d. 1534. 

ANGELS. Authors are divided as to the time of the creation of angels. Some will have 
it to have been at the same time with our world ; others, before all ages, that is, from 
eternity. This latter is Origen's opinion. — Cavers Hist, Literal, The Jews had ten 
orden of angels ; and the popes have recognised nine choirs and three hierarchies. 

ANGELS, IN COMMERCE. An angel was an ancient gold coin, weighing four penny- 
weights, and was valued at 6f. %d. in the reign of Henry VI., and at 10«. in the reign 
of Elizabeth, 1562. The angelot was an ancient gold coin, value half an angel, struck 
at Paris when that capital was in the hands of the English, in the reign of Henry VI,, 
1413.— IFoorf. 

ANO C 24 ] ANI 

ANGERSTEIN GALLERY, the foundation of the National Gallery in London^was a 
small collection of aboat forty pictures, the most exquisite of the art ; purchased by 
the British government for the public service, for ^^60,000, of the executors of Mr. 
John Julius Angerstein, in Jan. 1822. The exhibition of these pictures was opened 
in Pall Mall, in May, 1824. See National Gallery. 

ANGLESEY, or England's Island {ey^ in Saxon, being island), the celebrated seat 
of the Druids, was subdued by the Romans, a.d. 78 ; and by the English in 1282. 
The fortress of Beaumaris was built by Edward I. to overawe the Welch, 1295. The 
spot in Anglesey where Suetonius PauUnus and his barbarous legions butchered the 
unoffending Druids, in a.d. 59, is still shown at a ferry called Porthamel, across the 
Menai Straits. — Phillips. 

ANGLING. The origin of this art is involved in obscurity ; allusion is made to it by 
the Greeks and Romans, and in the most ancient books of the Bible, as Amos. It 
came into general repute in England about the period of the Reformation. Wynkin 
de Worde's Treatyse of Fysshinge, the first book printed on angling, appeared in 
1496. Isaac Walton's book was printed in 1653. 

ANGLO-SAXONS, or ANGLES. The name of England is derived from a village 
near Sleswick, called Anglen, whose popnltttion joined the first Saxon freebooters. 
Egbert called his kingdom Anglesland. Anglia East was a kingdom of the hep- 
tarchy, founded by the Angles, one of whose chiefs, Uffa, aunmed the title of kingi 
A. D. 575 : the kingdom ceased in 792.— See Britain. 

ANGRIA. This famous pirate's fort, on the coast of Malabar, was Invested by admiral 
Watson, and destroyed. The pirate, his wife, and family, were made prisoners ; 
and great quantities of stores which were found in the fort, and several ships in the 
harbour, which he had taken from the East India Company, were seized, 1756. 

ANHALT, House of, in Germany, is very ancient and distinguished : the best 
genealogists deduce its origin from Berenthobildus, who made war npon the 
Thuringians in the sixth century. In 1586, the principality was divided among 

the five sons of Joachim Ernest, and hence the five branches of this hoose 


ANHOLT, Island op. Owing to the injury done by the Danish crufzers to British 
commerce, this island was taken possession of by England, in the last war. The 
Danes made an attempt to regain it with a force which exceeded 4000 men, but 
were gallantly repulsed. The British force opposed to them did not amount to more 
than 150, yet triumphed in a close and desperate engagement, March 14, 1811. 

ANIMAL LIFE. The body of man was designed for ninety years, but the average 
duration of human life falls infinitely short of that patriarchal age. Without 
referring to ante- or post-diluviaos, or to the authority of the Scriptures, many 
extraordinary instances of length of human life will be found under article Longevity. 
The following is the duration of life in some of the lower animals : — 





Tho Ilorao . 

8 to 32 

Mulo . 

. 18 

Swine . 

. . 25 

Goose . 

. .28 

Ox . 

. . 20 

Sheep . . 

. . 10 

Goat . 

. 8 


. 30 to 100 


. 23 


. . 15 


. . 10 

Raven . 

. i(« 

Afls . 

. . 33 

Dog . 

. 14 to 25 


. 8 


. 50 to 2U0 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM. This deception was introduced by father Hehl, at Vienna, 
about 1774 ; and had wonderful success in France, in 1788. It had its dupes in 
England also, in 1789 ; but it exploded a few years afterwards. It was a pretended 
mode of curing all manner of diseases by means of sympathetic affection between the 
sick person and the operator. The effect on the patient was supposed to depend on 
certain motions of the fingers and features of the operator, he placing himself imme- 
diately before the patient, whose eyes were to be fixed on his. After playing in this 
manner on the imagination and enfeebled mind of the sick, and performing a number 
of distortions and grimaces, the cure was said to be completed. 

ANIMALCULiE, in the semen of animals, first discovered by Leuwenhoek, 1677* 
In the milt of the cod-fish are contained, he says, more living animalcules than there 
are people on the whole earth. A mite was anciently thought the limit of littleness ; 
but there are animals 27,000,000 of times smaller than a mite. A thousand millions 
of animalcula, discovered in common water, are not altogether larger than a grain of 
sand. — ErpcrimeiUs of Leuwenhoek. 1677. 

ANI [ 25 ] ANT 

ANIMALS, Cruelty to. Several laws have been enacted for the preTention of cruelty 
to animals. The late Mr. Martin, M.P., zealously laboured as a senator to repress 
this odious offence ; and a society, in London, which was established in 1824, effects 
much good in this way. See Cruelty to Animals^ Society. Mr. Martinis act passed 
3 Geo. IV., 1822. See statute 7 & 8 Geo. IV., June, 1727 ; statute 5 & 6 WU. IV., 
Sept. 1835 ; statute for Ireland, 1 Vic, July, 1837. 

ANJOU, or BAU6E, Battlb of, fought between the English and French armies ; the 
latter commanded by the dauphin of France, who defeated the English, on whose 
nde the Duke of Clarence and 1500 men perished on the field : the duke was slain 
by sir Allan Swinton, a Scotch knight, who commanded a company of men at arms ; 
and the earls of Somerset, Dorset, and Huntingdon, were taken prisoners. This 
was the first battle that turned the tide of success against the English, April 3, 1421. 
The university of Anjou, so celebrated for learning, was founded in 1349. 

ANNIHILATION. The doctrine of annihilation was unknown to the Hebrews, G^reeks, 
and Latins : the ancient philosophers denied annihilation ; the first notions of which 
are said to have arisen from the Christian theology. — Dr. Burnet. 

ANNO DOMINI ; in the year of our Lord ; used by the Christian world, and abbre- 
viated A.D. This is the computation of time from the incarnation of our Saviour 
and is called the vulgar era ; first adopted in the year 525. See Era. Charles III. 
of Germany was the first sovereign who added " in the year of our Lord'' to his 
reign, in 879. 

ANNUITIES, OR Pensions, were first granted in 1512, when £20 were given to a 
lady of the court for services done ; and £^. \Zt. Ad. for the maintenance of a gentle- 
man, 1536. The sum of ;^13. 6«. %d. was deemed competent to support a gentleman 
in the study of the law, 1554. An act was passed empowering the government to 
borrow one million sterling upon an annuity of fourteen per cent.y 4 & 6 William and 
Mary, 1691-3. This mode of borrowing soon afterwards became general among 
civilised governments. An annuity of it. \\d. per annum^ accumulating at 10 fter 
C4nil.f amounts in 100 years to £20,000. 

ANNUNCIATION or the Virgin Mary. This festival commemorates the Virgin's 
miraculous conception, denoting the tidings brought her by the angel Gabriel : its 
origin is referred variously by ecclesiastical writers to the fourth and seventh century. 
The day, the 25th of March, is also called Lady -day, which see. In England, before 
the alteration of the style, Sept. 3, 1752, our year began on the 25th of March, a 
reckoning which we still preserve in certain ecclesiastical computations. The religious 
order of the Annunciation was instituted in 1232 ; and the military order, in Savoy, 
by Amadeus, count of Savoy, in memory of Amadeua I., who had bravely defended 
Rhodes against the Turks, 1355. 

ANOINTING. The ceremony observed at the inauguration of kings, bishops, and other 
eminent personages, and a very ancient custom. It was first used at coronations in 
England on Alfred the Great, in 872 ; and in Scotland, on Edgar, in 1098. The 
religious rite is referred to a very early date in the Christian church ; by some 
authors, to 550, when it was practised with consecrated oil as extreme unction (one 
of the sacraments of the Catholic church) on dying persons, and persons in extreme 
danger of death, and is so done to the present day. 

ANONYMOUS LETTERS. The sending of letters denouncing persons, or demanding 
money, or using threats, made felony by the Black Act, 9 Geo. I., 1722. — Statute 
at large. Several persons have been executed in England for sending anonymous 
letters, imputing crimes and making exposures ; and the present laws against these 
practices are still very severe, but not more so than just. 

ANTARCTIC. The south pole is so called, because it is opposite to the north or arctic 
pole. A continent of 1700 miles of coast from east to west, and 64 to 66 degrees 
south, was discovered in the Antarctic Ocean by French and American navigators 
on the same day, Jan. 9, 1840 ; a coincidence the more singular, as the discoverers 
were at a distance from each other of 720 miles. Mr. Briscow, of the navy, fell in 
with land, which he coasted for 300 miles in lat. 67, long. 50, in the year 1830. 

ANTEDILUVIANS. According to the tables of Mr. Whiston, the number of people 
in the ancient world, or world as it existed previous to the Flood, reached to the 
enormous amount of 549,755 millions, in the year of the world 1482. Burnet haa 

ANT C 2G ] A >'T 

■apposed that the first human pair might have left, at the end of the first century, ten 
married couples ; and from these, allowing them to multiply in the same decuple 
proportion as the first pair did, would rise, in 1500 years, a greater number of persons 
than the earth was capable of holding, lie therefore suggests a quadruple multipli- 
cation only; and then exhibits the following table of increase during the first sixteen 
centuries that preceded the Flood : — 

L . 

. 10 


. 2,560 

IX. . 

. 655,360 



n. . 

. . 40 

VL . 

. . 10,240 


. . 2,621,440 


. 67l.0»i8,640 

m. . 

. 160 


. 40.960 

XL . 

. 10,485.760 


. 2,684,354,460 


. . 640 


. . 163,840 


. . 41,943,040 


. 10.737,418,240 

This calculation^ although the most moderate made, exceeds, it will be seen, by at 
least ten times, the present number of mankind, which, at the highest estimate, 
amounts to only a thousand millions. 

ANTHEMS, OR HYMNS. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, and St. Ambrose, were the 
first who composed them, about the middle of the fourth century. — LengUt, They 
were introduced into the church service in 386. — Baker, Ignatius is said to have 
introduced them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose into the Western church. They 
were introduced into the reformed churches in queen Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI. Eaters of human flesh have existed in all ages of the world. 
The Cyclops and Lestrygones are represented as man-eaters, by Homer ; and the 
Essedonian Scythians were so, according to Herodotus. Diogenes asserted that we 
might as well eat the flesh of men, as that of other animals ; and the practice still 
exists in Africa, the South Sea Islands, &c. In order to make trial whether there 
was any repugnance in nature to the feeding of an animal on its own species, 
Leonardus Floroventius fed a hog with hog's flesh, and a dog with that of a dog, 
when he found the bristles of the hog to fall off, and the dog to become full of ulcers. 
The annals of Milan furnish an extraordinary instance of anthropophagy : a Milanese 
woman, named Elizabeth, from a depraved appetite, had an invincible inclination to 
human flesh ; she enticed children to her house, and killed and salted them ; and on 
a discovery being made, she was broken on the wheel and burnt, in 1519. Various 
more recent instances of this kind have occurred. — See CannihiMlism, 

ANTICHRIST : The name i^ven by way of eminence by St. Paul to the Man qfSin 
who, at the latter end of the world, is to appear very remarkably in opposition to 
Christianity. His reign, it is supposed, will continue three years and a half, 
during which time there will be a terrible persecution. This is the opinion of the 
Catholics ; but the Protestants, as they differ from them, so they differ from them- 
selves. Grotius and Dr. Hammond suppose the time past, and the characters to be 
finished in the persons of Caligula, Simon Magus, and the Gnostics. A general 
opinion prevailed, that the pope was the true antichrist, and, at a conncil held at 
Gap in 1603, they inserted in their confessions of faith, an article whereby the pope 
was declared to be antichrist. — Bossuei, — Brown, 

ANTIMONY. This mineral was very early known, and applied by the ancients to 
various purposes. It was used as paint to blacken both men's and women's eyes, as 
appears from 2 Kings ix. 30, and Jeremiah iv. 30, and in eastern countries is thus 
used to this day. When mixed with lead, it makes types for printing; and in 
physic its uses are so various that, according to its preparation, alone, or in 
company with one or two associates, it is sufficient to answer all a physician desires 
in an apothecary's shop. — Boyle. We are indebted to Basil Valentine for the 
earliest account of various processes, about 1410. — Priestley. 

ANTINOMIANS, the name first applied by Luther to John Agricola, in 1538. The 
Antinomians trust in the gospel, and not in their deeds ; and hold that crimes are 
not crimes when committed by them, that their own good works are of no effect ; that 
no man should be troubled in conscience for sin, and other equally absurd doctrines. 

ANTIOCH, buUt by Seleucus, after the battle of Ipsus, 301 B.C. In one day, 100,000 
of its people were slain by the Jews, 145 b.c. In this city, once the capital of Syria, 
the disciples of the Redeemer were first called Christians. The Era of Antioch is much 
used by the early Christian writers attached to the churches of Antioch and 
Alexandria : it placed the creation 5492 years b.c. 

ANTIPODES. Plato is said to be the first who thought it possible that antipodes 
existed, about 368 b.c. Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of pope Zachary, is 

ANT C 27 ] APO 

said to have denounced a bishop as a heretic for maintaining this doctrine, a.d. 741. 
The antipodes of England lie to the south-east of New Zoiland ; and near the spot 
is a small island, called Antipodes Island. — Brookes. 

ANTIQUARIES, and ANTIQUE. The term antique is applied to the productions 
of the arts from the age of Alexander to the time of the irruption of the Goths into 
Italy, in a.d. 400. A college of antiquaries is said to have existed in Ireland 700 
years b.c. ; but this has very little pretensions to credit. A society was founded by 
archbishop Parker, Camden, Stowe, and others, in 1572. — Spelman. Application 
was made in 1589 to Elizabeth for a charter, but her death ensued, and her successor, 
James I., was far from favouring the design. In 1717 this society was revived, and 
in 1751 it received its charter of incorporation from George II. It began to publish 
its discoveries &c., under the title of Archmologiaf in 1770. The Society of 
Antiquaries of Edinburgh was founded in 1780. 

ANTI-TRINITARIANS. Theodotus of Byzantium is supposed to have been the first 
who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus, at the close of the second century. 
This doctrine spread widely after the reformation, when it was adopted by Lielius 
and Faustus Socinus. — Bayle. See Arians, SocinianSf and Unitariant. 

ANTOIGN, Battle of, between the central army of the French and the allies, in 
which 4^00 Austrians and Prussians were killed, 3,500 taken prisoners, and 600 
emigrants shut up in Longwy ; 900 French were killed in the action ; thirty pieces of 
battering-cannon and howitzers, with all the baggage of the combined army, were 
captured, August 13, 1792. 

ANTWERP. First mentioned in history in a.d. 517. Its fine exchange built in 1531. 
Taken after a long and memorable siege by the prince of Parma, in 1585. It was 
then the chief mart of Flemish commerce, but the civil wars caused by the tyranny 
of Philip II. drove the trade to Amsterdam. The remarkable crucifix of bronze, 
thirty -three fieet high, in the principal street, was formed from the demolished statue 
of the cruel duke of Alva, which he had himself set up in the citadel. Antwerp was 
the seat of the civil war between the Belgians and the house of Orange, 1830.31. 
In the late revolution, the Belgian troops having entered Antwerp, were opposed by 
the Dutch garrison, who, after a dreadful conflict, being driven into the citadel, 
cannonaded Uie town with red hot-balls and shells, doing immense mischief, Oct 27, 
1830. General Chass^ surrendered the citadel to the French after a destructive 
bombardment, Nov. 24, 1832. — See Belgium, 

APOCALYPSE, the Revelation of St. John, written in the Isle of Patmos, about a.d. 
95. — IretuBus. Some ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the heretic, and others 
to John, the presbyter, of Ephesus. In the first centuries many churches disowned 
it, and in the fourth century it was excluded from the sacred canon by the council 
of Laodicea, but was again received by other councils, and confirmed by that of 
Trent, held 1545, et seq. Rejected by Luther, Michaelis, and others, and its 
authority questioned in aU ages from the time of Justin Martyr, who wrote his first 
Apology for the Christians in a.d. 139. 

APOCRYPHA. In the prefiice to the Apocrypha it is said, *' These books are neyther 
found in the Hebrue nor in the Chalde.''~a}6/0, 1539. The history of the 
Apocrypha ends 135 b.c. The books were not in the Jewish canon, but they were 
received as canonical by the CathoUc church, and so a4iudged by the council of 
Trent, held in 1545, et geq. — Ashe. 

APOLLINARIANS, the followers of Apollinarius, bishop of Laodicea, who taught 
tiiat the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him ; that his flesh was pre- 
existent to his appearance upon earth, and that it was sent down from heaven, and 
conveyed through the Virgin, as through a channel ; that there were two sons, 
one bom of God, the other of the Virgin, &c. Apollinarius was deposed for his 
opinions in a.d. 378. 

APOLLO Frigatb, one of the finest of the British navy, with about forty sail of 
the outward-bound West India fleet, of which she was convoy, lost in a heavy gale 
on the coast of Portugal, three leagues north of Cape Mondego, and wiUi her 
perished sixty-one of her crew, including captain Dixon, the commander, besides an 
immense amount of life and property in the merchant vessels, April 2, 1804. 

APOLLO, Tbmplbs or. Apollo, the god of all the fine arts, of medicine, music, 
poetry, and eloquence, had temples and statues erected to him in almost every 

APO C 28 ] APP 

country, particalarly Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His most splendid tenaple was at 
Delphi, bailt 1263 b.c. — See Delphi. His temple at Daphnse, built 434 b.c. 
during a period in which pestilence raged, was burnt in a.d. 362, and the Christians 
accused of the crime. — Lenglet. 

APOLLYON, the same in Greek as Abaddon is in Hebrew, both signifying ** the 
destroyer." St. John, Rev. ix. 11, says, "And they had a king over them, which 
is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon^ 
but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon." a.d. 95. 

APOSTACY. The forsaking the Christian faith was anciently punishable in England 
by burning, and tearing to pieces by horses. A law was enacted against it, 9 
William III. 1697. In Catholic countries for a succession of ages apostacy from the 
Christian faith was punished by torture and death. See Inquiailum, 

APOSTLES' CREED. The summary of belief of the Christian faith, called the 
Apostles' Creed, is generally believed to have been composed a great while after their 
time. — Pardon, The repeating of this creed in public worship was ordained in the 
Greek church at Antioch, and was instituted in the Roman church in the eleventh 
century ; whence it passed to the church of England at the period of the reformation, 
in 1534. 

APOSTOLICI. The first sect of Apostolici arose in the third century ; the second 
sect was founded by Sagarelli, who was burned alive at Parma, a.d. 300. They 
wandered about, cloUied in white, with long beards, dishevelled hair, and bare heads, 
accompanied by women whom they called their spiritual sisters, preaching against the 
growing corruption of the church of Rome, and predicting its downfall. 

APOTHECARY, the Kino's. The first mention of one attending the king's person 
in England, was on Edward III. 1844 ; when he settled a pension of three-pence per 
diem for life on Coursus de Gangelund, for taking care of him during his illness in 
Scotland. — Rymer*s Fcedera, Apothecaries were exempted from serving on juries 
or other civil offices, 10 Anne, 1712. The Apothecaries' Company was incorporated 
in London, 1617. The Botanical garden at Chelsea was left by sir Hans Sloane to 
the company of Apothecaries, Jan. 1753, on condition of their introducing every 
year fifty new plants, until their number should amount to 2,000. The Dublin guild 
was incorporated, 1745. 

APOTHEOSIS. A ceremony of the ancient nations of the world, by which they raised 
their kings and heroes to the rank of deities. The nations of the East were the first who 
paid divine honours to their great men, and the Romans followed their example, and 
not only deified the most prudent and humane of their emperors, but also the most 
cruel and profligate. — Herodian, This honour of deifying the deceased emperor 
was begun at Rome by Augustus, in favour of Julius Cesar, b.c. 13. — Tillemont. 

APPEAL OF MURDER. By the late law of EngUnd, a man in an appeal of murder 
might fight with the appellant, thereby to make proof of his guilt or innocence. In 
1817, a young maid, Mary Ashford, was believed to have been violated and murdered 
by Abraham Thornton, who, in an appeal, claimed his right to his wager of battle, 
which the court allowed ; but the appellant (the brother of the maid) refused the 
challenge, and the criminal escaped, April 16, 1818. This law was immediately 
afterwards struck from off the statute book, 59 George III., 1819. 

APPEALS. In the time of Alfred, appeals lay from courts of justice to the king in 
council ; but being soon overwhelmed with appeals from all parts of England, be 
framed the body of laws which long served as the basis of English juriapmdence. — 
Hume. For ages previously to 1533, appeals to the pope were frequent upon eccle- 
siastical, judicial, and even private matters, but they were thereafter forbidden. 
Appeals from English tribunals to the pope were first introduced 19 Stephen, 1154. 
Abolished by act 24 Henry YIII. — Viner^s Statutes, Appeals in cases of murder, 
treason, felony, &c. were abolished June 1819. See preceding article. Courts of 
appeal at the Exchequer Chamber, in error from the judgments of the King*8 Bench, 
Common Pleas, and Exchequer, were regulated by statutes 11 Geo. IV. and 1 
WilUam IV., 1830 and 1831. 

APPRAISERS. The rating and valuation of goods for another was an early business in 
England ; and so early aa 11 Edward I., it was a law, that if they valued the goods 
of parties too high, the appraiser should take them at the price appraised. 1282. 

APP C 29 ] ARB 

APPRENTICES. Those of London, obliged to wear blue cloaks in sammer, and blue 
gowns in winter, in the reign of Qaeen Elizabeth, 1558. Ten pounds then a great 
apprentice fee. From twenty to one hundred pounds were given in the reign of 
James I. — Slotte^a Survey. The apprentice tax enacted 43 George III. 1802. 

APPROPRIATIONS, in thb Church, were introduced in the time of William I. ; 
the parochial clergy being then commonly Saxons, and the bishops and temporal 
clergy Normans. These made no scruple to impoverish the inferior clergy to enrich 
monasteries, which were generally possessed by the Conqueror's friends. Where 
the churches and tithes were so appropriated, the vicar had only such a competency 
as the bishop or superior thought fit to allow. This humour prevailed so far, that 
pope Alexander IV. complained of it, as the bane of religion, the destruction of the 
church, and as a poison that had infected the whole nation. — Pardon. 

APRICOTS. Pruntu Armeniaca. They were first planted in England in a.d. 1540. 
They originally came from Epirus ; the gardener of Henry VIII. introduced them into 
this country, and some say they excel here their pristine flavour and other qualities. 

APRIL. The fourth month of the year according to the vulgar computation, but the 
second according to the ancient Romans, Numa Pompilius having introduced 
Januarius and Februarius before it 713 b.c. — Peacham. 

APRIL FOOL. The origin of the jokes played under this name is conjectured to rest 
with the French, who term the object of their mockery un poUson d*Avrilf a name 
they also give to mackerel, a silly fish easily caught in great quantity at this season. 
The French antiquaries have vainly endeavoured to trace this custom to its source. 
It is said that we have borrowed the practice from our neighbours, changing the 
appellation from fish to fool; but, in England it is of no very great antiquity, as 
none of our old plays, nor any writer so old as the time of queen Elizabeth, have 
any allusion to it. In Scotland it is termed hunting Ihe gowk (cuckoo). — Butler. 

AQUARIANS. A sect in the primitive church, said to have been founded by Tatian in 
the second century, and who forbore the use of wine even in the sacrament, and 
used nothing but water. The original occasion was the persecution the Christians 
were under, for which reason they met secretly and in the night, and for fear of 
discovery used water instead of wine, when they received the sacrament, which 
precaution became so fixed a custom, that when they could use it with safety, they 
rejected wine as unlawful. 

AQUEDUCTS. Appius Claudius advised and constructed the first aqueduct, which 
was therefore called the Apptan-way, about 453 b.c Aqueducts of every kind were 
among the wonders of Rome. — Livy. There are now some remarkable aqueducts 
in Europe : that at Lisbon is of great extent and beauty ; that at Segovia has 129 
arches ; and that at Versailles is three miles long, and of immense height, with 242 
arches in three stories. The stupendous aqueduct on the Ellesmere canal, in 
England, is 1007 feet in length, and 126 feet high ; it was opened Dec. 26, 1805. 

AQUITAINE, formerly belonged (together with Normandy) to the kings of England, 
as desoendamts of William the Conqueror. It was erected into a principality in 1362, 
and was annexed to France in 1370. The title of duke of Aquitaine was taken by 
the crown of England on the conquest of this duchy by Henry V. in 1418 ; but was 
lost in the reign of Henry VI. 

ARABIA. This country is said never to have been conquered; the Arabians made no 
figure in history till a.d. 622, when, under the new name of Saracens, tbey followed 
Mahomet (a native of Arabia) as their general and prophet, and made consider- 
able conquests. — Priestley. 

ARABICI. A sect which sprung up in Arabia, whose distinguishing tenet was, that the 
soul died with the body, and also rose again with it, a.d. 207. There have been some 
revivals of this sect, but they were confined to the middle ages, and have not been 
known in civilised Europe. — Bossuet. 

ARBELA, Battle of. The third and decisive battle between Alexander the Great and 
Darius Codomanus, which decided the fate of Persia, 331 B.C. The army of Darius 
consisted of 1 ,000,000 of foot and 40,000 horse ; the Macedonian army amounted 
to only 40,000 foot and 7,000 horse. — Arrian. The gold and silver found in the 
cities of Susa, Persepolis, and Babylon, which fell to Alexander from this victory, 
amounted to thirty millions sterling ; and the jewels and other precious spoil, 
belonging to Darius, sufficed to load 20,000 mules and 5,000 camels.— P/u/aroA. 

ARB [30] ARC 

ARBITRATION. Sabmissioni to arbitration maj be a rule of any of tbe conrtt of 
record, and are equivalent in force to the decision of a jury, 9 and 13 William III. 
Sabmisiions to arbitration may be made rules of any court of law or equity, and 
arbitrators may compel the attendance of witnesses, 3 and 4 Will. IV. 1833. If an 
action at law be referred, the award must be in accordance with the law ; but in a 
•nit in eqnity, the award must be according to the equity and justice of the ease. 
See Ouzel GaUey* 

ARBUTUS. The Arbuiut Andrachnet oriental strawberry-tree, was brought to England 
from the Levant, about 1724. Although this tree was not much known in London 
until 1770, yet the arlmius is found in great plenty and perfection in the islands 
which beautify the lakes of Killamey in Ireland, where it was probably introduced 
by the monks who inhabited that part of the country at a very early period. 

ARCADES, uR Walks arched over. Some fine public marts of this kind have 
recently been built in these countries. The principal in London are the Burlington 
arcade, opened in March 1819 ; and the Lowther arcade, Strand, was opened at the 
period of the Strand improvements. See Strand. The Royal arcade^ Dublin, 
opened June 1820, was burnt to the ground, April 25, 1837. 

ARCADIA. The people of this country were very ancient, and reckoned themselves of 
longer standing than the moon ; they were more rude in their manners than any of 
the Greeks, from whom they were shut up in a valley, surrounded with mountains. 
Pelasgus taught them to feed on acorns, as being more nutritious than herbs, their 
former food ; and for this discovery they honoured him as a god, 1521 b.c. 

Pelasgui begins his reign . b.c. 1521 

Lycaon inittitutos the Lupercalia, in 

honour of Jupit«r .... 1514 

Reign of Nyctimus ^ ^ 

Of ArcM, from whom the kingdom rc- 

oeiven the name of Arcadia • # « 

He teaches his subjects agriculture and 

the art of spinning wool ; and after his 

death Is made a constellation, with 

his mother. — Pautaniat . . • i|t 4c 
The Lycaean games instituted, in honour 

of Pan 1330 

Reign of Aleus, celebrated for his skill 

in building temples.— Pau«ant'a« . ^t ^c 

Agapenor, grandson of Ljrcuj^gas, ap- 
pears at the head of the Arcadians at 
the siege of Troy . . . b,c. 1194 

Reign of Epitus II74 

Orestes, king of Myoenc, arrives at Tret- 
zene, to be purified of the murder of 
his mother and her paramour . IMP 

The Lacedemonians invade Arcadia, and 
are beaten by the women of the conn* 
try, in the absence of their husbands . 1102 

Aristocrates I. is put to death for ofTering 
violence to the priestess of Diana . 71ff 

Aristoorates II. stoned to death, and 
Aitndia made a republic . . .681 

Arcadia had twenty-five kings, whose history is altogether fabulous. The Arcadians 
were fond of military glory, although shepherds ; and frequently hired themselves to 
fight the battles of other states. — Eustathius. A colony of Arcadians was conducted 
by (Enotros into Italy, 1710 b.c, and the country in which it settled was afterwards 
called Magna GrtBcia. A colony under Evander emigrated 1244 B.C. — Idem, 

ARCHANGEL. The passage to Archangel was discovered by the English in 1553, and 
it was the only seaport of Russia till the formation of the docks at Cronstadt, and 
foundation of St. Petersburgh, in 1703. The dreadful fire here, by which the 
cathedral and upwards of 3000 houses were destroyed, occurred in June 1793. 

ARCHBISHOP. This dignity was known in the East about a.d. 320. Athanasius 
conferred it on his successor. In these realms the dignity is nearly coeval with 
the establishment of Christianity. Before the Saxons came into England there were 
three sees, London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk ; but soon after the arrival of 
St. Austin, he settled the metropolitan see at Canterbury, a.d. 596. York 
continued archiepiscopal ; but London and Caerleon lost the dignity. Caerieon 
was found, previously, to be too near tbe dominions of the Saxons ; and in the time 
of king Arthur, the archbishopric was transferred to St. David's, of which St. 
Sampson was the 26th and last Welch archbishop. See St. David^x. The 
bishoprics in Scotland were under the jurisdiction of the archbishop of York until 
the erection of the archiepiscopal sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow, in 1470 and 
1 491 ; these last were discontinued at the Revolution. See Glasgow andSt. Andrew's. 

ARCHBISHOPS of Ireland. The rank of archbishop was of early institution in 
Ireland. — See Ferns. Four archbishoprics were constituted ia a. d. 1151, namely, 
Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam ; until then the archbishop of Canterbury had 
jurisdiction over the Irish as well as English bishops, in like manner as the archbishop 
of York h&d jurisdiction over those of Scotland. — See preceding article. Of the 

ARC [ 31 ] ARC 

four archbishoprics of Ireland two have lately been reduced to bishoprics, namely, 
Cashel and Tnam, conformably with the statate 3 and 4 W. IV. 1833, whereby the 
number of sees in Ireland is to be reduced (as the incumbents of ten of them, respec- 
tively, die) from twenty-two to twelve. — See Bishop$^ Ctuhel, Ttutm, PalHum, &c. 

ARCH-CHAMBERLAIN, an officer of the German empire, and the same with our great 
chamberlain of England. The elector of Brandenburgh was appointed the here<Stary 
arch-chamberlain of the empire by the golden bull of Charles IV. in 1356, and in 
that quality he bore the sceptre before the emperor. 

ARCH-CHANCELLORS. They were appointed under the two first races of the kings 
of France ; and when their territories were divided, the archbishops of Mentx, Co- 
Ic^e, and Treves, became arch-chancellors of Germany, Italy, and Aries. 

ARCHDEACONS. There are sixty church officers of this rank in England, and thirty- 
four in Ireland. The name was given to the first or eldest deacon, who attended 
on the bishop, without any power ; but since the council of Nice, his function is 
become a dignity, and set above that of priest, though anciently it was quite other- 
wise. The appointment in these countries is referred to a. d. 1075. The arch- 
deacon's court is the lowest in ecclesiastical polity : an appeal lies from it to the 
consistorial court, stat. 24 Henry VIII. 1532. 

ARCHERY. It originated, according to the fonciful opinion of the poet Claudian, from the 
porcupine being observed to cast its quills whenever it was offended. Plato ascribes 
the invention to Apollo, by whom it was communicated to the Cretans. The eastern 
nations were expert in archery in the earliest ages, and the precision of the ancient 
archer is scarcely exceeded by our skill in modem arms. Astor of Amphipolis, upon 
being slighted by Philip, king of Macedonia, aimed an arrow at him. The arrow, on 
which was written *' Aimed at Philip's right eye," struck it, and put it out ; and 
Philip threw back the arrow with these words : *' If Philip take the town. Aster 
shall be hanged." The conqueror kept his word. 

ARCHERY IN England. It was introduced previously to a. d. 440, and Harold 
and his two brothers were killed by arrows shot from the cross-bows of the Norman 
soldiers at the battle of Hastings, in 1066 ; that which killed the king pierced him 
in the brain. Richard I. revived archery in England in 1190, and was himself killed 
by an arrow in 1 199. The victories of Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt, were won 
chiefly by archers. The usual range of the long-bow was from 3000 to 4000 yards. 
Robin Hood and IJttle John, it is said, shot twice that distance. Four thousand 
archers surrounded the houses of Parliament, ready to shoot the king and the members, 
21 Richard II. 1397. — Stowe, The citizens of London were formed into companies 
of archers in the reign of Edward III. : they were formed into a corporate body by 
tbe style of '<The Fraternity of St. Geoi^ge,'* 29 Henry VIII. iBZQ.—Nortfumk's 
History qf London, 

ARCHES are traced to the era of the Macedonian conquest by the best writers. The 
triumphal arches of the Romans form a leading feature in their architecture. Those 
of Trajan (erected a. d. 114) and Constantine were magnificent. The arches in our 
parks in London (that of Buckingham Palace was mc^elled firom the arch of Con- 
stantine) were erected about 1828. 

ARCHES OF STONE. In bridge architecture they were not in use in England until 
the close of the eleventh century. The Chinese bridges, which are very ancient, are 
of great magnitude, and are built with stone arches similar to those that have been 
considered as a Roman invention. Bow bridge was built in 1087. One of the largest 
stone arches hitherto built in England, is that of the new bridge of Chester, whose 
span is 200 feet ; it was commenced in 1829. The central arch of London bridge 
is 152 feet ; and the three cast-iron arches of Southwark bridge, which rest on mas- 
sive stone piers and abutments, are, the two side ones 210 feet each, and the centre 
240 feet ; thus the centre arch is the largest in the world, as it exceeds the admired 
bridge of Sunderland by four feet in the span^ and the long-famed Rialto at Venice, 
by 167 feet. 

ARCHES, Court oy, chiefly a court of appeal from the inferior jurisdictions within 
the province of the archbishop of Canterbury ; it is the most ancient consistory 
court, and derives its name from the church of St. Mary-le-Bow, London {de 
Arcub%u)t where it was held ; and whose top is raised of stone pillars built arch- 
wise.— CowelL Appeals from this court lie to the judicial committee of the privy 
council, by sUtute 11 George IV. and 1 Will. IV. 1830. 

ARC C 32 D ^^^^ 

ARCHITECTURE wm cultivated by the Tynans, about 1100 b.c. Their king, 
Hiram, supplied Solomon with cedar, gold, silver, and other materials for the Tem- 
ple, in the building of which he assisted, 1015 b.c. The art passed to Greece, and 
from Greece to Rome. The style called Gothic came into vogue in the ninth century ; 
The Saracens of Spain, being engaged during peace to build mosqiies, introduced 
grotesque carvings, &c., and the ponderous sublimity of bad taste; which species 
is known by elliptic arches and buttresses. The circular arch distinguishes the 
Norman-Gothic from the Saracenic, and came in with Henry I. The true Grecian 
style did not fully revive till about the reign of James I. 1603. 

ARCHONS. When royalty was abolished at Athens, the executive goyemment waa 
vested in elective magistrates called archons, whose office continues for life. Medon, 
eldest son of Codrus, is the first who obtained this dignity, 1070 b.c. 

ARCOLA, Battle of, between the French under general Buonaparte, and the Austrians 
under field-marshal Alvinzy, fought November l!^ 1796. The result of this bloody 
conflict, which was fought for eight successive days, was the loss on the part of 
the Austrians of 12,000 men, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, four flags, and 
eighteen guns. 

ARCOT, East Indies, established in 1716: it was taken by Colonel Clive, in 1751 ; 
and retaken, but again surrendered to the British under Colonel Coote, in 1 760. 
Besieged by Hyder Ali, when the British, under Colonel Baillie, suffered a severe 
defeat, Sept. 10, and Oct. 31, 17R0. See India. 

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. Several have been underUken by England, and some by 
Russia and other countries. Sir Martin Frobisher was the first Englishman who 
attempted to find a north-west passage to China, a.d. 1576. Davis's expedition to 
the Arctic regions was undertaken in 1585. After a number of similar adventuroas 
voyages, Baffin, an Englishman, attempted to find a north-west passage, in 1616. 
See Baffin*8 Bay, For the subsequent and late expeditions of this kind, Including 
among the latter those of Buchan, Franklin, Ross, Parry, Liddon, Lyon, Back, &c., 
see North' West Passage, 

ARDAGH, an ancient prelacy, founded by St. Patrick, who made his nephew the first 
bishop, previously to a.d. 454. This prelacy was formerly held with Kilmore ; bat 
since 1742, it has been held in commendam with Tuam (which see), 

ARDFERT and AGHADOE, bishoprics in Ireland, long united ; the former was 
called the bishopric of Kerry ; Ert presided in the fifth century. William Fuller, 
appointed in 1663, became bishop of Limerick in 1667, since when Ardfert and Agha- 
doe have been united to that prelacy. Near the cathedral, an anchorite tower, 120 
feet high, the loftiest and finest in the kingdom, suddenly fell, 1770. 

AREOPAGITiE. A famous council said to have heard causes in the dark, because the 
judges were blind to all but facts, instituted at Athens, 1507 b.c — Arund, Marbles. 
The name is derived from the Greek Areos pagos^ the Hill of Mars ^ because Man 
was the first who was tried there for the murder of Haliirhotius, who had violated 
his daughter Alcippa. Whatever causes were pleaded before them, were to be 
divested of all oratory and fine speaking, lest eloquence should charm their ears, and 
corrupt their judgment Hence arose the most just and impartial decisions. 

ARGENTARIA, Battle of. One of the most renowned in its times, fought in Alsace, 
between the AUemanni and the Romans, the former being defeated by the latter with 
the loss of more than 85,000 out of 40,000 men, a.d. 378 Dufresnoy. 

ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, undertaken by Jason to avenge the death of Phryxus, 
and recover his treasures seized by the king of Colchis. The ship in which Phryxus 
had sailed to Colchis having been adorned with the figure of a ram, it induced the 
poets to pretend that the journey of Jason was for the recovery of the golden fleece. 
This is the first naval expedition on record ; it made a great noise in Greece, and 
many kings and the first heroes of the age accompanied Jason, whose ship was called 
ArgOf from its builder, 1263 B.C. — Dufresnoy. 

ARGOS. This kingdom was founded by Inachus, 1856 b.c, or 1080 years before the 
first Olympiad. — Blair. The nine kings from the founder were called Inachidmt of 
whom the fonrth was Argus, and he gave his name to the country. When the 
HeracIidsD took possession of Peloponnesus, b.c 1102, Temenus seized Argos and 
its dependencies. Argos was afterwards a republic, and distinguished itself in ail 
the wars of Greece. — Euripides. 




ARGOS, continued, 

Ixuachnsfoinids the kingdom • bx. 1856 

Phoroneus reigiu sixty yean . . • 1807 
Api« reigns thirty-fiTe ycArs . '1747 

The city of Argoa built by Argus, son of 

Niobe 1711 

Criasus» son of Argus, succeeds his 

father, and reigns .... 1641 
Reign of Triopas ; Polyoaon seizes part 

of the kingdom, and calls it after his 

wife. Meuenia 1&5S 

Reign of Crotopus 1506 

Sthenelus reigns 1485 

Gelanor is deposed by Danaus . . . 1474 
Feast of the Flambeaux, in honour of 

Hypermnestra. who saved her hue* 
bflind, while her forty-nine sisters sa- 
crificed theirs— (See Flambeaiuc) b.c. 14S6 
Lynoeus, son of Egyptus, whose life had 
been preserred by his wife, dethrones 
Danaus ... 1425 

Reign of Abas 1384 

Reign of Proetus, twin-brother of Acri- 

Bins 1961 

Bellerophon comes to Argos ; the passion 

for him of Sthenobcea . . 1361 

Rebellion of Acrisius . . 1344 

Perseus leares Argos, and founds My- 
cenc (which tee) .... 1313 

Argot, in modem history, was taken from the Venetians, a.d. 1686. It was lost to 
the Turks in 1716, since when it continued in their hands until 1826. Argos be- 
came united in the sorereignty of Greece under Otho, the present and first king, 
January 25, 1833. See Greece, 

ARGYLE, Bishopric oy, founded a.d. 1200, Evaldus being the first bishop ; the 
diocese was preTiouslj part of the see of Dunkeld ; but was disjoined by pope 
Innocent III. ; and it ended, with the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland, 1688. 

ARIANS. The followers of Arius, a numerous sect of Christians, who deny the divinity 
of Christ ; they arose about ad. 315. The Arians wers condemned by the 
council of Nice, in 325 ; but their doctrine became for a time the reigning religion 
in the East. It was favoured by Constantine, 319. Carried into Africa under the 
Vandals, in the fifth century, and into Asia under the Goths. Serretus published 
his treatise against the Trinity, 1531, and hence arose the modem system of 
Arianism in Genera, Alius died in 336. Serretus was burnt, 1553. — VarilUUf 
Hist, de PH^rSsie. 

ARITHMETIC. Where first invented is not known, at least with certainty. It was 
brought from Egypt into Greece by Thales, about 600 b.c. The oldest treatise 
upon arithmetic is by Euclid (7th, 8th, and 9th books of his Elemenis)^ about 300 
B.C. The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was used a.d. 130. Diophantus of 
Alexandria, was the author of thirteen books of Arithmetical questions (of which six 
are extant) in 1 56. Notation by nine digits and sero, known at least as early as 
the sixth century in Hindostan — introduced from thence into Arabia, about 900 — 
into Spain, 1050 — into England, 1253. The date in Caxton's Mirrour of the 
World, Arabic characters, is 1 480. Arithmetic of decimals invented, 1482. First 
work printed in England on arithmetic (de Arte Supputandi) was by Tonstall, 
bishop of Durham, 1522. The theory of decimal fractions was perfected by lord 
Napier in his Rabdologia, in 1617. 

ARK. Mount Ararat is venerated by the Armenians, from a belief of its being the 
place on which Noah's ark rested, after the universal Deluge, 2347 B.C. But Apa- 
mea, in Phrygia, claims to be the spot ; and medals have been strack there with t. 
chest on the waters, and the letters NOE, and two doves : this place is 300 miles 
west of Ararat. The ark was 300 cubits in length, fifty in breadth, and thirty high ; 
but most interpreters suppose this cubit to be about a foot and a half, and not the 
geometrical one of six. There were, we are told, three floors — the first for beasts, 
the second for provisions, and the third for birds, and Noah's family. It was not 
made like a ship, but came near the figure of a square, growing gradually narrower 
to the top. There was a door in the first floor, and a great window in the third. 

ARKLOW, Battlb oy, between the insurgent Irish, amounting to 31,000, and a small 
regular force of British, which signally defeated them, June 10, 1798. The town 
vras nearly destroyed by the insurgents in May previous. Native gold was discovered 
in Arklow in Sept. 1795.— PA</. Tram, vol. 86. 

ARMADA, Trb Invincible. The famous Spanish armament so called consisted of 
150 ships, 2650 great guns, 20,000 soldien, 8000 sailors, and 2000 volunteera, 
under the duke of Medina Sidonia. It arrived in the Channel, July 19, 1588, and 
was defeated the next day by Drake and Howard. Ten fire-ships having been sent 
into the enemies' fleet, Uiey cut their cables, put to sea and endeavoured to ratura 


ARM C 34 ] ARM 

to their rendezvous between Calais and Gravelines : the English fell apon thenit took 
many ships^ and admiral toward maintained a running fight from the 2l8t July to 
the 27th, obliging the shattered fleet to bear away for Scotland and Ireland, where a 
storm dispersed them, and the remainder of the armament returned by the North 
Sea to Spain. The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships in the engagement, and 5000 
men ; seventeen ships were lost or taken on the coast of Ireland, and upwards of 5000 

men were drowned, killed, or taken prisoners. The English lost but one ship 

Rapin^ Carte^ Hume, 

ARMAGH, Battle of, fought against Edward Bruce, who was defeated, taken, and 
beheaded at Dundalk; and with him 6200 Scots lost their lives, a.d. 1318.— 
Buchanan, This city is most ancient. It was destroyed by the Danes on Easter- 
day, A.D. 852. — Bums, 

ARMAGH, See of, the first ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, was founded by St. 
Patrick, its first bishop, in 444. One Dairey a man of great reputation among bis 
own people, and of considerable wealth, granted the site whereon the church was 
erected, near the river Callan. The first name of this place was Druim Saikg ; 
but from its situation on a rbing ground, was afterwards called Arhmach or 
Ardmach ; that is, edittu campus^ a high field. Six saints have been bishops of 
this see. In the king's books, by an extent taken fifteen James I. it is valued at 
;^400 sterling a year ; but it is now estimated at j^l5,000 per annum. The see was 
re-constituted (see Pallium) in 1151. — Beatson, 

ARMED NEUTRALITY. The confederacy, so called, of the northern powers 
against England, was commenced by the empress of Russia in 1780 ; but its objects 
were defeated in 1781. The pretension was renewed, and a treaty ratified in order 
to cause their flags to be respected by the belligerent powers, December 16, 1800. 
The principle that neutral flags protect neutral bottoms being contrary to the mari- 
time system of England, the British cabinet remonstrated, and Nelson and Parker 
destroyed the fleet of Denmark before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. That power, in 
consequence, was obliged to secede from the alliance, and acknowledge the claim of 
England to the empire of the sea ; and the Armed Neutrality was soon after dissolved. 

ARMENIA. Here Noah and his people resided when they left the ark, 2347 b.c. 
After being subject successively to the three great monarchies, Armenia fell to the 
kings of Syria. The Armenians were the original worshippers of Are : they also 
paid great veneration to Venus Anaitis, to whose priests even the highest classes of 
the people prostituted their daughters, prior to marriage. — Martin** Mimwret 
tur V Armtnie, 

City of Artaxarta built . . . b.c. 186 
Tigrancs the Great reigns . . . 93 

lie is called to the throne of Syria, assumeti 

the fastidious title of <« King of Kings," 

and is served by tributary princes . 83 
Tigranes defeated by Lucullus . . 69 
Again defeated, and lays his crown at the 

feet of Pompey 66 

His son, Artavasdes, reigns . . . A4 
Artavasdes assists Pumpey against Julius 

Caesar . .48 

Artavasdes assists the Parthians against 

Maro Antony 36 

Antony subdues, and sends him loaded 

with silver chains to Egypt, to grace his 

triumph 34 

The Armenian soldiers crown his son, 

Artaxias 33 

Artaxias is deposed 30 

ARMENIAN ERA commenced on the 9th of July, a.d. 552 : the Ecclesiastical year 
on the 11th August. To reduce this last to our time, add 551 years and 221 days ; 
and in leap years subtract one day from March 1 to August 10. The Armenians 
use the old Julian style and months in their correspondence with Europeans. 

ARMILLARY SPHERE. Commonly made of brass, and disposed in such a manner 
that the greater and lesser circles of the sphere are seen in their natural position 
and motion, the whole being comprised in a frame. It is said to have been invented 
by Eratosthenes, about 255 b.c. 

lie is restored to his throne, and dies. 

— Blair .... B.C. 1 

Reign of Yenones . ask 16 

Zenon reigns 18 

Tigranee IV. reigns ... .36 
lie is cited to Rome, and deposed . . 37 
Tiridates dethroned, and Roman power 

paramount in Armenia . . Ci 

Armenia reduced to a Persian province 

under Sapor ..... 365 
Subdued by the Saracens *. . . . 687 
Irruption of tho Turks . . 7A5 

Again made a Persian province, under 

UfTun Cassancs . . .1472 

Subdued by Selim II !&» 

Overrun by the Russians . . 1828 

Surrender of ErEeroum July, 18S9 

(See Syria.) 

ARM C 35 ] ARM 

ARMINIANS (the) chiefly contend for the doctrine of nniyeraal redemption, and 
generally espouse the principles of the Church of England ; especially asserting the 
subordination of the Christian church to the civil powers. They also contend for the 
efficacy of good works, as well as their necessity, in securing man's salvation. James 
I. and Charles I. favoured the doctrines of the Arminians ; and the principles of the 
sect prerail generally in Holland and elsewhere, though condemned at the synod of 
Dort (see Dwrt) in 1618. Arminius, who was a divinity professor at Leyden, died 
in 1609.— -Braru/^ 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS became hereditary in families at the close of the twelfth 
century. They took their rise from the knights painting their banners with different 
figures, and were introduced by the Crusaders, in order at first to distinguish 
noblemen in battle a.d. 1100. The lines to denote colours in arms, by their direc- 
tion or intersection, were invented by Columbiere in 1639. Armorial bearings were 
taxed in 1798— and again in 1808. 

ARMOUR. The warlike Europeans at first despised any other defence than the 
shield. Skins and padded hides were first used ; and brass and iron armour, in 
plates or scales, followed. The first body-armour of the Britons was skins of wild 
beasts, exchanged, after the Roman conquest, for the well-tanned leathern cuirass. 
— Tadtua^ This latter continued till the Anglo-Saxon era. Hengist is said to 
have had scale armour, a.d. 449. The Norman armour formed both breeches and 
jacket, 1066. The hauberk had its hood of the same piece, 1100. John wore a 
surtout over a hauberk of rings set edgeways, 1199. The heavy cavalry were 
covered with a coat of mail, Henry III, 1216. Some horsemen had visors, and 
scull caps, same reign. Armour became exceedingly splendid about 1350. The 
armour of plate commenced, 1407. Black armour, used, not only for battle, but for 
mourning, Henry V. 1413. The armour of Henry VII. consisted of a cuirass of 
steel, in the form of a pair of stays, about 1500. Armour ceased to reach below 
the kneet, Charles I. 1625. In the reign of Charles II. officers wore no other 
armour than a large gorget, which is commemorated in the diminutive ornament 
known at the present day. — Meyriek. 

ARMS. The club vras the first offensive weapon ; then followed the mace, battle-axe, 
pike, spear, javelin, sword, and dagger. Among ancient missiles were bows and 
arrows. Plmy ascribes the invention of the sling to the Phoenicians. See the 
variout weapon* through the volume, 

ARMS. See Armorial Bearings and Heraldry, Those of England, at first simple, 
varied with the conquests which she made, and included the insignia of Wales, Ire- 
land, Scotland, France, and Hanover, as these countries successively fell to her 
sovereignty. The arms of England and France were claimed and quartered by 
Edward III. a.d. 1330. They were discontinued by the English kings on the union 
with Ireland, and a new Imperial standard was hoisted, Jan. 1, 1801. The escutcheon 
of Hanover was discontinued on its separation from England by the death of William 
IV. in 1837. 

ARMS' BILL, Ireland. A celebrated bill, whose object was the repression of crime 
and insurrection, was passed Oct. 15, 1831. It was a revival of the expired statutes 
of George III. The guns registered under this act thrpughout the kingdom at the 
close of the first year scarcely amounted to 3000, and the number was equally small 
of all other kinds of arms. The new Arms' bill passed August 22, 1843. 

ARMY. Ninus and Semiramis had armies amounting to nearly two millions of fighting 
men, 2017 B.C. I1ie first guards and regular troops as a standing army were formed 
by Saul, 1093 B.C. — Eusehiut, One of the first standing armies of which we have 
any account, is that of Philip of Macedon. The first standing army, existing as such, 
in modem times, was maintained in France by Charles VII. in 1445. Standing 
armies were introduced by Charles I. in 1638 ; they were declared illegal in England, 
31 Charles II. 1679. The chief European nations have had in their service the 
following armies : Spain 150,000 men ; Great BriUin, 310,000 ; Prussia, 350,000 
Turkey, 450,000 ; Austria, 500,000 ; Russia, 560.006 ; and France, 680,000. 

ARMY, BRITISH. Statement of the effective military strength of the United King- 
dom at the decennial periods respectively mentioned, and of the sums voted for 
military expenditure, drawn from parliamentary returns and other official records : 

d ? 

ARM [ 36 

] ART 

ARMY, BRITISH, continued. 

1780, Time of war : troops of the line . . 

amount 110,000 men . . samTOted jS7M7fiOO 

1800, War .... 

ditto 168.0U0men . . ditto 


1810, War : army, including foreign troops 

ditto 300,000 men . . ditto 


1815, Last year of the war 

ditto 300,000 men . • ditto 


1820^ Time of peace ; war incumbrancea . 

ditto 88,100 men . . ditto 


1830, Peace .... 

ditto 89,300 men . . ditto 



English . • . . 
Scotch • • . . 

Lif* Ods. 

Hon* Oda. 

Foot Gdi. 













Total . 






In 1845, the army, of all ranks, numbered 100,011 men; md the lam voted wu 
j^4 ,487,753. The militia, Toluntfer, and other anziliary forcei, were of immenie 
amount at some periods daring the late war. The strength of the Tolonteer corps 
was greatest betireen the years 1798 and 1804, in which latter year this speetaa of 
force amounted to 410,000 men, of whom 70,000 were Irish; and the militia had in- 
creased to 130,000 men prerionsly to the rqj^r regiments being recruited from its 
ranks in 1809. 

ARMY OF OCCUPATION. The army distingnished by this name, was that of the 
allied powers of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, which occupied the northern frontier 
towns of France by the treaty which established the boundaries of France, and stipu- 
lated for the occupation of certain fortresses by foreign troops for three years, 
signed Not. 20, 1815. 

AROMATICS. Acron of Agrigentum, is said to have been the first who caused great 
fires to be made, and aromatics to be thrown into them, to purify the air, by which 
means he put a stop to the plague at Athens, 473 B.C. — Nouv. Diet. 

ARRAIGNMENT consists in reading the indictment by the officer of the court, and 
the calling upon the prisoner to say whether he is guilty, or not guilty. Formeriy, 
persons who refused to plead in cases of felony were prnsed to death by large iron 
weights being placed upon the breast. A person standing mute is, by the ftyiating 
law, convicted, 12 George III. 1771. See article Mttie, 

ARRAS, Treaty of, between France and Burgundy, often quoted, was concluded, 
1435. Another treaty was concluded by Maximilian of Austria with Louis XI. of 
Fiance, whereby the countries of Burgundy and Artois were given to the Dauphin as 
a marriage portion ; this latter was entered into, in 1482. — VAbb^ Velly. 

ARREST FOR DEBT. The persons of peers, members of parliament, &c., protected. 
See remarkable case of Ferrart' Arrest, Clergymen performing divine service pri- 
vileged from arrest, 50 Edw. III. 1375. Seamen privileged for debts under £2^, by 
act 30 Geo. II. 1756. Barristers are privileged from arrest while going to, attend- 
ing upon, and returning from, court, on the business of their clients. By statute 29 
Charles II. no arrest can be made, nor process served, upon a Sunday. This law was 
extended by William III. Vexatious arrests prevented by act May 1733. Prohibited 
for less thxa £10, on process, 1779; and for less than £20, July, 1827. Arrests for 
less than ;^20 were prohibited on mesne process in Ireland, in June, 1829. Statute 
abolishing arrest for debt on mesne process, except in cases wherein there is ground 
to show that the defendant designs to leave the country, 2 Vict. Aug. 1838. 

ARSON. This felony has always been deemed capital, and been punished vrith desth : 
it continued to be so punished, on a consolidation of the laws by statute 7 & 8 
George IV. 1827. If any house be fired, and persons be therein, or if any vessel be 
fired, with a view to murder or plunder, it shall be death, statute 1 Vict. July, 1837. 

ARTICLES OF RELIGION. SU were published by Henry VIII. 1539 ; and 42 were pub- 
lished without the consent of parliament, in 1552. These 42 were reduced to 39 in 
Jan. 1563; and they received the royal authority, and that of parliament, in 1571 : 104 
were drawn up for Ireland by archbishop Usher, in 1614, and were established in lftS4. 
On the union of the churches, the Irish adopted the English articles. 

ARTIFICERS and MANUFACTURERS were prohibited from leaving England, 
and those abroad were outlawed, if they did not return within six months after the 
notice given them ; and a fine of ;£ 100, together with imprisonment for three months, 

^ ART C 37 ] ASC 

made the penalties for Bedacing them from these reahns, 9 George II. 1736. This 
and sabseqaent statutes hate, howerer, failed in their object, as vast numbers of our 
sdentiiic and experienced artificers are lured to foreign countries, and thus create 
rival manufactures to the prejudice of England. 

ARTILLERY. The first piece ftaa a small one, contrived by Schwartz, a German cor- 
delier, soon after the invention of gunpowder, in 1330. Artillery was used, it is 
said, by the Moors at Algesiras, in Spain, in the siege of 1341 ; it was used, accord- 
ing to our historians, at the battle of Creasy, in 1346, when Edward III. had four 
pieces of cannon, which gained him the battle. We had artillery at the siege 
of Calais, 1347. The Venetians first employed artillery against the Genoese at sea, 
1377. — Voltaire, Cast in England, together with mortars for bomb-shells, by 
Flemish artists, in Sussex, 1 543. — Rymer*9 Fadera, Made of brass, 1635 ; improve- 
ments by Browne, 1728. See Iron, 

ARTILLERY COMPANY of LONDON ; instituted for weekly miUtary exercises in 
the Artillery-Ground, Unsbury, in 1610. This ground was at first (in 1498) a 
spacious field for the use of the London archers. The Artillery Company consisted 
of about 300 men, and served as a nursery of officers for the City militia. — Nor- 
thouck*a Ui$L of London, 

ARTS. See Literature. In the eighth century, the whole circle of sciences was com- 
posed of these seven liberal arts, namely — grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, 
geometry, and astronomy. — Harris. The Royal Society of England (which see) 
obtained its charter April 2, 1663. The Society of Arts, to promote the polite arts, 
commerce, manufsctures, and mechanics, was instituted in 1754 ; it originated in the 
patriotic zeal of Mr. Shipley, and of its first president, lord Folkstone. The first 
public exhibition by the artists of the British metropolis took place in 1760, at the 
rooms of this society, and was repeated there for several years, till, in process of 
time, the Royal Academy was founded. See Royal Academy. The Society of 
British Artists was instituted May 21, 1823 ; and their first exhibition was opened 
April 19, 1824.^See British Museum ; British Institution ; National Gallery ^ j;o. 

ARUNDEL CASTLE, built by the Saxons, about 800. The duke of Norfolk enjoys 
the earldom of Arundel, as a feudal honour, by inheritance and possession of the 
castle, without any other creation. Philip Howard, son of the attainted duke of 
Norfolk, was made earl of Arundel, by summons, as possessor of this castle, 1580. 

ARUNDELIAN MARBLES ; containing the chronology of ancient history from 1582 
to 355 B.C., and said to have been sculptured 264 b.c. They consist of 37 statues, 
128 busts, and 250 inscriptions, and were found in the Isle of Paros, in the reign of 
James I., about 1610. They were purchased by lord Arundel, and given to the uni- 
versity of Oxford, 1627. The characters are Greek, of which there are two transla- 
tions : by Selden^ 1628 ; by Prideaux, 1676. — See Kidd's Tracts ; and Porson's 
Treatise, 1789. 

AS. A Roman weight and coin : when considered as a weight, it was a pound ; when a 
coin, it had diAsrent weights, but always the same value. In the reign of Servius, 
the as weiched a pound of brass : in the first Punic war, it weighed two ounces, 264 
B.C. ; in the second Punic war, one ounce, 218 b.c. ; and afterwards, half an ounce : 
its value was about three farthings sterling. 

ASBESTOS, a native fossil stone, which may be split into threads and filaments, and 
which is endued with the property of remaining unconsumed in the fire. — Chamb, 
Cloth was made of it by the Egyptians. — Herodotus, Napkins made of it in the 
time o( Pliny, a.d. 74 ; paper made of it by the ancients ; the spinning of asbestos 
known at Venice, about a.d. 1500. — Baptista Porta. 

ASCALON, Battlb ov ; in which Richard I. of England, commanding the Christian 
forces, defeated the sultan Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and other infidels. 
No less than 40,000 of the enemy were left dead on the field of battle ; and the victo- 
rious Bichard marched to Jerusalem, a.d. 1192. — Rymer, 

ASCENSION DAY. This day, also called Holy Thursday, is that on which the church 
cdebrmtes the ascension of our Saviour, the fortieth day after his resurrection from 
the dead. May 14, a.d. 33 ; first commemorated a.d. 68. Some Christian writers 
affirm that Christ left the print of his feet on that part of mount Olivet where he last 
stood ; and St. Jerome says that it was visible in his time. 

ASH [ 38 ] ASS 

ASH-WEDNESDAY. The primiti?e Christians did not commence their Lent until 
the Sunday, now called the first in Lent. Pope Felix IIL, in a.d. 487, first added 
the four days preceding the old Lent Sunday, to complete the number of fasting days 
to forty ; Gregory the Great introduced the sprinkling of ashes on the first of the 
four additional days, and hence the name of Dies Cinerumy or Ash- Wednesday : at the 
Reformation this practice was abolished, " as being a mere shadow, or vain show." 

ASHMOLE LIBRARY. His manuscripts, library, coins, and other rarities, were pre- 
sented by Elias Ashmole, the celebrated herald and antiquary, to the university of 
Oxford, about 1683. Mr. Ashmole died at Lambeth, in 1692. 

ASIA ; so called by the Greeks, from the nymph Asia, the daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, and wife of Japhet. Asia was the first quarter of the world peopled ; here 
the law of God was first promulgated ; here many of the greatest monarchies of the 
earth had their rise ; and from hence most of the arts and sciences have been 
derived. — Pardon. 

ASPERNE, Battlr of, between the Austrian army under the archduke Charles, and 
the French, fought on the 21st May, 1809, and two following days. In this most 
sanguinary fight, the loss of the former army exceeded 20,000 men, and the loss of 
the French was more than 30,000 : it ended in the defeat of Bonaparte, who com- 
manded in person, and was the severest check that he had yet received. The bridge 
of the Danube was destroyed, and his retreat endangered ; but the success of the Aus- 
trians had no beneficial effect on the subsequent prosecution of the war. 

ASSAM, AND ASSAM TEA. Assam came under British dominion in 1825 ; and the 
right to the principality was renounced by the king of Ava in 1826. The tea-plant 
was discovered by Mr. Bruce in 1823. A superintendant of the tea forests was 
appointed in 1836, the cultivation of the plant having been recommended by lord 
William Bentiuck. The Assam Tea committee was formed same year; and the 
Assam Tea Company established in 1839. The tea was much in use in England, in 
1841 . — Account of Assam. 

ASSASSINATION PLOT. A conspiracy so called, formed by the earl of Aylesbury 
and others to assassinate king William ill., near Richmond, Surrey, as he came from 
hunting. The object of the conspiracy was to have been consummated Febmary 15, 
1695-6, but for its timely discovery by Prendergast. — Hist. England. 

ASSASSINS. A tribe in Syria, a famous heretical sect among the Mahometans, settled 
in Persia, in a.d. 1090. In Syria, they possessed a large tract of land among the 
mountains of Lebanon. They murdered the marquis of Montferrat in 1192; they 
assassinated Lewis of Bavaria in 1213 ; the khan of Tartary was murdered in 1254. 
They were conquered by the Tartars in 1257 ; and were extirpated in 1272. The 
chief of the corps assumed the title of ** Ancient of the Mountain.'* 

ASSAY OF GOLD and SILVER, originated with the bishop of Salisbury, a royal trea- 
surer, in the reign of Henry I. — Du Cange. But certainly some species of assay was 
practised as early as the Roman conquest. Assay was formally established in 
England, 1354; reguUted, 13 William III. 1700, and 4 Anne, 1705. Assay masters 
appointed at Sheffield and Birmingham, 1773. The alloy of gold is silver and copper, 
and the alloy of silver is copper. Standard gold is 2 carats of alloy to 22 of fine gold. 
Standard silver is 18 dwts. of copper to 11 ozs. 2 dwts. of fine silver. See Gold- 
smiths* Company. 

ASSAYE, Battle of. The British army, under general Arthur Wellesley, enters the 
Mahratta States on the south; takes the fort of Ahmednugger, Aug. 12; and defeats 
Scindia and the rajah of Berar at Assaye, Sept. 23, 1803. 

ASSESSED TAXES. The date of their introduction has been as variously sUted as 
the taxes coming under this head have been defined — all things having been assessed, 
from lands and houses to dogs and hair-powder. By some, the date is referred to 
the reign of Ethelbert, in 991 ; by others, to the reign of Henry VIII. 1522 ; and by 
more, to the reign of William III. 1689, when a land-tax was' imposed. See Land 
Tax. The assessed taxes yielded, in 1815 (the last year of the war), exclusively of 
the Und-tax, £6,524,766, their highest amount These imposts have varied in their 
nature and amount, according to the exigencies of the state and the contingencies of 
war and peace. They were considerably advanced in 1797; and again in 1801, 
et seq. : considerably reduced in 1816, and in subsequent years ; and altogether abo- 
lished in Ireland. Sec them severally. 

ASS [ 39 ] ASS 

ASSIENTO. A contract between the king of Spain and other powers, for furnishing 
the Spanish dominions in America with negro slaves. — Burke. It began in 1689, 
and was vested in the South Sea Company in 1713. By the treaty of Utrecht it was 
transferred to the English, who were to furnish 4800 negroes annually to Spanish 
America. This contract was given up to Spain at the peace in 1748. See Guinea, 

ASSIGNATS. Paper currency, to support the credit of the republic during the revo- 
lution, ordered by the National Assembly of France, April 1 790. At one period 
the enormous amount of eight milliards, or nearly 350 millions of pounds sterling, of 
this paper were in circulation in France and its dependencies. — Alison. 

ASSIZE OF BREAD. The first statute for it was in the third year of John, 1202, when 
the regulations thereof were ordered to be observed upon pain of the pillory. The 
chief justiciary, and a baker commissioned by the king, had the inspection of the 
assize. — Mqihew Paris, The assize was abolished in England, and the sale of 
bread regulated as at present, in August 1815. The sale in Ireland was regulated 
by statute, 2 William IV., May 1832 ; Bread Act, 7 William IV. 1836 ; Bread Act, 
Ireland, placing its sale on the same footing as in England, 1 Vict 1838. See Bread, 

ASSIZE COURTS. They are of very ancient institution in England, and in ancient 
Uw books are defined to be an assembly of knights and other substantial men, 
with the justice, to meet at a certain time and place : regulated by Magna Charta, 
A.D. 1215. The present justices of assize and Nisi FriussiTe derived from the 
statute of Westminster, 13 Edw. I. 1284.~CoAre,' Blackstone, ''The king doth 
will that no lord, or other of the country, shall sit upon the bench with the justices 
to take assize in their sessions in the counties of England, upon great forfeiture to 
the king," 20 Richard II., 1396. — Statutes, Various regulations respecting assize 
courts have been made from time to time. Assizes are general or special : they are 
general when the judges go their circuits, and special when a commission is issued to 
take cognisance of one or more causes. 

ASSUMPTION. A festival observed by the church of Rome in honour of the Virgin 
Mary, who, as the Catholics believe, was taken up to heaven in her corporeal form, 
body and spirit, on August 15, a.d. 45. Mary is reported to have been in her 75th 
year. The festival is said to have been instituted in 813. 

ASSURANCE. See Insurance, The practice is of great antiquity. Suetonius 
ascribes the contrivance to Claudius Caesar, a.d. 43. It is certain that assurance of 
ships was practised in the year 45. The first regulations concerning it are in the 
LejB Oleron^ by which it appears to have been known in Europe very generally in 
1194. The custom of Lombard-street was made a precedent for all policies at 
Antwerp, and in the Low Countries ; but the first statute to prevent frauds from 
private assurers was made 43 Elizabeth, 1601. — Molineaux*8 Lex Mercatoria. 

ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. This is the earliest recorded empire— that of Bacchus 
wanting records. It commenced under Ninus, who was the Jupiter of the Assyrians, 
and the Hercules of the Chaldeans, 2059 b.c. It arose out of the union of two 
powerful kingdoms, Babylon and Assyria, or Nineveh, the latter founded by Ashur, 
and ending with Sardanapalus, 820 b.c. When this last-named prince was con- 
quered by Arbaces, he shut himself up in his palace, with his concubines and 
eunuchs, and causing it to be set on fire, they all perished in the flames. On the 
ruins of the empire were formed the Assyrians of Babylon, Nineveh, and the Median 
kingdom . — Lenglet, 

The tower of Babel built.~G'eiie#if x. 6; 

xi. \.— Blair . , . b.c. 8247 

The kingdom of Babylon begins . . 2245 

Astronomical obecTTations begun by the 
Chaldeans 2234 

Belos reigns 65 years. — Usher . ■ 2124 

Niaus, son of Belus, reigns in Ajeyria» 
anU names his capital after himself . 20G9 

Babylon taken by Ninus, who having 
sobdued the Armenians, Persians, 
Bactrians, and all Asia Minor, estab- 
lishes what is properly the Assyrian 
monarchy, of which Nineveh was the 
•cat of empire.— B/atr . . 20^9 

Hcmiromis enlarges and cmbcUibheH 

Babylon, and makes it the seat of her 
dominion. — Lenglet . . . b.c. 2017 

Semiramis invadoe Libya, Ethiopia, and 
Jndia,.^—Lenglel 19^5 

The Arabs seize Nineveh . . . . 1937 

Belochus, the last king of the race of 
Ninus.— ftojr 1446 

He makes his daughter Atossa, sumamed 
Semiramis XL, his associate on the 
throne 1433 

Belatores reigns 1421 

* * ♦ 

The prophet Jonah appears in the streets 

of Nineveh.— /</tftr .... «<« 
Nineveh taken by Arbaces . . 820 




ASSYRIA, Proper. After the destruction of the first Assyrian monarchy, Fhol, the 
last king's son, was raised to the throne hy the NincTites, 777 B.C., and the kingdom 
continued until 621 b.c, when Sarac, or Sardanapalns II., being besieged by the 
Medes and Babylonians, put his wife and children to death, and burnt himself in his 
palace, a fate somewhat similar to that of Sardanapalns I. See preceding arHcU, 
Nineveh was then razed to the ground, and the conquerors divided Assyria. — Blair, 
It was finally conquered by the Turks in 1637 a.d. — Priestley. 

ral, Rabflhakeh, bestegea 

when the angel of the Lord In one night 

destroys 180,000 of his army.— /«aiaA 

xxxvli B.C 710 

[Commentators suppose that this mcBSBn- 

ger of death was the fatal blast known 

in eastern countries by the name d 


Elsar-haddon invades Jodea, and takes 

Babylon^— Btotr . . . . 6N 

He invades Judea. — Blair . . . . 677 
Holofemes is slain by Judith . . 077 

Saosduchinus reigna— {TirA^r . . . (W 
Nineveh taken, and rased to the gromd . (BI 

Phul raised to the throne, about the 
year— [fitair] .... b.c. 777 

He invades Israel, but departs without 
drawing a sword.— f/atr ; 2 Kingt xv. 
19, 20 770 

Tiglath-Peleser invades Syria, takes Da- 
mascus, and makes great conquests . 740 

Shalmaneser takes Samaria, transports 
the people, whom he replaces by a co- 
lony of Cutheans and others, and thus 
finishes the kingdom of IsnjeiL— Blair . 721 
He retires from before Tyre, after a siege 
of five years.— Utoir . . . .713 

Sennacherib invades Judea, and his gene- 

A8TROLOGY. Judicial astrology was invented by the Chaldeans, and hence was 
transmitted to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in Togne in 
France in the time of Catherine de Medicis, 1533. — Henault, The eariy history of 
astrology in England is very little known : Bede was addicted to it, 700 ; and so 
was Roger Bacon, 1260. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, calculated the natirity of Elizabeth ; 
and she, and all the European princes, were the humble servants of Dee, the 
astrologer and conjurer. But the period of the Stuarts was the acme of astrology 
amongst us. Sir Walter Scott has made ample use of sir William Lilly, the noted 
astrologer, in his tales of this period ; and it is certain that Lilly was consulted by 
Charles I. respecting bis projected escape from Carisbrook castle in 1647. — Ferputon. 

ASTRONOMY. The earliest accounts we have of this science are those of Babylon, 
about 2234 b.c. — Blair, The study of astronomy was much advanced in Chaldsa 
under Nabonassar ; it was known to the Chinese about 1100 b.c.; some say many 
centuries before* Lunar eclipses were observed at Babylon with exceeding accuracy, 
720 B.C. Spherical form of the earth, and the true cause of lunar eclipses, taught 
by Thales, 640 B.C. Further discoveries by Pythagoraty who taught the doctrine 
of celestial motions, and believed in the plurality of habitable worlds, 500 B.C. 
Hipparchus began his observations at Rhodes, 167 B.c. — began his new cycle of the 
moon in 143, and made great advances in the science, 140 B.C. The procession of 
the equinoxes confirmed, and the places and distances of the planets discovered, by 
Ptolemy^ a.d. 130. After the lapse of nearly seven centuries, dnring which time 
astronomy was neglected, it was resumed by the Arabs, about 800 ; and was afterwards 
brought into Eorope by the Moors of Barbary and Spain, but not sooner than 1201, 
when they also introduced geography. 

The Alphonsine tables (which see) were 
composed .... a.d. 1284 

Clocks first used in astronomy, about . 1000 

True doctrine of the motions of the pla- 
netary bodies revived by Copernicus . 1530 

The science greatly advanced by Tycho 
Brahe. about 1A82 

True laws of the planetary motions, by 
Kepler 1619 

Telescopes and other instruments used 

. 1627 

in astronomy, about . 
The discoveries of Galileo were made abt 1631 
The transit of Venus over the Sun's 

rtisk first observed by Horrox Nov. 24, 163!) 
Cassini draws his meridian Uno, after 

Dante. — SeeBolopna . . . 1655 

The aberration of the light of the fixed 

stars discovered by Horrebow . 1659 

Discoveries of Picart . . 1669 

A! ap of the moon constructed by Hevclius I670 



Motion of the sun round its own axis 

proved by EUdley . . . aa. 

Discoveries of Huygens . . . 

Newton's Prtnctp^a published, and the 

system as now taught incontrovertibly 


Catalogue of the stars made by Flamstead 1688 
Satellites of Saturn, &c. discovered by 

Cassini 17OI 

Aberration of the stars clearly explained 

by Dr. Bradley 1737 

Celestial inequalities found by La Orange 17S0 
Uranus and satellites discovered by Hers- 

chel, March 13. — See Oeorgium Sidtu . 1781 
Micanique C^lesU, published 1^ La Place 1796 
Ceres discovered by Piasxi . Jan. 1, 1801 
Pallas, by Dr. Olbers . . March 28, 1808 
Juno, by Harding . . 8^t 1, 1804 

Vesta, by Olbers 1807 

Astronomical Society of London founded Iftto 

ASY [41] ATH 

^i^— ^.^^j ^^— »— ^»^-^^^^— ^-^1^^^^-^-^— i^^^— ^— i^^-i^ — ii^i^— ^— ^— ^— ^i^-^— ^i^^»— -~— — ^ 

Tlie difltmncs of the fixed stan ii tnppoaed to be 400,000 timef greater firom ni than 
we are from the laa, that ia to lay, 38 milUona of milUona of milei ; ao that a 
cannon-ball woold take near nine mUliona of yeara to reach one of them, supposing 
there were nothing to hinder it from porsning its course thither. As light talces about 
eight minutes and a quarter to reach us fr^m the sun, it would be about six years 
in coming from one of those stars ; but the calculations of later astronomers prove 
•ome stars to be so distant, that their light must take centuries before it can reach 
na ; and that every particle of light which enters our eyes left the star it comes from 
three or four hundred years ago. — Object* of Science, 

ASYLUMS, on Priyu^eged Places. At first they were places of refuge for those 
who, by accident or necessity had done things that rendered them obnoxious to the 
law. God commanded the Jews to build certain cities for this purpose. The 
posterity of Hercules is said to haTe built one at Athens, to protect themselves against 
such as their father had irritated. Cadmus built one at Thebes, and Romulus one on 
Mount Palatine. A while after the coming of Christianity into England, supersti- 
tious veneration ran so high, that churches, monasteries, church-yards, and bishops' 
houses became asylums to sll that fled to them, let the crime be what it would ; of 
which very ill use was made, both by the clergy and laity. In London persons were 
secure from arreat in particular locaUties : tlMse were the Minories, Salisbury-court, 
WhitefHars, Fulwood's-rentSy Mitre-court, Baldwin*8-gardens, the Savoy, Clink, 
Deadman's-place, Montague-close, and the Mint. This security was abolished 
A. D. 1696 ; but the last was not wholly suppressed until the reign of Greorge L— 
See Privileged Places and Sanctuaries, 

ATHAN ASIAN CRBED and CONTROVERSY. The great controversy ragarding 
the divinity of Christ, aroae and extended between a. d. 333 and 351. Athanasius, 
who was a native of Alexandria, encountered great persecution at the hands of 
the Ariaaa for his religious doctrines, and was exiled for them again and again. 
The creed which goea by his name is supposed by most authorities to have been 
written about the year 340 ; but it is affirmed by other writers to be the compilation 
of an African bishop in the fifth century. — Du Pin, 

ATHEISM. This absurd doctrine has had its Totaries and its martyrs. Spinosa, a 
fbreigner, was its noted defender in the 17th century. Lucilio Yaniui publicly 
taught atheism in France, and was condemned to be burnt at Toulouse in 1619. 
Mathiaa Knutsen, of Holateln, openly professed atheism, and had upwards of a 
thousand disciples in Germany about 1674 ; he travelled to make proselytes, and 
his followers were called ConseienciarieSf because they held that there is no other 
deity than oonadenoe. Many eminent men of Tarious countries have been profes- 
■ors of atheism, and even in England we hsTO had writers tinctured with it.—- 
Richardson. Ashe, ** Though a small draught of philosophy may lead a man into 
atheiam, a deep draught will certainly bring him back again to the belief of a God.'* 
'^Isord Bacon. **Si Dieu n*e»istaii pas il faudrait Pinventer^ : If a God did 
not exist, it would be necessary to invent one. — VoUaire. 

ATHENE A. These were great festivals celebrated at Athens in honour of Minerva. 
One of them waa called Panathensa, and the other Chalcea ; they were first insti- 
tuted by Erectheus or Orpheus, 1397 b. c. ; and Theseus afterwards renewed them, 
and caused them to be observed by all the people of Athens, the first every fifth 
year, 1234 b. c. — Plutarch. 

ATHEN^UM. A place at Athens, sacred to Minerva, where the poets and philoso- 
phara declaimed and recited their compositions. The most celebrated AtheuKs were 
at Athens, Rome, and Lyons : that of Rome waa of great beauty in its building, and 
waa ereded by the emperor Adrian, a.d. l2B.^^Tillemont*s Life of Adrian. Tne 
AtheuKum Club of London waa formed in 1824, for the association of persons of 
scientific and literary attainments, artists, and noblemen and gentlemen, patrons 
of learning, &c. ; the club-house waa erected in 1829, on the site of the late Carlton- 
palaoe ; it ia of Grecian architecture, and the frieze is an exact copy of the Pana- 
theuKic procession which formed the friese of the Parthenon. The Liyerpool 
AthensBum waa opened January 1, 1799. Manchester AthenKum : a great and bril- 
liant meeting of ita friends and subscribers, at which presided Mr. B. D* Israeli, 
who descanted in an eloquent address on the union of literature and the arte with 
oommeroe and mannfaetures ; held October 3, 1844. 




ATU£NS. The once celebrated capital of ancient Attica, whose magnificeBt ruins }et 
attest its former grandeur — the seat of science and theatre of yalour. The fint 
sorereign of whom we have any knowledge is Ogyges, who reigned in Bfieotia, and 
was master of Attica, then called Ionia. In his reign a deloge took place (by some 
supposed to be no other than the universal deluge, or Noah's flood) that laid waste 
the country, in which state it remained two hundred years, until the arrival of the 
Egyptian Cecrops and a colony, by whom the land was repeopled, and twelte cities 
founded, 1556 b.c. The first state of Athens was under seventeen kings, comprising 
a period of 487 years, but the history of its first twelve monarchs is mostly fabuioas : 
in its second state it was governed by thirteen perpetual archons, a period of 316 
years ; in its third state by seven decennial archons, whose rule extended over 70 
years ; and, lastly, in its fourth state by annual archons, who ruled for 760 years. 
Under this democracy Athens became unrivalled, and her people signalised them- 
selves by their valour, munificence, and culture of the fine arts ; and perhaps not 
one other single city in the world can boast, in such a short space of time, of so 
great a number of illustrious citizens. The ancients, to distinguish Athens in a more 
peculiar manner, called it Astu, one of the eyes of Greece.^P/u/arcA. 

Arrival of Ceorope . b.c 1550 

The Areopagus ostablishod . . . 1507 
Deucalion arrives in Attica . . 1502 

The Panathiean Games . . . 1495 

Ericthonius teaches husbandry . . 1494 

< 'ores arrives in Attica . ■ 1383 

Kleusinian mysteries introduced by 

Eumolpus 1356 

Krectheus killed in battle with the 

Eleusinians 1347 

MgeuB invades Attica, ascends the 

throne, and reigns 48 years .1283 

He throws himself into the sea, and is 
drowned; hence the name of the 
JEge&n Beok.'^Eutebiut . . 1235 

Theseus, his son, succeeds, and reigns 

30 years 1235 

Uo collects his subjects into one city, 

and names it Athens . . . 1234 

Seizure of Helen by Theseus .1228 

Reign of Menestheus . . . 1205 

Reign of I>cmophoon . .11}^ 

C/ourt of Ephetes established . . . 1179 
The Prianepe« instituted .1178 

Oxynthes reigns 12 years . . 1 149 

lie is succeeded by Aphidas .1137 

Aphidas assassinated . . 1130 

Melanthus conquers Xuthus in single 

combat, and is choaen king .1128 

Reign of Codrus, his son, the last king 

of Athens 1091 

In a battle with the Ueraclids, Codrus 
rushes into the thickest of the fight, 
resolved to perish, the oracle having 
declared that the victory should bo 
with the side whose leader was killed 1070 
Royalty abolished .... I070 
Athens governed by archons . . . 1009 
Alomeon, last perpetual archon . . 7M 
llippomenea deposed for his cruelty : 
among other acts, he exposes his own 
daughter to be devoured by horses, on 
account of an illicit amour . . . 713 
Erixias, seventh and last decennial 

arohon, dies 684 

Draco, the twelfth annual archon, pub- 
lishes his laws (i23 

Solon supersedes them by his code . 578 
Piriistratus the tyrant, Kcizcs the su- 
preme power 5<K> 

First tragedy acted at Athens on a 
waggon, by Theepis . b.c 

Pisistratus dies 

Hipparchus aasassinated 

The law of Ostracism 

The Lacedemonian war 

The isle of Lemnos takoi by the Athe- 
nian general MUtiades . . 

Memorable battle of Marathon, in At- 
tica. See Marathon 

Aristides, sumamed the Just, banished 
by oetracinn 

Athens taken by the Pandana, during 
their invasion of Greece . 

Burnt to the ground by Mardonina . . 

Rebuilt and fortified the next year 

Cymon, son of Miltiadea. overmns all 
Thrace, even to Maoeddi . . . 

Cymon banished through the intrigues 
of Pericles 

The Athenians defeat the PersCaDS in a 
naval battle In Egypt . . . 

Athens b^;ins to tyrannise over the rest 
of Greece 

The first Sacred war, tchich $e§ . . 

Tglmidas conducts an ozpediticm into 
Boeotia, and is defeated and killed 
noar Chsronea. Bee Charonea 

The thirty years' truce between the 
Athenians and Lacedannoniana . . 

llerodotus reads his History in t&e 
council at Athena .... 

Pericles subdues Samoa ; the battering- 
ram is first used here . . . . 

Comedies prohibited at Athena 

The Peloponnosian war begins, and lasts 
87 years 

A dreadful pestilence, which bad ra- 
vaged Ethiopia, Libya, Egypt, and 
Persia, extends to Athena, and con- 
tinues for five years 

Death of Pericles, who had governed 
Athens forty years . . 

Second great pestilence; owing to the 
depopulation, each man Is permitted 
to have two wives 

The Deoelian war b^ins . . . 

The battle of Cyzicum ; which gee 

Tho inhabitanta of Miletus put to the 
sworO, and Lycia entered . . . 





















ATHENS, conHnMed, 

Alcibiades aoonged of aq>iriiig to aore- 

reign power .... bjC 
Athenian fleet of 180 ehlpe defeated by 

hymndtar, in the Helleqxmt . . . 
Ljnnder beefegee Athena by land and 

■ea; its walla are destroyed, and it 

capitulates 404 



The Peloponnwrian war terminatee 

Role of the thirty tyrants . 

Socrates put to death 

The Corinthian war begins . 

The sea-fl^ht at Naxus; the Laoeds- 
monians defeated 

Philips King of MaoedoOf gains his first 
▼ictory, at Metbon, over the Athe- 
nians. B^Mae€don 

Second Sacred war oommeiiced . . 

It terminates. Bee Sacred War . 

Battle of Ohcronea ; the Athenians and 
Thebans defeated by Philip and his 
son, Alexander. See Chanmea . . 

Athens sntanits to AlftTiinder the Great, 
who entov Greece .... 

Demosthenes, Hyperides, and Demades 
pat to death 

Demetrius restores liberty to Greece, 
and reestablishes the demoeraoy at 
Athens. VitUr .... 

Dem^rlus takes Athens . 








The rerolt from Demetrius B.G. 887 

A league formed between Athens, Spar- 
ta, and Egypt 877 

Athens talcen by Antigonus, king of 
Macedon, and hidd twelre years . . 968 

Restored to Uberty, I7 Aratus . 866 

The Athenians Join the Achcan league 866 

The original manuscripts of JEsobylus, 
Euripides, and Sophocles, pledged to 
Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt, for 
fifteen talents 833 

The Athenians join the JEtolians and 
their allies against Macedon, and send 
for assistance to Rome .816 

A Roman fleet arrives in the ports of 
Athens. Blair 81! 

Subjugation of Greece .146 

The Athenians implore assistance 
against the Romans fhmi Mithridates, 
kingofPontus . . 88 

Uis general, Arohelatti^ makes himself 
master of Athens .... 88 

Athens besieged by Sylla, the Roman 
general ; it surrenders Uie following 
year, being reduced by famine . . 87 

The Athenians desert Pompey, to fal- 
low the interests of Cesar 47 

Thsy are subjected to Rome . . 81 

The Venetians got poiaeuion of Athens in a. d. 1204, and the Torks in 1687.— 
Priestley, It became the capital of Livadia, a profince of Esropeen Turkey ; and 
ia now that of the new kingdom of Greece, and the seat of its legislatore, established 
under King Otho I., January 25th 1833.— See Greece, 

ATHLONE. Once a place of great strength and beauty ; the castle was founded bj 
king John. Hie town was destroyed by fire daring the fury of the war in 1641. 
The English army under general Ginckel stormed Athlone, which was then a town 
of prodigious strength, crossing the Shannon in the face of the Irish army, yet not 
lodng more than fifty men. This bold and successful enterprise procured for 
Ginckel the title of Earl of Athlone, 1691.— Bum*t Annab. 

ATMOSPHERE. Poddonius first calcolated the height of the atmosphere, stating it 
to be 800 stadia, nearly agreeing with our modem ideas, about 79 b. c. Its weight 
was determined by Galileo and Terricellius, about 1630 ; its density and elasticity by 
Boyle ; and its relation to Ught and sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The 
composition of the atmosphere was ascertained by Hales, Black, Priestley, Seheele, 
Lavoisier, and CsTendish; and its laws of refraction were investigated by Dr. 
Bradley. 1737. 

ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. ExperimenU were made on a line of rail, laid down 
between ShepherdVbush and the Great Western railroad across Wormwood Scrubs, 
London, by which to test the efilcsey of atmospheric tubes, the working of the air- 
pump, and speed of carriages upon this new principle of railroads ; and its effi- 
eicney demonstrated, June 30, 1840. In Ireland an atmospheric railway has been 
since aaooessftilly established between Dalkey and Kllliney, in the vidnity of 
Dublin I it was commenced in September, 1843. 

ATTAINDER, Acts of, hare been passed fa^ numerous reigns t two witnesses in cases 
of high treason are neeessary where corruption of blood ia incurred, unless the 
party accused shall confess, or stsnd mute, 7 and 8 William III. 1694-5. — Bhekaiane. 
The attainder of Lord Rassell, who was beheaded in LincolnVinn-Fields, Jaly, 21^ 
1683, was reversed under William, in 1689. The rolls and records of the acts of 
attainder passed in the reign of king James II. were cancelled and publicly burnt, 
Oct. 2« 1695. Several acts were reTcrsed in subsequent reigns. Among the last acts 
so reversed, not the least interesting was the attaint of the children of lord Edward 
Fitzgerald (who was implicated in the rebellion in Ireland of 1798), July 1, 1819. 

ATTILA, snmamed the *' Scourge qf God,** and thus distinguished for his conquests 
and his crimes, ravaged all Europe, a. d. 447. He invaded the Roman empire with 




an army of 500,000 Huns, and laid waste all the provinces. He died of an uncommoa 
effusion of blood on the night of his nuptials with a beautiful Yirgin named Ildico, 
having retired late to bed, oppressed with wine, about a.d. 453. — GoldsmUh. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. A great o£Bcer of the crown, appointed by letters patent 
It is among his duties to exhibit informations and prosecute for the king in matters 
criminal ; and to file bills in Exchequer, for any claims concerning the crown, in 
inheritance or profit ; and others may bring bills against the king's attorney. The 
first Attorney-General was William de Gisilham, 7 Edward I. 1278. — Beatson, 






Jeffery Palmer 

Sir Heneage Finch, €i/Ury>ardt lord 


Sir FranciB North, knt., qtUnoardt lord 

Guildford 1673 

Sir William Jones 1674 

Sir Cresvel Levinz. knt. . . 1679 

01r Robert Bayer, knt 1680 

Sir Thomas Fowls, knt. . 1687 

Henry Follexfen, esq 1G88 

Sir George Treby, knt. . . . 1689 

Sir John Somers, knt., afUrytard$ lord 

Somers ...... 

Edward Ward, esq. . ... 

Sir Thomas Trevor, knight, a/Uricard* 

lord Trevor 

Edward Northey, esq. . . 

Sir Simon Harcourt, knt,, afUrward* 

lord Uarcoort 17^*7 

Sir Jamee Montagu, knt . . . . 170H 
Sir Simon Haicourt, again . . 17IU 

Sir Edward North<^, knt., again 
Nicholas Lechmere, esq., a/lertoardt 

lord Lechmere 

Sir Robert Raymond, knt, a/Urward* 

lord Raymond ..... 
Sir Philip Yorke, knt, afterwards earl 

of Hardwicke 1723 

Sir John WiUes, knt . . . . 1733 
Sir Dudley Ryder, knt . . .1736 

Hon. William Murray, a/Urwardi earl 

of Mansfield 1764 

Sir Robert Henley, knt, t\/l^rv>ardt earl 

of Northington 1756 

Sir Charles Pratt, knt., a/tervMrds lord 

Camden . • ... 1757 


Sir Fletcher Norton, knt, afterwards 

lord Grantley 1763 

Hon. Chas. Yorke .... 1765 
William de Grey, esq., ajtertoards lord 

Walstngham ..... 17H 
Edward Thurlow, esq., aflerward$ lord 

Thurlow 1771 

Alexander Wedderbome, esq., t^/ler- 

ward* lord Loughborough . . 177B 

James Wallace, esq. . . 1780 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq 1782 

James Wallace, esq. . . 1789 

John Lee, esq 1788 

Lloyd Kenyon, esq. . . . . . 1781 

Sir Richard Pepper Arden . . . 1784 
Sir Archibald Macdonald . . . . 1788 

Sir John Scott, afterwards lord Eldon . 1796 
Sir J. Mitford, afterward* lord Redeedale 17» 
Sir E. Law, after, lord EUenborough . 1801 
Hon. Spencer Perceval . . . 18US 

Sir Arthur Pigott . . .1806 

Sir Yickery Gibbs . 
Sir Thomas Plumer 
Sir William Garrow 
Sir Samuel Shepherd . 
Sir Robert Gifford . 
Sir John Singleton Copley 
Sir Charles Wetherell 
Sir James Scarlett 
Sir Thomas Denman . 
Sir WUliam Home 
Sir John Campbell 
Sir Frederick PoUock . 
Sir John Campbell, again . 
Sir Thomas Wilde 
Sir Frederick PoUock, again 
Sir William W. FoUett 
July 4, 1845 


. 181S 

. 1819 

. 1817 

. 1819 

. 1823 

. I&17 

. 1830 

. 1830 

. 1838 

. 1834 

. 1894 

. 1835 

. 1841 

. 1841 

April 13> 1M4 

Hon. Charles Yorke • . . 1762 

Sir Frederick Thesiger 

ATTORNEYS. The number practising in Edward lll.'s reign was under 400 for the 
whole kingdom. In the 32d of Henry VI. 1454, a law reduced the practitioners in 
Norfolk, Norwich, and Sufiblk, from eighty to fourteen, and restricted their increase. 
The number of attorneys now practising in England, or registered, or retired, is about 
13,000. The number sworn, and practising or retired in Ireland, is stated at 2000. 

ATTRACTION. Copernicus described attraction as an appetence or appetite which 
the Creator impressed upon all parts of matter, about 1520. It was described by 
Kepler to be a corporeal affection tending to union, 1 605. In the Newtonian phi- 
losophy, it is an original power which restores lost motion ; a principle whereby all 
bodies mutually tend to each other. — See Astronomy, 

AUBURN. The scene of Groldsmith*s exquisite poem of The Deserted Village is 
erroneously assumed by some to be a vUlage of this name in Ireland, bat others 
correctly state it to be Auburn, in Wiltshire. Two-thirds of the latter town were 
burnt in Sept. 1766 ; another fire consumed a vast number of houses in^l777. 

AUCTION, a kind of sale known to the Romans. The first in Britain was about 1700, 
by Elisha Yale, a governor of Fort George, in the East Indies, of the goods he bad 
brought home with him. Auction and sales* tax began, 1779. 

AUB C ^^ D ^^^ 

AUERSTADT, Battlb of. In this most sanguinary conflict between the French and 
Prussian armies, thej were commanded by their respective sovereigns, and Napoleon 
obtained a decisive victory. The Prussians were routed on every side, and lost 200 
pieces of cannon, thirty standards, and 28,000 prisoners, leaving 30,000 slain upon 
the field, Oct 14, 1806. The French emperor immediately afterwards entered 
Berlin, from whence he issued his memorable Berlin decree. — See Berlin Decree, 

AUGHRIM, Battlb of, in Ireland, between the Irish, headed by the French general, 
St. Ruth, and the English, under general Ginckel, when the former lost 7000 men, the 
Utter only 600 killed, and 960 wounded; fought July 12, 1691. 

AUGMENTATION of POOR LIVINGS' Office was esUblisfaed 3 Anne 1704. 
As many as 5597 poor clerical livings of under £10, and not exceeding i?50 per 
annum, were found by the commisionen under the act of Anne capable of augmenta- 
tion, by means of the bounty then established by parliament for the benefit of the 
poorer clergy. — Chalmers. 

AUGMENTATION COURT. At the suppression of the monastic institutionB of 
England, Henry VIII. erected this court, whose business it was to increase the royal 
revenues by adding those of the various monasteries thereto, 1534. — Pardon, 

AUGSBURG, Battle of, between the Imperialists and the French army, the latter 
commanded by Moreau, who obtained a victory lo decisive in its consequences, that 
Augsburg and Munich were opened to him ; fought August 24, 1 796. 

AUGSBURG CONFESSION of FAITH. The confession or articles of faith drawn 
up at Augsburg by Melancthon, and by him and Luther presented to the emperor 
Charles V. in 1530. It was divided into two parts, the first consisting of twenty- 
one articles, and the second of seven, directly opposed to the abuses that had crept 
into the Church of Rome. The elector of Saxony, his son, and several other princes 
of Germany, signed this confession, which was delivered to the emperor in the palace 
of the bishop of Augsburg, and hence it is called the Confession of Augsburg. 

AUGSBURG, League of. A memorable treaty concluded between Holland and other 
European powers, which had for its object the causing the treaties of Munster and 
Nimeguen to be respected, 1636. — See Muntter and Nimegven* 

AUGURY. Husbandry was in part regulated by the coming or going of birds, long 
before the time of Hesiod. Augurs instituted at Rome, with vestals and several 
orders of the priesthood, by Numa, 710 b.c. There was a community of 
them, appointed to foretell events by the flight of birds, and other circumstances. 
The king Car, from whom Caria in Asia Minor is named, was the inventor of augury 
by birds. — VotHuM. The augurs of Rome drew omens from the phenomena of the 
heavens, the chirping and flight of birds, and various strange casualties. — Livjf, 

AUGUST. The eighth month of the year. It was dedicated to the honour of Augustus 
Caesar, from whom it was named in the year 8 b.c. , because in this month he was 
bom, was created consul, or chief magistrate, thrice triumphed in Rome, subdued 
Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an end of the civil wars. It was previously 
called Sejitility or the sixth from March. 

AULIC COUNCIL. A sovereign court in Germany, established by the emperor 
Maximilian L, in 1506, being one of two courts, the first called the Imperial Chamber, 
formerly held at Spires, and afterwards at Wetxlar, and the other the Anlic Council, 
at Vienna. These courts having concurrent jurisdiction, were instituted for appeals 
in particular cases from the courts of the Germanic states. 

AURIFLAMMA, or ORIFLAMME. The national banner so often mentioned in 
French history : it was a costly standard that belonged to the abbey of St. Denis, and 
which was suspended over the tomb of that saint, a.d. 1140. See Banner, 

AURORA BOREALIS, or Northern Lights. This sublime phenomenon, though 
rarely seen in the middle of Europe, is almost constant in the arctic and antarctic 
regions, covering the whole heavens, and eclipsing by its splendour the stan and 
planets. Memorable appearance of the Aurora Borealis, when it extended from 
the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia, March 1716t It overapread the whole 
horizon in the lat. of 57° N. in one continued fixed base of a dismal red during the 
whole night, by which many people were much terrified, Nov. 1765. The electricity 
of the aurora borealis was discovered at Jena in 1769. Mr. Fonter, the companion 
of Captain Cook, saw the aurora borealis in 58** S. lat. ; it had been previously 
matter of doubt whether it ever appeared in the southern hemisphere^ — Butler, 




AURORA Frioatb. On board of this ship there sailed a number of persoiu, 
many of them of great consideration and wealth, proceeding from EngUnd 
and Ireland to the East Indies ; bat after leaving the British shore they were never 
heard of, 1771. 

AUSTERLITZ, Battls of, between the French and Austrian armies, gained by the 
former. Three emperors commanded at this battle, Alexander of Roasia, Francis of 
Austria, and Napoleon of France. The killed and wounded exceeded 40,000 on the 
side of the allies, who lost, besides, forty standards, 150 pieces of cannon, and many 
thousands of prisoners. This decisive victory of the French led to the treaty of 
Presburg, which was signed Dec. 26, same year. The battle was fought Dec. 2, 
1805. See Presburg. 

AUSTRALASIA, includes New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, New Guinea, New 
Britain, New Zealand, &c., mostly discovered within two centuries. Of a popu- 
lation of twenty-two millions, the native inhabitants are not supposed to exceed one 
hundred thousand. Several settlements from Europe have been made since the 
commencement of the present century. Act to provide for the government of 
Western Australia, 1 George IV. 1829. Act to erect South Australia into a British 
province, 4 and 5 WiUiam IV. 1834. New act, 5 and 6 William IV. 1835. Se- 
veral companies and institutions connected with Australia have lately been formed 
in London. 

AUSTRIA, anciently the Belgic Gaul of the Romans. It was taken from Hungary and 
annexed to Germany, when it received its present name, about a.d. 1040. This 
was after Charlemagne had re-established the Western Empire, Austria being a part 
of what was called Eastern France, which its name in the German language implies. 

Rodolph, count of Hapeburg, seixcs 
Austria from Bohemia, and makes 
himself arch-duke .... 1273 

Revolt of Switzerland from the house of 
Austria, in the reign of Albert L .1307 

Albert 11., duke of Austria, succeeds to 
three crowns, — the imperial, and those 
of Hungary and Bohemia ; his family 
still possess the empire . .1438 

Burgundy accrues to Austria by the 
marriage of Maximilian with the heir- 
ess of that province .... 1477 

Also Spain, by the marriage of Philip I. 
of Austria with the heiress of Aragon 
and Castile 1496 

Charles V., reigning over Germany, 
Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, Spain, 
the Netherlands, and their dependen- 
cies, abdicates, and retires from the 
world, leaving his Ctorman dominions 
to his brother Ferdinand, and Spain 
and the Netherlands to his son, Philip 
U.— See Spain 1.W7 

The Protestant princes of Germany, 
being oppressed by the house of Austria, 
call in the aid of Gustavus Adolphus 
of Sweden, and this loads to the treaty 
of Westphalia 1648 

Leopold I. reigns.— (See Germany) . .1658 

Accession of Francis, duke of Lorraine, 





who marries the celebrated queen of 
Hungary, Bfaria Theresa, dangfater of 
the deceased emperor, Charles VL 
Reign of Joseph II. . . . . 

Religious toleration granted 
The emperor controls the pope . . . 
Reign of Leopold 11. * . . . 

Reign of Francis II 179S 

Austria becomes a distinct empire, and 
Francis IL of Germany takes the title 
of I. of Austria . . Aug. 9, 

The emperor issues his declaratioa 
against France . . Aug. 5, 

Napoleon, after many victories, enters 
Vienna .... Nov. 14, 
Vienna evacuated by the French, Jan. 12, 1808 
They again capture it . . May 13, 1809 
But restore it at the peace Oct. 24, \WQ 

Napoleon marries the arch-duchess Ma- 
ria Louisa, the daughter of the em- 
peror .... April 1, 1810 
Congress at Vienna . . . Oct. 2, 1814 
Treaty of Vienna Feb. 85. 1«I5 

Death of Francis I., and accession of 

Ferdinand . March 2. 1835 

New treaty of commerce with England 

Julys, 1838 
Ferdinand is crowned with great qtlen- 
dour at Milan Sept. 6, 1838 

(See Oermanp, Vienna, &c.) 

Before the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, Francis ceased 
to be emperor of Germany, and became hereditary emperor of Austria, under the 
title of Francis I. Upon the formation of the Germanic Confederation in 1815, 
the emperor of Austria was declared hereditary head of that body. 

AUTHORS. For the laws securing copyright, see Copt/right and Literary Property. 

AUTO DA FE. See Inquisition. The punishment, often by burning alive, of a heretic. 
This is called an act of faith, and is coeval with the Inquisition *, and since its first 
practice in a.d. 1203, more than one hundred thousand victims hare been sacrificed 

AL'T [ ^^ ] »-^B 

by Uie sentence of the InquisidonB of Roman Catholic countries on the burning pile. 
One of the last executions of this kind was at Goa, where, for the glory of the 
Christian religion (!) and in findication of the Catholic faith, twenty sufferers perished 
in the flames, 1787. These horrible sacrifices have ceased in Spain. — Ashe, 

AUTOMATON FIGURES, o& ANDROIDES. They are made to perform human 
actions, and are of early invention. Archytas' flying dove was formed about 400 b.c. 
Friar Bacon made a brazen head that could speak, a.d. 1264. Albertns Magnus 
spent thirty years in making another. A coach and two horses, with a footman, a 
page, and lady inside, were made by Camus, for Louis XIV. when a child ; the 
horses and figures moved naturally, variously, and perfectly, 1649. Yaucanson 
made an artificial duck, which performed every function of a real one, even an im- 
perfect digestion, eating, drinking, and quacking. Yaucanson also made a flute- 
player, 1738. The writing androides, exhibited in 1769, was a pentograph worked 
by a confederate out of sight ; so were also the automaton chess-player, exhibited 
the same year, and " the invisible girl," exhibited in 1800. 

**AVE MARIAr* the salutation of the angel Gabriel to the Yirgin.— LuAre i. 26, 
27, 28. A formula of devotion in the Roman church, ordered by pope John XXI 1. 
In the fourteenth century. — Butler, This prayer to the Yirgin is repeated in 
Cathoiie countries daily at the ringing of the matin and the vesper bell. — Ashe, 
Although of universal use in the Catholic church, it can be traced no higher than the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, when Yicentius Ferrerius used it before his 
discourses . — B ingham, 

AYIGNON, ceded by Philip III. of France to the Pope in 1273. The papal seat was 
removed for seventy years to Avignon, in 1 308. It was seized several times by the 
French, by whom it was taken from the pope in 1769, but was restored on the 
suppression of the Jesuita, 1773. Declared to belong to France by the National 
Assembly, 1791. Horrible massacres in October of that year. Continued to France 
by the Congress of sovereigns, in 1815. 

AXE, WEDGE, WIMBLE, &c These instruments, with the lever, and various 
others of a coarse construction, and still in common use, are said to have been 
invented by Daedalus, an artificer of Athens, to whom also is ascribed the invention 
of masta and sails for ships, 1240 b.c. 

AZORES, OR WESTERN ISLES, supposed to be the site of the ancient Atalantis : 
they were discovered by Yandenburg, a.d. 1439; and were settled by the Portuguese, 
in 1448. Martin Behem found one of them covered with beech-trees, and he 
called it therefore Fayal; another abounding in sweet flowers, and he therefore 
called it Floret ; and all full of hawks, and he therefore named them the Azores. 
A violent concussion of the earth took place here for twelve days, in 1591. A 
devastating earthquake, in 1757. Here are fountains of boiling water. A volcano 
at St. George's destroyed the town of Ursulina, May 1808 ; and in 1811, a volcano 
appeared near St. Michael's in the sea, where the water was eighty fisthoms deep. 
An island called Sabrina gradually disappeared, Dec. 1812. 

BAB£L, thv Toweb of, built by Noah's posterity, 2247 b.c. The temple of Belus, 
originally this celebrated tower, was the most magnificent in the world ; it had lofty 
spires, and was enriched with many statues of gold, one of them forty feet high. 
In the upper part of this temple was the tomb of the founder, Belus (the Nimrod of 
the sacred Scriptures), who was deified after death ; and in an adjoining apartment 
was a magnificent bed, whither the priests daily conducted a female, who, as they 
pretended, was there honoured with the company of the god. — Blair, 

BABINGTON*S CONSPIRACY, formed in the cause of Mary against Elizabeth, for 
which the chief conspirator, with thirteen others, suffered death. Babington was a 
gentleman of Derbyshire, and he associated with persons of his own persuasion (the 
Roman Catholic), with a design to assassinate the queen, and deliver Mary. He seems 
to have been principally induced to this rash conspiracy by a romantic hope that 
Mary, in gratitude, would accept of him as a husband. 1586. 

BABYLON, Empirb of, founded by Belus, supposed to be the Nimrod of holy writ, 
the son of Chus, and grandson of Ham, 2245 b.c. — Lenglet. Ninus of Assyria 
seized on Babylon, and established what was properly the Assyrian empire, by 




uniting the two soyereignties, 2059 b.c. According to Eoiebios tliii empire exifted 
1240 yean ; according to Jostin, 1300 yean ; according to Herodotus, 500 or 600 
yean. Of these opinions Blair has adopted the iint, which calenlaites frooi tiit 
foundation of the empire by Ninus, b.c. 2059, to the close of the reign of Sardanapshu, 
who was dethroned by his generals, and his kingdom divided into the As^rrisn, 
Babylonian, and Median kingdoms, 820 b.c. — See Aityria. 

The tower of Babel built . . b.c. 2247 
The kingdom of Babylon begins . . 2246 
Ashur builds a city, afterwards called 

Nineveh 2245 

The astronomical obserrations are b^;un 
at Babylon by the Chaldeans.— BlaJr/ 

Ltnglet 2234 

Belus, king of Asqrria, extends his em> 
pire over the neighbouring states, de- 
feats tlie Babylonians, and makes 
them \xihuUxy.—Ut\er . . 2124 

Ninus, son of Belus, reigns in Assyria, 

and names his caxrital after himaslf, 

Ninevth. — Ltnglet 

Babylon takm by Xinns . 

The Assyrian empire ends 

Belesis goyems in Babtloo 

Babylon taken by Esar-haddon 

Nebuchadnecsar reigns 

He takes Jerusalem. — Lenglei 

He is drlren from among men . 

Babylon taken by the Medes and Per- 
sians, under Cyrus 

Taken by Darius.— l7M«r 

a.c. SQV 






The city of Babylon was, anciently, the most magnificent in the world ; and in later 
times famous for the empire established under the Selencide. Its greatness wss so 
reduced in succeeding ages, that Pliny says, in his time it was but a desolate 
wilderness ; and at present the place where it stood is scarcely known to trarellen. 
— RoU\n*$ Ancient Hut, 

BABYLON, Hanging Gardens of. They were of a square form, and in terraees 
one abore another until they rose as high as the waUs of the city, the ascent bang 
from terrace to terrace by steps. The whole pile was sustained by vast arches 
raised on other arches ; and on the top were flat stones closely cemented together 
with plaster of bitumen, and that corered with sheets of lead, upon which lay ths 
mould of the garden, where there were large trees, shrubs, and flowera, with Tarioos 
sorts of vegetables. There were five of these gartiens, each containing about foor 
English acres, and disposed in the form of an amphitheatre. — Strabo ; Diodonu. 

BACCHANALIA, games celebrated in honour of Bacchus. They arose in Egypt, and 
were brought into Greece by Melampus, and were there called Dionytia, about 1415 
B.C. — Diodorut, They were celebrated in Rome under the name of Bacehanalia. 

BACHELORS. The Roman censon frequently imposed fines on unmarried men ; and 
men of full age were obliged to marry. The Spartan women at certain games laid 
hold of old bachelors, dragged them round their altars, and inflicted on them Tarioos 
marks of infamy and disgrace.-— Fcwmim. After twenty-five yean of age, a tax was 
laid upon bachelon in England, 12/. lOs. for a duke, and for a common person, one 
shilling, 7 William III, 1695. Bachelon were subjected to a double tax on their 
male and female servants, in 1785. 

BACKGAMMON. Palamedes of Greece is the reputed inventor of this game 
(decidedly one of the oldest known to our times), about 1224 b.c. It is stated by 
some to have been invented in Wales in the period preceding the Conquest. — Henrf, 

BADAJOS, Sieob of. This important barrier fortress had surrendered to the French, 
March, 11, 1811, and was invested by the British under lord Wellington on March 
18, 1812, and stormed and taken on April 6, following. This victory was not only 
a glorious military achievement in itself, but it obliged the French, who had entered 
Portugal for the purpose of plunder, to commence a precipitate retreat from that 

BADEN, House of, descended from Herman, son of Berthold I. duke of Zahringen, 
who died a.d. 1074. From Christopher, who united the branches of Hochberg and 
Baden, and died in 1527, proceed the branches of Baden-Baden, and Baden- 
Donrlach. This family makes a most conspicuous figure in the annals of Germany, 
and is allied to all the principal families in the empire. 

BADEN, Tbbatt of, between France and the emperor, when Landaa was ceded to 
the former, Sept. 7, 1714. Baden was formerly a margravate ; it was erected into s 
grand duchy, as a member of the Rhenish Confederation, in 1806. Its territorial 
acquisitions by its alliances with France, were guaranteed by the congress at Vienna, 
in 1815. 

B*J C *8 ] 5f^ 

BATFIN'S-BAY, diicDTMcd brWillkm Baffin, an En^lUhman, in 1616. The natnn 
and extent of tbi* diicoTerj were much doubted until the eipcditiona of Rdu and 
PafT7 proved that Baffin wai lubaUDtiall; accurate in big itateiiHuit. Thew TOjdigen 
retnnied hame in 181S. See article tiorlh Weal Paaiage. 

BAGDAD, bmlt by AlmauKir, and mule the wat of the Saracen empire, a.d. 762— 
taken tn the Tartara, and a periud put lo the Saiacea rule, 1258. It has liuce been 
often tuen by the Peniani, and from them again bf the Turki, — Blair. 

BAGPIPE. Thu inati-nment ia tuppoBCd by »me to be peculiar to Ireland and Scotland ; 
but it moft hare been known to the Greek*, aa, on a piece of Grecian iculpture of 
the higbeat antiquity , nov in Rome, it repreiented a bigpiper dreaied like a modem 
ki|Uander. Nero li aaid to bare played upon a bagpipe, a.d. 51. 

BAHAMA ISLES. TbeM were thefiitt pointi of discoiery by Colombna. San Salrador 

wai aeen by thia great narigator on the nigbt of the 11th October, 1493 The 

Bahama! were not known to the Englith till 1667. Seiied for the crawn of 
England, 171S, when the piiatea who inhabited them iniTeDdcred to Captain 

BAIIi. By andent common law, before and rince the Conqneat, all feloniea were 
bailable, till murder wu emiptBd by atitnte i and by the 3d Edward I, the power 
of bailing in treason, and in di*en instancea of felony, was taken away, 1274. 
Bail was farther ragnlated, 23 Henry VI. ; 2 Philip and Mary, and in later reigna. 

BAILIFFS, OK SHERIFFS are said to be of Saxon origin. London had its ihire-revt 

er to the Conqnest, and thia offieer wat generiJly appointed for counties in 
land in 1079. Sheriff! were appointed in Dublin under the name of baihOB, in 
\366 \ and the name waa changed to Bberiff, 1548. There are atUl some places 
where the chief-magistrate is called bailiff, as the high bailiff of Weatminster. The 
term Bvm-btuHff \t ■ corruption of bonnd-bailiff, erery bailiff being obliged to enter 
hita bonds of security for his good beba*iour. — Blaekitone. 

BAIZE. This apeciea of woollen manufsctnre waa brought into England by aome 
Fleming or Dutch emigranta who aettled at Colcheater, in Easei, in the reign of 
Charles II., about the year imi.—Andmoti. 

BALANCE or POWER, to assure the ludependeacy and integrity of states, and 
coDiTol ambition ; the principle ia aaid to be a discoiery of Ue Italian politician! 
of the fifteenth century, on the invaeion of Charles VIII. of France. — RiAerUim, 
By the treaty of Mnnster, the principle of a balance of power wu lint recognised 
by trea^ October 24, 1648. 

BALKAN, Pass A OK of rai. This adTenturous experiment was deemed impracticable 
by a hostile anuy, until effected by the Riuaisn army ouder Diebitich, whoae march 
through the Balkan mountains ii a memorable scbierement of the Russian and 
Turkish war i the passage was completed July 26, 1B29. 

BALLADS. They may be traced in British biatory to the Anglo-Saxons. — Tanur. 
Andhelme, who died a.d. 709, it mentioned aa the first who introduced ballads into 
England. "The haip waa sent round, that those might aiog who could." — Btdt. 
Alfred sung ballads. — Jlfoiouiury. Canute composed one.^T'iirRer. Minitrels 
were protected by a charter of Edward IV. ; but by a atatnte of Elizabeth tbcy were 
made pnniihable among rogues, Tagsbonds, and sturdy beggan. — finer, 

BALLADS, NATIONAL. "Gtie me the writing of the bailada, and you may make the 
Uwa."—FltlcluTttfSalloun. A Britiah ataleaman has aaid, "Giie me the wriiingof 
the ballads of the country, and while 1 place at your command every oilier apedes of 
composition, I will.fii pubhc opinion, and rule pubLc feeling, and away the popular 
sentiment, more powerftilly than all your writers, political and moral, can da by any 
other agency or influence." The beautiful and frequently touching hallada of 
Dibdin, particularly tbose of the sea, inspired many a braie defender of bit coamtiy 
in the late war-, Dibdin died Jan. 20, 1833. 

BAIXBTS. They aroie in the meretricious taite of the Italian courts. One performed 
at the interview between our Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, in the field of 
the Cloth of Gold, 1520. — Gutociiinlini. In the next century, they reached the 
■BBBit of thdr gtory in the splendid pomps of the conrti of Tntcsny and Lorraine I 
ud tWr m<Mt Md«u patnm, Looi* XIV. bim k part in one, 16M, 

BAL C ^9 ] BA>- 

BALLOON. Galien of Angnon wrote on aeroititioiiy in 1755. Dr. Black gave the 
hint as to hydrogen, in 1767. A baUoon was oonstmcted in France bj MM. 
Montgolfier, in 1783, when Rosier and the marqais d'Arlandei atrmdfd at Van, 
I^lAtre Desroxier and M. Romain perished in an attempted royage from Bonlogae to 
England, the balloon baring taken fire, Jnne 14, 1785. At tl^ battle of Flewus, 
the French made nse of a baUoon to reconnoitre the enemj's army, and convey the 
observations by td^praph, Jane 17, 1794. Gamerin ascended in a baUoon to 
the height of 4,000 feet, and descended by a parachnte. Sept 21, 1802. Gmj- 
Lassac ascended at Pkris to the height of 23,000 feet, Sept. 6, 1804. Madame ' 
Blanchard ascended from Tlvoli at night, and the balloon, being anrroonded by 
fire-works, took fire, and she was precipitated to the groond, and killed, July 6, 1819. 

BALLOON, IN England. The first attempt to navigate the atmosphere in F. f^gUii^ 
in a baUoon was by Signor Lnnardi, who ascended horn Moorfields, Sept. 15, 1784. 
Blanchard and Jeffries passed from Dover to Calais, in 1785. Mr. Arnold went up 
from St George's- Fields, and feU into the Thames ; and m^or Money iffcfti^ 
from Norwich, and feU into the North Sea, bat was saved by a revenue cotter. 
The first ascent from Ireland, was from Ranelsgh-gardens, DabUn, in 1785. 
Sadler, who made many previous expeditions in England, fell into the sea nesr 
Holyhead, bat was taken ap, Oct. 9, 1812. Saddler, Jan., was killed, fidling firoms 
balloon, in 18'25. Mr. Cocking ascended from VanxhaU; the parachute in its 
descent from the baUoon, collapsed, and he was thrown out and killed, Jolv 24, 1837. 
Green and others have made repeated ascents. 

BALLOON, The Nassau. The great Nassau baUoon, of immense dimensions, ind 
which had for some time previously been exhibited to the inhabitants of LoiidoB 
in repeated ascents from VanxhaU gardens, started from that place on an ex|ieriniental 
voyage, having three individuals in the car, and, after having been ei^teen hoars 
in the air, descended at Wielburg, in the duchy of Nassau, Nor. 7, 1836. 

BALLINAHINCH, Battle or, a sanguinary engagement on the estate of theesri 
of Moira, between a large body of the insurgent Irish and the British troopa, Jane 
13, 1 798. In this battle a large part of the town was destroyed, and the royal army 
suffered very severely. 

BALTIC EXPEDITION. This was also caUed the Copenhagen expedition, tiis 
Danish expedition, &c. There were two : in the first expedition, under lord Nelson 
and admiral Parker, Copenhagen was bombarded, and twenty-eight saU of the Danidi 
fleet were taken or destroyed, AprU 2, 1801. — See Armid NeutnUiijf. In the 
second expedition, under admiral Gambler and lord Cathcart, eighteen sail of the 
line, fifteen frigates, and thirty-one brigs and gunboats surrendered to the British, 
July 26, 1807. 

BALTIMORE, Battle op, between the British army under general Ross and the 
Americans ; the British in making an attack upon tiie town were unsuccessful, and 
after a desperate engagement were repulsed with great loss ; the gallant general who 
led the enterprise was kiUed, Sept. 12, 1814. 

BAND or GENTLEMEN PENSIONERS, a court retinue instituted by Henry VIU. 
1509. The earl of Essex was appointed their first captain. — Salmon. 

BANDON, founded by the first earl of Cork, in 1610. The waUa having been 
demolished by the Irish then in arms, the CathoUcs were forbidden to enter the 
town ; and the following words, which were set up in 1689, by the inhabitants — 
" A Turk, a Jew, or atheist— may enter here, but not a papist,** 

are memorable as an interdict long blazoned on its gates. — Annals of Mun/Utr, 
The catholics in derision and humour added, in chalk, the foUowing couplet : 

" Whosoe'er wrote these words, he wrote them well ; 

The same are written on the gates of heU.**— BwmV AnnaU, 

BANGALORE, Sirgr of, commenced by the British under lord Comwallis, March 6, 
and the town taken by storm, March 21, 1791. Bangalore was restored to Tippoo 
in 1792, when he destroyed the strong fort, deemed the bulwailL of Mysore. 

BANGOR. Here was one of the earliest monastic institutions in Britain, and its 
monks were merdlessly murdered by the Danes ; its bishopric is of great antiquity, 
but iu founder is unknown ; the church is dedicated to St. Daniel, who was bishop 
anno 516. Owen Glendower greatly defaced the cathedral; but a more cruel 

BAN [ 50 ] BAN 

ravager than he, the bishop Bnlkelj, alienated many of the lands, and even sold the 
bells of the church, 1553. The see is Talued in the king's books at 131/. 16». 4cL 
An order in council directing that the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph be united on 
the next vacancy in either, was issued, Oct. 1838. 

BANK. The first established was in Italy, a.d. 806, by the Lombard Jews, of whom 
some settled in Lombard'Street, London, where many bankers still reside. The 
name bank is deriTcd from banco, a bench, which was erected in the market- 
place for the exchange of money. The mint in the tower of London was anciently 
the depositary for merchants' cash, until Charles I. laid his hands upon the money, and 
destroyed the credit of the mint, in 1 640. The traders were thus driven to some 
other place of security for their gold, which, when kept at home, their apprentices 
frequently absconded with to the army. In 1645, therefore, they consented to lodge 
it with the goldsmiths in Lombard-street, who were provided with strong chests for 
their own valuable wares ; and this became the origin of banking in England. — 

Bank of Venice formed 

. 1157 

Bank of Scotland 

. . 1695 

Bankof Geneva 

. . 1345 

Bank of Copenhagen . 

. 1736 

Bank of Baroelona 

. 1401 

Bank of Berlin 

. . 1765 

Bankof Genoa 

. . 1407 

CalflBe D'Eecompte, France . 

. 1776 

Bank of Amsterdam 

. 1(W7 

Bank of Ireland 

. . 1783 

Bank of Hambuxf h . 

. . 1619 

Bank of Petertburgh . 

. 1786 

Bank of Rotterdam 

. 1635 

In the East Indies . 

. . 1787 

Bank of Stockholm . 

. . 16R8 

And one in America 

. 1791 

Bank of England 

. 1694 

Branch banks in these realms . 

. . 1888 

BANK OP ENGLAND, (See preceding article,) originally projected by a merchant 
named Patterson. It was incorporated by William III. in 1694, in consideration of 
1,200,000/., the then amount of its capital, being lent to government. The capital 
has gone on increasing from one period to another up to the present time, as the 
discretion of parliament allowed ; and the same authority has also at different intervals 
prolonged the privilq^ of the bank, and renewed its charter. When first established 
the notes of the bank were at 20 per cent, discount ; and so late as 1745, they 
were under par. Bank bills were paid in silver, 1745. The first bank post-bills 
were issued 1754 ; small notes were issued 1759; cash payments were discontinued 
Febraary 25, 1797, when notes of <me and two pounds were put into circulation. 
Silver tokens appeared in January, 1798 ; and afterwards Spanish dollars, with the 
head of George III. stamped on the neck of Charles IV., were made current Cash 
payments were resumed partially, September 22, 1817, and the restriction had 
altogether ceased in 1821. For a number of years the financial measures of the 
crown have been largely uded by loans from this great reservoir of wealth. The 
average amount of the Bank of England notes in circulation is as follows : — 

In 1718 (earliest account) . Xl,829,930 

1778 7,030,680 

1790 10.J17,000 

180O 15,450,000 

1810 S3,904,000 

The circulation of notes, in 1845, exceeded 27 millions, and the bullion in the 
bank fluctuated between 15 and 16 millions. The returns of issues, &c. are now 
made weekly. To secure the credit of the Bank it was enacted, " that no other 
banking company should consist of more than six persons," 6 Anne 1707. There 
are branch banks of the Bank of England in many of the chief towns of the king- 
dom ; as Birmingham, Bristol, Exeter, Gloucester, Hull, Leeds, Liverpool, Man- 
cfaetter, Newcastle, Norwich, Swansea, &c., all formed sinoe 1828. See Funds. 

BANK OF IRELAND. Established by act of parliament, and opened at Mary's- 
abbey, Dublin, June 25, 1783. The business removed to the late houses of 
parliament, in Gollege-green, in May 1808. Branch banks of this establishment 
nave been formed in most of the provincial towns in Ireland ; as Armagh, Belfast, 
Clonmel, Cork, Gal way, Limeriol^ Newry, Sligo, Waterford, Westport, Wexford, 
Ac., all since 1828. 

BANK OP SCOTLAND. The old bank was set up in 1695, the year after the 
establishment of the Bank of England, and was the second institution of the kind in 
these kingdoms. The Royal Bank was instituted in 1727. The Commercial bank 
in 1810. National bank, 1825. The first stone of the present bank of Scotland 
was laid June 3, 1801. m 2 

In 1815 £26,803,520 

1820 27,174,000 

1830 20,620,000 

1835 18.215,220 

1840 17,231,000 


1800 . 

. 1339 

1830 . .1467 



. . SOOO 

1835 W 


1820 . 

. 1358 

1840 . . im 



. . 8683 

1844 1064 

BAN [5l] BAN 

BANK or SAVINGS. Jeremy Bentham suggested a Fnigatitj Bank in 1797.— 
Voung's Annals of Agriculture, The first bank actnallj institated for the beoriit 
of the poor, and established at Tottenham bj Mrs. Elizabeth Wakefield in 1803. 
The first bank for sayings in Edinburgh was founded in 1814. Several were 
established in England in 1816, haying b^n brought under parliamentary regnlatioa 
by the efforts of the Right Hon. George Rose; since which period, sayings' baiUu have 
been yery generally opened throughout the United Kingdom. — See Saving^ Banks, 

BANKS, Joint Stock. A yast number of banks under this denomination haye beea 
established in England since the act of the 7th George TV. 1826 ; thej haye been 
instituted in almost eyery large town in the kingdom. In 1840, the amount of 
paper currency issued by joint stock banks amounted to 4,138,618/. ; the amount in 
circulation by priyate banks, same year, was 6,973,613/. — the total amount exceeding 
eleven millions. In Ireland there haye been many similar banks institated, the first 
being the Hibernian bank, established by a special act in 1825. 

BANKRUPTS, in England, first law enacted regarding them, 35 Henry VIII. 1543. 
Again, 3 of Elizabeth, 1560; again, 1 James I. 1602; again, 1706 ; and more 
recently. It was determined by the King's Bench that a bankrupt may be sr> 
rested except in going to and coming from any examination before the commis- 
sioners. May 13, 1780. The lord chancellor (Thuriow) refused a bankrupt his 
certificate because he had lost fiye pounds at one time in gaming, Julj 17} 1788. 
Enacted that members of the house of commons becoming bankrupts, and not 
paying their debts in full, shall yacate their seats, 1812. The new bankrupt bill, 
constituting a new bankrupt court, passed October 1831. — Statutes at large. 


173A . 


177d .... 

According to a return to parliament made at the close of February 1826, there hsd 
become bankrupt in the four months preceding ^ 59 banking-houses, comprising 144 
partners ; and 20 other banking establishments had been declared insolyent. Eyery 
succeeding week continued to add from seyenty to a hundred merchants, traders, 
and manufacturers to the bankrupt list. This was, howeyer, the period of bubble 
speculation, and of unprecedented commercial embarrassment and ruin. 

BANKRUPTCY COURT. Act empowering his majesty to erect and establiah a court 
of judicature to be called the Court of Bankruptcy, and to appoint a judge thereto, 
2 William IV. October 1831. Bankruptcy act, Ireland, consolidating all the 
statutes relating to bankruptcy, and founding a complete system of administering 
bankrupts' estates, 6 William IV. May 1836. 

BANNER. Almost eyery nation had its banner to distinguish it in battle, and under 
which it fought, inspired with superstitious confidence of success. The standard 
of Constantine bore the inscription In hoc signo vinces — in this sign thou shalt con- 
quer, under the figure of the cross. — See Cross. The banner was early in use in 
England : the famous magical banner of the Danes was taken by Alfred, a.d. 879. — 
Spelman, St. Martin's cap, and afterwards the celebrated auriflamma, or oriflamma 
were the standards of France, about 1100. — See Auriflamma ^ Standards^ &c. 

BANNERET. Some trace the origin of bannerets to France, others to Brittany, and 
more to England. These last attribute the institution of this order to Conan, 
lieutenant of Maximus, who commanded the Roman legions in England, a.d. 383. 
Banneret is an almost obsolete title of nobility, conferred by the king himself, 
under the royal standard. The knights led their yassals to battle under their own 
banner, but knights-bachelors were commanded by a superior. The dignity lies 
between baron and knight.— Bra/«ori. Created in England, 1360 ; renewed by 
Henry VII., 1485. It was disused from the reign of Charles I., but waa reyiyed by 
George III. in the person of sir William Erskine in 1764. 

BANNOCKBURN, Battle or, between king Robert Bruce, of Scotland, and Edward 
II. of England; the army of Bruce consisted of 30,000 Scots, and that of Edward of 
100,000 English, of whom 52,000 were archers. The English crossed a riyulet to 
the attack, and Bruce haying dug pits, which he had coyered, they fell into them, and 
were thrown into confusion. The rout was complete, the king narrowly escaping* 
and 50,000 English were killed or taken prisoners, June 25, 1314. — Barbour* 


BAN [ ^2 ] B^R 

BANNS. In the feudal law, banns were a solemn proclamation of anything, and 
hence arose the custom of asking banns, or giving notice before marriage. The use 
of matrimonial banns is said to have been introduced into the Galilean church, 
about A.D. 1210 ; and banns of marriage are proclaimed in the church of England 
to this day. 

BANTAM. The celebrated rich British factory here was first established by Captain 
Lancaster in 1 603. The English and Danes were driven from their factories by the 
Dutch in 1683. Bantam surrendered to the British in 1811 , but was restored to the 
Dutch at the peace in 1814. 

.BANTRY BAY. A French fleet, with succours of arms, ammunition, and money, to 
the adherents of James II. attacked in this bay by admiral Herbert, May, 1689. A 
French squadron of seven sail of the line and two frigates, armed en flutes and seven- 
teen transports, anchored here for a few days, December, 1796. Mutiny of the 
Bantry Bay squadron under admiral Mitchell in Dec. 1 801 , and Jan. 1 802. Twenty- 
two of the mutineers were tried on board the Gladiator , at Portsmouth, when seven- 
teen were condemned to death, of whom eleven were executed ; the others were 
sentenced to receive each 200 lashes ; the executions took place on board the 
Majestic, Centaur^ Formidable ^ T/merairef and VAchilU, Jan. 8 to 18, 1802. 

BAPTISM. The sacrament of admission instituted by Christ, and practised by all 
sects professing Christianity, except Quakers. St. John, the forerunner of our 
Saviour, is eminently called the Baptist ^ as being the first that publicly baptized with 
a spiritual intention. Christ came from Galilee to Jordan, and was baptized by 
John, A.D. 30. Originally the people were baptized in rivers ; but in the reign of 
Constantine, a.d. 319, in great cities they built chapels, or places specially to bap- 
tize in, which in the eastern countries was by dipping the person all over. Now, in 
the western and colder parts, they use sprinkling ; at first every church had not a 
baptistery belonging to it ; oar fonts answer the same end. — Pardon, 

BAPTISTS, OR Anabaptists, a sect distinguished from other Christians by their 
opinions respecting baptism, began their doctrine about a.d. 1525, but much earlier 
dates are mentioned. They suffered much persecution in England in the sixteenth 
century. Bhode Island, America, was settled by Baptists in 1635. Of Baptist 
missions, it may be said, that the Moravian brethren led the way to their benevolent 
enterprises, about 1732. — See Anabaptists. 

BARBADOES, the first English settlement in the West Indies. This mother planta- 
tion gave rise to the sugar trade in England about 1605 ; and was, with other 
Caribbee islands, settled by charter granted to the earl of Marlborough, 2 Charles I. 
1627. Barbadoes has suffered severely from elemental visitations : in a dreadful 
hurricane in 1780, more than 4000 of the inhabitants lost their lives. A large plan- 
tation with all its buildings was destroyed, by the land removing from its original 
site to another, and covering everything in its peregrination, Oct. 1784. An inun- 
dation, Nov. 1795 ; and two great fires, May and Dec. 1796. Awful devastation, with 
the lots of thousands of lives, and of immense property, by a hurricane, August 1 0, 
1831. The history of Inkle and Varico, which Addison, in his Spectator, has 
recorded for the detestation of mankind, took its rise in this island. 

BARBER. Tliis trade was practised at Rome in the third century B.C. In England, 
barbers formerly exhibited a head, or pole^ at their doors ; and the barber's po/0 until 
lately used by them was a burlesque imitation of the former sign. 

BARBER-SURGEONS. Formerly the businesi of a surgeon was united to that of 
barber, and he was denominated a barber-surgeon. A company was formed under 
this name in 1308, and the London company was incorporated, 1st Edward IV. 
1461. This union of profession was dissolved by a sUtnte of Henry VIII. 
BARCLAY, CAPTAIN : his celebrated walking wager, to walk 1000 mUes in 1000 succes- 
sive hours, each mile within each hour, and upon which hundreds of thousands of pounds 
depended, accomplished July 10, 1809. This feat occupied, without intermission, every 
hour (less eight) of forty-two days and nights. A wager was won by a young lady, 
at Newmarket, who had undertaken to ride 1000 miles in 1000 hours, which she 
performed in little more than two-thirds of the time, May 3, l7bS.— Butler, 
BARDS. The profession of bard appeared with great lustre in Gaul, Britain, and 
Ireland. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard by Homer ; Alexander the Great had 
a bard named Cherylus ; and we find bards, according to Strabo, among the Romans 

BAR [ ^3 ] BAR 

before the age of Augustus. The druids among the English were philosophen and 
priests, and the bards were their poets. They were the recorders of heroic actioni, 
in Ireland and Scotland, almost down to our own times. Ottian flourished in the 
third century, Merlin in the fifth. The former speaks of a prince ^o kept a hiin<> 
dred bards. Irish sonnets are the chief foundations of the ancient history of Ire- 
land. — See Ballads. 

BARFLEUR, taken and destroyed by the English in the same campaign in which tfaej 
fought and won the battle of Creasy, a.d. 1346. Destruction of the French navy 
near this cape by admiral Russell, after the victory of La Hogue in 1692. 

BARK, The Jesuits'. Its medicinal Tirtnes first discoTered in Pern, by the Indian! 
about 1535. Brought into Europe by some Jesuits, from whom it took its com- 
mon name, 1649. Introduced into general medical practice in France about 1680, 
and in England by Sir Hans Sloane, about 1 700. See JenUis, 

BARM, OR Yeast, said to have been first used by the Celtse in the compoaitioa of 
bread. Eggs, milk, and honey, were the ingredients used in making bread till the 
knowledge of brewing acquainted the Celtse with this mode to render it lighter. 

BARNET, Battle of, between the houses of York and Lancaster, when Edward IV. 
gained a decisiye and memorable victory over the earl of Warwick, Easter-dty, 
April 14, 1471. The earl of Warwick, his brother the marquis of Montacote, and 
ten thousand of his army were slain. At the moment Warwick fell, he was leaduy 
a chosen body of troops into the thickest of the slaughter, and his body was covered 
with wounds. — Goldsmith. A column commemorative of this battie has been erected 
at the meeting of the St. Albania and Hatfield roads.— J?rooAs. 

BAROMETERS. Torricelli, a Florentine, having discovered that no principle of suctioa 
existed, and that water did not rise in a pump owing to nature's abhorrence of a 
vacuum, imitated the action of a pump with mercury, and made the first barometer, 
in 1643, and Descartes eiplained the phenomena. Wheel barometers were ooB' 
trived in 1668 ; pendant barometers in 1695 ; marine in 1700. 

BARONS. The dignity of baron is extremely ancient : its original name in England 
was Vavasour t which, by the Saxons was changed into Thane^ and by the Normans 
into Baron. Many of this rank are named in the history of England, and undoubt- 
edly had assisted in, or had been summoned to parliament ; but such is the deficiency 
of public records, that the first precept to be found is of no higher date than the 
49th Henry III., 1265. The first who was raised to this dignity by patent was John 
de Beauchamp, created baron of Kidderminster, by Richard II., 1387. Barons fint 
summoned to parliament, 1205. Took arms against king John, and compelled him 
to sign the great charter of our liberties, and the charter of the forests, at Runny- 
mede, near Windsor, June, 1215. Charles II . granted a coronet to barons on 
his restoration : they attended parliament in complete armour in the reign of 
Henry III. — Beatson, 

BARONETS, the first among the gentry, and the only knighthood that is hereditary : 
instituted by James I., 1611. The baronets of Ireland were created in 1619. The 
rebellion in Ulster seems to have given rise to this order, it having been required of a 
baronet, on his creation, to pay into the exchequer as much as would maintain 
** thirty soldiers three years at eightpence a day in the province of Ulster in Ireland." 
It was further required that a baronet should be a gentieman bom, and hare a clear 
estate of £1000 per annum. The first baronet was sir Nicholas Bacon (whose suc- 
cessor is therefore styled Primus Baronettorum Angliai), May 22, 161 L The first 
Irish baronet was sir Francis Blundell. Baronets of Nova Scotia were created, 1625. 
Sir Robert Gordon was the first baronet. All baronets created since the Irish 
union in 1801, are of the United Kingdom. 

BARRACKS. The word is not to be found in our early lexicographers ; it comes 
to us from the French, and in the Diet, de I'Acad. is thus defined : **Baraqis§ — 
Hutte qui font les soldats en campagne pour se mettre k convert." — Barracks were 
not numerous in these countries until about 1789. A superintendant-general board 
was appointed in 1793, since when commodious barracks have been built in the 
various garrison towns and central points of the empire. 

BARRIER TREATY. By this celebrated treaty, the Low Countries were ceded to 
the emperor Charles YI. It was signed by the British, Imperial, and Dutch minis- 
jteri, on the part of their respective sovereigns, Nov. 15, 1715. 

BAR C ^4 D ^^^ 

BARRISTERS. They are said to hare been first appointed by Edward I. about 1291 ; 
bat there is earlier mention of professional advocates in England. There are Tarious 
ranks of barristers, as King's Counsel, Sergeants, &c., which see. Students for the 
bar must keep a certain number of terms at the Inns of Court, previously to being 
called ; and Irish students also must keep eight terms in England. The origintd 
intention of the statute at respected Ireland, was the cultivation of English habits 
and associations, and attention to the working of the courts at Westminster. 

BARROSA, Battlk of, between the British army, commanded by general, afterwards 
lord Graham, and the French under marshal Victor. After a long and sanguinary 
conflict, the JSritish achieved one of the most glorious triumphs of the Peninsular 
war ; although they fought to great disadvantage they compelled the enemy to 
retreat, leaving nearly three thousand dead, six pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the 
first that the British had taken, March 6, 1811. 

BARROWS, the circular mounds found in Britain and other countries to record a 
burial on the spot. They were the most ancient sepulchres ; but lest the relics 
of the dead should be violated by enemies, the custom of burning the dead was com- 
menced by Sylla, and it was not in disuse until the time of Macrobius. Sir Richard 
Hoare caused several barrows near Stonehenge to be opened ; in them were found 
a number of curious remains of Celtic ornaments, such as beads, buckles and 
brooches, in amber, wood, and gold, Nov. 1808. 

BARROW'S STRAITS. Discovered by Parry, who penetrated as far as Melville 
Island, in lat. 74« 26' N., and long. 113M7' W. The strait was entered on the 
2d August, 1819. The lowest state of the thermometer was 55** below zero of 

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., martyred, August 24, a.d. 71. The festival instituted 1130. 
Monastery of St. Bartholomew (Austin friars) founded by Rahere, 1100. On its 
dissolution, the existing hospital of that name in London was incorporated in the 
last year of the reign of Henry VIII., 1546. It was rebuilt by subscription in 1729. 
The charter for the jfair was granted by Henry II. ; and it is held on the ground 
which was the former scene of tournaments and martyrdoms. The spot where the 
latter took place is situated in the centre of the pens, where the gas-lamp now 

stands Here Wat Tyler was killed by the lord mayor Walworth in 1381, and in 

consequence of which the dagger was added to the city arms. 

BARTHOLOMEW, Massacrb or St. This dreadful massacre in France, commenced 
at Paris on the night of the festival of St. Bartholomew, August 24, 1572. More 
than seventy thousand Hugonots, or French Protestants, were murdered throughout 
the kingdom, by secret orders from Charles IX., at the instigation of the queen- 
dowager, Catherine de Medicis, his mother. The massacre was attended with cir- 
cumstances of demoniacal cruelty, even as regarded the female and the infant. 

BARTHOLOMITES. A religious order founded, a.d. 1307, at Genoa, where is pre- 
served, in the Bartholomite church, the image, which, it is said, Christ sent to king 
Abgarus. The order suppressed by pope Innocent X., 1650. 

BASILIANS. The order of St. Basil, of which, in the saint's time, there were ninety 
thousand monks ; it was reformed by pope Gregory, in 1569. A sect founded by 
Basil, a physician of Bulgaria, on the most extravagant notions : they rejected the 
book of Moses, and also the eucharist and baptism, and had everything, even their 
wives, in common, 1110. Basil was burnt alive in 1118. 

BASKET-MAKING. The art was very early known in Britain, and it is recorded 
that our ancestors made baskets which were celebrated for their workmanship at 
Rome. ** Failing in that new pursuit, I returned to my old trade of basket-making," 
was a well-known common-place in England. — Rogers. 

BASQUE ROADS. Heroic achievement in these roads by the British ; four French 
■hips of the line while riding at anchor were attacked by lord Gambler, and with 
much shipping were destroyed, April 14, 1809. 

BASS'S STRAITS. Mr. Bass, surgeon of the Reliance, penetrated in 1797 as far as 
Western Port, in an open boat, from Port Jackson, and aflirmed that a Strait existed 
between New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. Lieutenant Flinders circum- 
navigated Van Diemen's Land, and named the Strait after Mr. Bass, 1799. 

BASSET, or Bassette, or Pour et Centre, a game at carda, invented by a noble Vene- 
tian, and for which he was banished ; introduced into France, 1674. 

BAS C ^^ D ^^'T 

BASTARD CHILDREN. An attempt was made in EngUnd in 1272, to make bastard 
children legitimate bj the subsequent marriage of the parents, but it failed, and led 
to the memorable answer of the barons assemUed in the parliament of MertOBt 
yoiumus Ug€4 Anglim mutare — the laws of England we will not to be dunged. 
Women concealing their children*s birth, deemed guilty of murder, 21 James I., 1624. 
Fin£r*i Statutes, In Scotland, bastard diildren had not the power of disposing of 
their moveable estates by will, untU the 6th William IV. 1836. 

BASTILE or PARIS. A royal castle, built by Charles V. king of France, in 1369, 
et seq, for the defence of Vvis against the EngUsh, completed in 1383. It was 
aftarwards used as a state prison, like the Tower of London, and became the scene 
of the most deplorable suffering and frightful crimes. It was of such strength that 
Henry IV. and his veteran army assailed it in vain in the siege of Paris, during the 
intestine vrar that desolated France between the years 1587 and 1594 ; yet it wss 
pulled down by the infuriated populace, July 14, 1789, and thus was commenced 
the French revolution. On the capture of this great monument of daTery, the 
governor, and other officers were seized, and conducted to the Place de Gr^ve, and 
baring had their hands cut off, they were then beheaded. The furious citizens hav- 
ing fijced their heads on pikes carnied them in triumph through the streets. ^* The 
man with the iron mask, the most mysterious prisoner ever blown, died here, Nov. 
19, 1703. — See Iron Mask, 

BATAVIA. The capital of Java, and of all the Dutch settlemenU in the East Indies, 
fortified by that people, 1618. Twelve thousand Chinese massacred here in one 
day, 1740. Taken by the English, January, 1782. Again, by the Britiah, under 
general sir Samuel Auchmuty, to whom the garrison surrendered, Aug. 8, 1811. 

BATH. This city was very early a fiivourile station of the Romans, and it was remark- 
able even in their time for its springs. Coel, a British king, is said to have given 
this city a charter, and the Saxon long Edgar was crowned here, a.d. 973. Bath 
was plundered and burnt in the reign of William Rufus, and again in 1 137. The 
Abbey church was commenced in 1495, and was finished in 1532 ; the AssonUy- 
rooms were built in 1791 ; the Pump-room, in 1797 ; the Theatre, Beaufort-squaiei 
was opened in 1805. The Bath Philosophical Society was formed in 1817. 

BATH AND WELLS, Bishopric or, an ancient see, whose cathedral church vras built 
by Ina, king of the West Saxons, in 704 ; it was erected into a bishopric, 5 Edward 
the Elder, 905. John de Villula, the sixteenth bishop, baring purchased the dty of 
Bath for 500 marks of Henry I., transferred his seat to Bath from Wells, in 1088; 
and from this, disputes arose between the monks of Bath and the canons of Wells, 
about the election of a bishop; but they were compromised in 1136, when it vras 
decreed, that from henceforward the bishop should be styled from both places, and 
that the precedency should be given to Bath. This see is valued in the king's books 
at ;^631 \s. 3d. per annum, 

BATH, Order or the. The origin of this order is ascribed to the ancient Frankii 
with whom it is probable the Saxons who invaded England had the same common 
descent, and who, with other customs, upon their settling here, introduced the same 
method of knighthood. These ancient Franks, when they conferred knighthood, 
bathed before they performed their vigils, and ft'om this ablution came the title of 
knights of the Bath. Henry IV. instituted a degree of knighthood of the Bath, and 
on his coronation in the Tower he conferred the order upon forty-six esquires, who 
had watched the night before, and had bathed. After the coronation of Charles II. 
the order was neglected until 1725, when it was rerived by George I. who fixed tiie 
number of knights at 37. In 1815, the prince regent enlarged the order, forming 
the present classes of knights grand crosses (72), and knights commanders (180^ 
with an unlimited number of companions. See Knighthood, 

BATHS, long used in Greece, and introduced by Maecenas into Rome. The thermse of 
the Romans and gymnasia of the Greeks were sumptuous. The marble Laocoon was 
found in the baths of Titus, and the Famese Hercules in those of CaracalU.— i$/rate. 

BATHS IN ENGLAND. The baths of Somersetshire are said to have been in use eight 
conturies before Christ. In London, St. Agnes Le Clere, in Old-street-ioad, is a 
spring of great antiquity, and was well known in the time of Henry VI I L St 
Chad's well, Gray's-inn-road, derived its name from St. Chad, the fifth bishop of 

BAT C ^^ D ^AT 

Lichfield, in 667* Old Bath-house, Coldbath-sqaare, was in use in 1697. Bagnio- 
court is said to have contained the first bath established in England for hot bathing. 
— Leigh. 

BATON, OR Trunchbon, borne bj generals in the French army. Henry III. before 
he ascended the throne, was made generalissimo of the army of his brother, Charles 
IX., and receired the baton as the mark of his high command, 1569. — HenauU. 

BATTELrABBEY. Founded by William the Conqueror on the plain where the battle 
of Hastings was fought, October 14, 1066. It was built in atonement for the many 
thousands who were slain in that memorable battle. This monastery was dedicated 
to St. Martin, and was given to Benedictine monks, who were to pray for the souls 
of the slain. The original name of the plain was Heaihfield. — See HasHngt. 

BATTEL ROLL. After the battle of Hastings, which decided the fate of England, 
and subjected it to the Norman yoke, a list was taken of William's chiefs, amounting 
to 629, and called the Battel-roU ; and among these chiefs the lands and distinctions 
<rf the followers of the defeated Harold were distributed, 1066. 

BATTEL, Wager op. A trial by combat, formerly allowed by our laws, where the 
defendant in an appeal of murder might fight with the appellant, and make proof 
thereby of his guilt or innocence. In a late case of appeal of murder, Ashford ▼. 
Thornton, before the King's Bench in London, April 1818, the court aUowed that 
the law gave the defendant a right to his wager of battle ; but the appellant, the 
brother of a lovely girl, whom Thornton had first violated and then murdered, not 
accepting the challenge, the murderer was discharged. A statute was immediately 
passed, putting an end to this mode of trial, 59 George III. 1819. — Statutet at large. 

BATTERIES. Were introduced immediately after the use of cannon by the English 
along the coasts. The famous floating batteries with which Gibraltar was attacked 
in the memorable siege of that fortress were the scheme of D'Arcon, a French 
engineer. There were ten of them, and they resisted the heaviest shells and 
32 -pound shot, but ultimately yielded to red-hot shot, Sept. 13, 1782. — See Gibraltar, 

BATTERING-RAM. Testttdo Arietariat with other military implements, some of 
which are still in use, invented by Artemones, about 441 b.c. These ponderous 
engines by their own weight exceeded the utmost effects of our battering cannon.— 
Desaguliert, Sir Christopher Wren employed a battering-ram in demolishing the 
old walls of St. Paul's church, previously to rebuilding the new edifice in 1675. 

BATTLE-AXE. A weapon of the Celtse. The Irish went constantly armed with an 
axe. — Bums. At the battle of Bannockbum king Robert Bruce clave an English 
champion down to the chine at one blow with a battle-axe, 1314. — Hume, The 
battle-axe guards, or beaufetiers, who are vulgarly called beef-eaters, and whose 
arms are a sword and lance, were firit raised by Henry VII. in 1485. They were 
originally attendants upon the king's buffet. See Yeomen of the Guard. 

BATTLEFIELD, Battlb op. Near Shrewsbury, between king Henry IV. and 
Percy, sumamed Hotspur ; the victory was gained by Henry, whose usurpation of 
the throne had laid the foundation of the factions of the houses of York and 
Lancaster, and the civil wars that ensued, 1402. 

BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos was the first who ranged an army in a regular line of 
battle, and placed sentinels round a camp, and excited the soldier's vigilance by 
giving him a watch-word. — Lenglet. The following are the principal and most 
memorable battles mentioned in general history, and in British annals, and are those 
also that are most commonly referred to : they are set down according to the dates 
of their occurrence : — 


^The Trojan war commoioed . 1193 

* Troy takcaa and destroyed . . 1184 

♦Spartans and Argives .735 

Ithome taken 7S4 

Asqrrians and Jews .... 710 

aaoratii and Curiatii ... .669 

Corcyni (8ca-figMtJirti on record) . 664 

Ragee (Mtdes and Asspriant) . • G15 

*Baly9(Eelipieqfthe8un) . . 685 

Bybaris, in Magna Grccia . . 006 

♦Marathon 490 

♦ThemiopyUe (Leonidoi) . . . 480 

♦Salamis 480 

*Mycale (Seajlght) . . . . 479 

*PlAUeik (Mardonius ilain) . . 479 

♦Eurymedon 470 

Mycale (Cimon) .... 450 

[The battlea which are thus (*) marked will be found described in their alphabetioal order through 
the volume for more particular reference.] 




BATTLES, continued 


:(<Sai3red War 


^eChanxmea (Tolmidas) . 


Torone (CUonJ 




Baimibal and Syracusana . 




♦Retreat of the Greekfl 


Cnidos (Lytander killed) . . 


Allia (Brennut) . . . . 


Rome burned by the Gauls . . . 


Yolflci defeated by Camillua 


Yolsci defeat the Romans . . 


Naxus (Sea-fight) . . . . 




CamlUus defeats the Gaols 


*Mantinea (Epaminondas slain) . . 


Methone (Philip) . . . . 


♦Sacred War (the Second) . . 


Timoleon and Carthaginians 


♦Chaeronea (Philip) . . . . 


Thebes destroyed by Alexander . . 




*UmiB (\\0,000 Persians slain) . . 


*Ar\Mi\A( Fall qf Persia) 


*Cranon, in Thessaly 


Perdicas and Ariarathes : 


Fabios defeats the Tuscans . . . 


♦Ipsus (Antigonus slain) 


Beraea (Pyrrhus) 


PyrrhuB and Romans 


Romans and Pyrrhus . 


*Puntc wars b^n . . . . 


Xantippus and Regulus . . 


Asdrubal and Metellus 


Lylibsum (Elder Hannibal) . . 


Sellasia in Laconia . . . . 


Caphye, in Arcadia 


♦Hannibal takes Seguntium 


*Punio war (the Second) 

. 818 

♦Rapbia (Antiochus dtfeated) 


^Caanae (Victory qf Hannibal) 

. 816 

MariuB and Hannibal 


Mantinea (Mechanidas slain) 

. 209 

Nero and Asdrubal . 

. 203 

'i'Zama (Scipio and Hannibal) 

. 208 

Abydos (Siege of) , . . 

. 200 

Cynocephalus .... 

. 197 

Peneus and the Romans . 

. 171 

Prusias and Attains . 

. 155 

♦Punic war (Qie Third) 

. 149 

♦Carthage taken by Publius Scipio 

. 146 

Metellus defeats Jugurtha 

. 109 

Aquae Sextin .... 

. 108 

♦Cimbri and Romans 

. 101 

Nicomedes and Mlthrldates 

. 90 

Athens besieged by Sylla 

. 87 

♦Chaeronea (Sylla) 

. 86 

Marius defeated by Sylla . 

. 88 


. 48 

♦Zela (Casar : Veni viJi vici) 

. 47 

Munda. in Spain .... 

. 45 

♦Phllippi (Roman Republic ends) 


Octavius and Porapey the Younger 

. 36 

♦Actium (the empire of Rome is con 

firmed to Augustus) . 

. 31 


♦Shropshire (Caractactu taken) 

Boadioea and Romans 
♦Jerusalem .... 

Saures defeated in Britain 

Antoninns and the Moora 

Issns (Niger slain) . 

Claudius and Goths (300.000 slain) 

Constantius and Aleetoa 
♦Constantino and Maxentiua (** In 

♦Adrianople (Constantine) 

AquUeia (Constantine II. slain) 
♦Argentaria» in Alsaoe . 

Aquileia (Maximus slain) 

Aquilela (Eugenius slain) 

Mountains of Fesulc 
♦Rome taken by Alario . 

Alains and Goths 

RaTenna .... 

Franks defeated by Aetlua 

Genserio takes Carthage 
♦Stamford (Britons and Saxons) 


Ebro (Suevi and Qotks) 

Crayfcrdt Kent • 

Ipswich {Britons and Saxons) . 

Saxons and Britons 

Peveosey Moor 

Saxons and Britons 


Banbury .... 


Hatfield {Penda and Edwin) . 

Oswestry (Penda and Oswald) . 


Landisfam .... 


[The battles which are thus (♦) marked wiU be found 
the Tolume, for more particular reference.] 


Helston (Danes and Egbert) . . . 834 

Romney (Etkelwolfand Danes) . 840 

Stoke-Couroy (Danes) . . 845 

Canterbury (Danes) . . . 852 

*Thanet (Danes now settle here) . . 854 
Merton (Danes) . . .871 

Assendon (Danes) . . . 871 

Wilton (DafK#) . ... 872 

Famham (Danes) . . . 894 

Bury (Edward and EthelweUd) . . 905 

Maldon (I>aiie«) 918 

Stamford, Lincolnshire .9^3 

Widendane 998 

Brombridge 938 

♦Seminoas, Spain 938 

[The Saxons and Danes fought with 
different success from 938 to 1016] 

Ashdon (Canute and Edmund) . . 1016 
Cro88ford(iet<AM« )Fe/cA) . . . 1038 

♦Clontarf. Ireland . .1039 

♦Dunsinane 1054 

Stamford (Harold) . Oct. 5, 1068 

♦Hastings (Conquest) . Oct. 14, 1006 

Llechryd. Wales 1087 

Alnwick 109S 

♦Crusades commence . . 1066 

Rouen, in Normandy .1117 

Brenneyille, Normandy . . 1II9 

described in their alphabetioil order throofli 










Morllma^ Cnm . Feb. I, IMI 

•Bn1um|r>r*((lf iJ<Aal«ll Hi; Is, 1«M 

"■ ' ' Hlroh 13, HT* 

i(/r.> . AprUU, U7l 

. Mm«. 1*71 

iUe£ii<d). JuneM. M78 

-'.Viu-ijm.,n, [tJj Sapt. 14 jstg 

Dk'.A.'.. nciir Mit^ . . . . 1S» 

PiTUlJ^<iulta>iil.liulriaiu)pBb, H, I5IX 

■aoIwiyMiW . . Nut. IS. IHl 

LniK In PUodcn 

r ami Franai 1SB7 





I/NtHterd.! . . 




Llikeud, ComwaU 
Friidbutgta. Saiblt . 
Croproaj BrWgo. OlfOrd . 


XlDiintnglcnp Gloucest 


[TbiilMt Ue, and dcf out o i CtuilM. put 

Glim; ynifrcndrrcdi 

*Fli7iiruft, InPLuiden 
VAugSirim, IreUcfl 

•ZffuU, Hung»i7 tPTlitu 

rieiu and FriKtM 
1A IFrtiuh and AUia 


mt) ■ 

ftcUlIDCinlirrrHctiind^llrul . 
•TlwnlllMtWiir'tvruM Mart: 

Turin iPrttichaHd OcriHiini) 
Ltrldi, Hpila .... 

Ciaidi. Folud . .Aprilli 

«Almiin«.liiRpa)D . . Apiill 

■Mftlplaquct \UArlborB9ifflli 

k.SCOlljUKl . . Ju. 18; II 

axi Frr'nch<lt%d AUItll Aft. l», IT 

m ■ . . April u, i; 

EUllis. Fleduinit - 
l)Bh our, India 

Ljiks-nf fit. Gurgc ■ 

. Julj 8, II 

• Btpt. a. n 

Sept J IJ 


Id dncillMd In Ihefr ilphobailctl ordu Umw^ 

C 59] 

BATTLES, coniimicd. 


Tonnur .... Muf ■. 
|Tbc iMlUe* which m Uiu I •! mttita wOl U 
tbt Tolunui for mora partloiilAr rtfooiDe.J 

April i n 

Itinelou . 
■duu-ldol; rituna 

Piodmimt . 
'Qulbann (EmlgraaU 




60] BAT 

BATTLES, amiinutd. 



. sa 


. Dr. H. im 

•EyUn .'.■.■ 

Feb.8. IW 


. J«Ult.lKII 


. M.,«i. 






JdIi n. iM 



*Oulirt . 


■ iKft!. 



*Vbattn (WiUlifUm) . 

. Anc-il.lM 

•Oorv . 

. Ju»4. 


Tn4rU . 

No*. 13, IWi 

•Nnrlto- . . 


iWoninm (HlM-i) 

Antrim . 



BnfK IPffTlujmiH-) 



LudiHtit (JuIrUu) . 

. April IL, M» 


April B. IMt 

OYlotMom . 



. aurii.ias 


. JoneM, 


U,„». IM 

*»lii,««r-hUl . 


•B^ta, }.'.'. 

. ii.ra,ini 

, JubbM. 

Jd» It, IM 

*w„mn ■.'.■. 

■ Jnij I. laa 



Jnij n. in 


. Not. IB, im 

•Cutloliir (/Vmrt) . 

*Cliidid RodrigD (f iimMJ 

<Mam<-} {Frtnel.) 

Sept. a! 
. Sept. 9. 



*Ba»a> . 

Sept. n'. ino 

March*. Itll 
March <. 1111 

•KniaU , J"""' 

. MuthS. 


•n.d«M '.■.'. 

March 11, IBll 

March le, 


Maj 16, nil 

. April W, 


:w) . M.0- *, 


*Cludad Rodriio (ilpnnafi 




*T«Tn,t™ . . 

J«.. «. laii 

. M.JW, 


Aprti 10. ini 

Acn imrB,i,u,Smm 


*e>Um>na . . 

jBiya. in) 

tZarich . 


Hobilo- . . . 

. jBij a. mi 



*Puiiu ISuwarrw) . 

. Joly 1*. 



. Jnlj ST. laii 

Abnuktr (ThtIuI . 

, JulyBJ, 


Ang. 17. I«H 

. Ang. IS. 


«H<Hkn 1 . 

. Eept 7. I«IJ 




'Boradlnn > . 

Btpl.7, 1111 

. BrptM. 


. Bcpi.t, laii 

•Bnnai Spt 

19, ud Oct S. 


Ort. 13. in> 

. OqtS, 


PoloUli . . . 

. Oct. m, iiu 

. Nov. 6. 

•M«»-,«(fl*«) . 

Oct. *s, iiu 


. neo.S, 

WIU,p.k . . . 

. Not. u, lllI 

B.™.,talt.l, . 

. Aprils! 

(.n^; co^ oi -hteh 10 

May 1, 


led bj the 

UoilctoUo . 

. Junes. 


Riuriuu,MaT. 17.'m>- 

Bmnl, in lulj 

. June in. 

Not. SJ, 1111 

MUnogo . . . 

. June 14, 

♦BfflWlD* . 

. Not. n, mi 

*Ulm . . . 

r>«. 11, ini 

*Kowno ■.'.■. 

. I>«. 14. Mil 


tprencfa Town. Cuidi 

Jan. W. I81S 

) Mmhsi. 

. Jan. M. l«s 

Sdniltali and Uio BrttliJ. 



K.litch iSajmi) . 



a:J«-, Bp^ 

. Fob. an, lai) 

*CuUlllt . 

April JS. mi 

. April i 


. April, mi 

Wajt, IMS 


Nor. in. 

. May «. 1*13 


MajSl. W13 

. June II, 


Fori Omij*. NIagua . 

. Haj-n, ISW 


July 4. 





. Jnne Jl, IBM 

•Vfllk-i of BMfan . 

July «. IBIl 

•j™ . i 

. Oct.' 14, 


. July M. IBIS 

. Oct 17, 



[The tatUn whicli in thui |«1 



oal order IhrDBfh 

the raluniE, tor mon jmnlculu 





BATTLES, eanHnusd, 



^Drawten ■ ■ ■ 

Aug. 96, S7, 1813 

Kolertscha, near SchmnU 

. June 11, ] 



Aug. 30, 1813 

June 18, 1 



Sept. 6^ 1813 

♦Balkan {Passage nf Vu) 

. July 96. ] 


Elster tmiuker) 

Oct 1813 

♦Adrianople {entered) 

Aug. 20, ] 


^^Mockmi . . • 

Oct. 14, 1813 

♦Algiers {French) 

. July 4. ] 


^^Leipzio . . . Oct 16 and 18, 1813 

♦Paris {Days of July) July 27, 28, 29. 1 


4nFTan«a ( Wrede) 

Oct 29, 1813 

♦Brussels {T>utdO 

Sept 21, ] 


*St. Jean de Los 

. Not. 10, 1813 

♦Antwerp ... 

. Oct 27, 1 


[Puaage of the Nere; wToral engage. 

Grochow. (See Warsaui) . 

Feb. 20, ] 


meats between the Allies and French, 

Wawt {Poles) . 

. March3I, 1 


Dec. 10 to 19i 1813.] 

♦Seidles {PoUs) 

April 10, ] 


. Not. 11, 1813 

*ZfeUcho {Poles) . 

. April 10, 1 


Blaf^-roek, America 

. Deo. 3k 1813 

♦Ostroleoka {Poles) . 

May 26, ] 


*8t Dixier, France 

. Jan. 27, 1814 

♦Wilna (Pol*#) . 

June 12. 1 


^^Brienne ■ > • . 

Feb. 2; 1814 

♦Warsaw {taken) 

Sc^t 8. ] 


♦La Rothi^re 

Feb. 1, 1814 

Vallonga {Don Pedro) 

July 23. ] 


*Champ Aubert Feb. 10 and IS, 1814 

♦Mount CaTello . 

. April 19, 1 



. Feb. 14, 1814 

Leiria {Portugal) . 

Feb. 14. 1 



Feb. 17. 1814 

♦St Sebastian 

May 5. ] 



. Feb. 25, 1814 

♦St Sebastian 

Oct 1. ] 


Feb. 27. 1814 

♦BUboa {British Legion) 

. Dec. 24. ] 


. March 8. 1814 

Hernani ... 

May 15, ] 


*Laon .... 

March 9, 1814 

♦Irun {British Legion) . 

. May 17. 1 


Rheima . • • 

. March 13, 1814 


July 15. 1 


♦Tarbea .... 

March 20, 1814 

♦Herera {Don Carlos) . 

. Aug. 24. ] 


. March 25, 1814 

♦Constantina {Algiers) 

Oct. 13, 1 


♦He^hta of Fontenoj 

March 30. 1814 

♦St Eustace {Canada) . 

. Dec. 14. 1 


[Battle of the Barriers— Bfarmont era- 

Penneoerrada {Spain) 

June 22, ] 


coates Paris, and the allied armies 

Altnra {Spain) . 

. June 25. ] 


enter that capital, March 31.] 

♦Preecott (Canada) . 

Oct 17, ] 



April 10, 1814 

♦Ohicnee {India) 

. July 23, 1 


♦Chipawa (Americant) July 5 and 25, 1 814 

♦Fall of Morella 

May 31. ] 


♦Erie, Fort {Amerieatu) 

. Aug. 15. 1814 

Capture of Sidon. (See Syria) Sept 27, i 


Bladensborg {Avurieatu) 

Aug. 24, 1814 

♦Fall of Beyrout . 

. Oct 10. 1 


♦Bellair (Americans) 

Aug. 30^ 1814 

Afghanistan {India) 

Not. 2, ] 


♦Baltimore {Americans) 

. Sept. 12, 1814 

♦Storming of Acre . 

. Not. 3, ] 


♦New Orleans {Awterieans) 

. Jan. 8, 1815 

Kotriah {Scinde) 

Dec.1. ] 


♦Ugny .... 

June 16. 1815 

Chuen-pe. (SeeCftfna). 

. Jan. 7. 1 



. June 16, 1815 

Canton {Bogue forts taken) 

Feb. 26. ] 



June 18. 1815 

Amoy (dty taken) 

. Aug. ^, ] 


♦Algiers {Exmwtk) 

. Aug. 27. 1B16 

Chin-hae {taken) 

Oct 10. 1 


Larissa (Oreekt) . 

July 8, 1R22 

Cabul {massacrt) 

. Not. 2. J 


Thennopylc {Gretks) 

. July 13. 1822 

Yu-yaou {taken) 

Dec. 28. ] 


Cadiz {Trocadero) . 

Aug. 31. 1822 

Cabul pass (ma««acre) . 

. Jan. 8, 1 


Prome iBurmete) 

Dec. 2. 1825 

Candahar {Afghans) 

Mar. 10, ] 


Mallomi {Burmeu) 

Jan. 20, 1896 

Ning-po. (See China) . 

. Mar. 10, ] 


Anatolia (Greek*) 

May 23, 1828 

Jellalabad ilndia) 

Apr. 5, ] 


Brohilow {Ruitiant) 

June 19. 1828 

Chin-kean^ (See China) 

. July 21, ] 


Akhalzic . 

. Aug. 24, 1828 

Ghiznee (India) . 

Sept 6, ] 


Cxoroi .... 

Sept 26, 1828 

Ameers of Scinde 

. Feb. 17» 1 


♦Tania {surrenders) . 
♦Morea {Castle surrenders) 

Oct 11, 1828 
Oct. 30. 1828 



Lepanto {Greeks) 

Maya 1829 

See Naval Battles. 

[The battles which are thus (♦) marked will be found described In their alphabetical order through 
the Tolnme, for more particular reference. 

BAUTZEN, Battle or. Between the allied army under the lovereigns of Russia and 
ProMiAy and the French commanded bj Napoleon ; the allies were signally defeated, 
and this battle, followed by that of Wurtzcben, compelled them to pass the Oder, 
and led to an armistice, which, howerer, did not produce peace. May 20, 1813. 

BATARIAy HousK or. The dnkedom founded in the elcTcnth century : this house 
has the same origin as that of Saxony, and is a branch of the Gnelphian family ; 
Henry Guelph was made duke of Bavaria by Conrad II., emperor of Germany, who 
reigned in 1024. Otho, count Wittelpatch, was made duke in 1179 ; and Maximi- 
lian I. elector in 1624. BaTsria was erected into a kingdom by Buonaparte in 
December 1805 ; and obtained by the treaty of Presburg the incorporation of the 
whole of the Italian and German Tyrol, the bishopric of Anspach, and lordships in 
Germany. This kingdom joined the coalition against France in Oct. 1813. 

BAY [ 62 ] BEC 

BAYEUX TAPESTRY. This important historical document was wrought by Matilda, 
the queen of William I., and represents the facts of the Conqaest, from the signature 
of the will of the Confessor down to the crowning of William, 1066. — Rapin. This 
curious monument of antiquity embroidered by Matilda, is 19 inches wide, 214 feet 
long, and is divided into compartments showing the train of events, commenciDg 
with the visit of Harold to the Norman court, and ending with his death at Hastingi; 
it is now preserved in the town-house of Rouen. — Agnes Strickland. 

BAYONNE. Charles IV. of Spain abdicated here in favour of <<his friend and ally** 
the emperor Napoleon; and Ferdinand, prince of Asturias, and don Carlos snd 
don Antonio renounced their rights to the Spanish throne. May 1, 1808. Bayonne, 
the strongest citadel in France, was invested by the British in January 1814, daring 
which the French made a sally, and attacked the English with success, but were at 
length driven back. The loss of the British, in this affair, was conaiderable, and 
their commander wounded and taken prisoner. 

BAYONETS. Invented at Bayonne (whence their name) in 1670. The use of then 
in battles was introduced by the French with great success, i693,-^Lengl€t, 

BAZAAR, OR CoTKRKD Market. The word is of Arabic origin. The basaar of 
Ispahan is magnificent, yet it is excelled by that of Tauris, which has several times 
held 30,000 men in order of battle. Places of this name have opened recently in 
these countries. In London, the Soho-square bazaar was opened by Mr. Trotter in 
1815. The Queen's bazaar, Oxford-street, a very extensive one, was (with the 
Diorama) burnt down, and the loss estimated at 50,000/., May 27, 1829 : a new one 
has since been erected. The St. James' bazaar was built by Mr. Crockford in 1832. 
There are also the Pantheon, the Western Exchange, &c. 

BEADS. The Druids appear to have used beads. They were early used by Dervises 
and other holy men in the East. Generally used in Catholic devotions, a.d. 1213. 

BEANS, Black and White. Used by the ancients in gathering the votes of the 
people, and for the election of magistrates. A white bean signified absolution, and 
a black one condemnation. The precept of Pythagoras to abstain from beanii 
abslide a fabis, has been variously interpreted. '* Beans do not favour meotai 
tranquillity." — Cicero, 

BEARDS. Various have been the customs of most nations respecting them. The 
Tartars, out of a religious principle, waged a long and bloody war with the Persians, 
declaring them infidels, because they would not cut their beards after the rites of 
Tartary. The Greeks wore their beards till the time of Alexander, who ordered 
the Macedonians to be shaved, lest the beard should give a handle to their enemies, 
330 B.C. Beards were worn by the Romans, 297 b.c. In England, they were not 
fashionable after the Conquest, a.d. 1066, until the thirteenth century, and were 
discontinued at the Restoration. The Russians, even of rank, did not cut their 
beards until within these few years ; and Peter the Great, notwithstanding his enjoin' 
ing them to shave, was obliged to keep officers on foot to cut off the beard by force. 

BEARDS ON WOMEN. A bearded woman taken by the Prussians at the battle of 
Pultowa, and presented to the Czar, Peter I. 1724: her beard measured 1^ yard. 
A woman seen at Paris with a bushy beard, and her whole body covered with hair.— 
Diet, de Trivotue. The great Margaret, governess of the Netherlands, had a very long 
stiff beard. In Bavaria, in the time of Wolfius, a virgin had a long black beani. 

BEAULIEU, Abbey of. Founded by king John in the New Forest, Hampshire: 
here Margaret of Anjou sought reflige after the defeat and death of the earl of 
Warwick at the battle of Barnet, April 14, 1471. See Bamet, Battle of. 

BEAUVAIS, Heroines of. On the town of Beauvais being besieged by the duke of 
Burgundy at the head of 80,000 men, the women under the conduct of Jeanne de Is 
Hachette, or Laine, particularly distinguished themselves, and the duke was obliged 
to raise the siege, July 10, 1472. In memory of their noble exploits the females of 
Beauvais walk first in a procession on the anniversary of their deliverance.— /femml^. 

BECKET'S MURDER. Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered at the 
altar, December 29, 1171. Four barons bearing Henry II. say, in a moment of 
exasperation, *' What an unhappy prince am I, who have not about me one man of 
spirit enough to rid me of this insolent prelate," resolved upon Becket's assassination ; 
and rushing with drawn swords into the cathedral of Canterbury, where he was at 
vespers, they anooonced their design, when he cried out, '< I charge you, in the 

BED C 63 3 DEL 

name of the AlncightTt not to hart anj other person here, for none of them have 
been concerned in the late transactions." The confederates then strove to drag him 
from the church ; bnt not being able to do so, on account of his resolute deportment, 
they killed him on the spot with repeated wounds, all which he endured without a 
groan. The bones of Becket were enshrined in gold and set with jewels, in 1220 ; 
and were taken up and burned in the reign of Henrj VI 11. 1539. — Stoice, 

BED. The practice nniyersal in the first ages, for mankind to sleep upon the skins of 
beasts. — Whitlaker. This was the custom of the early Greeks and Romans, and of 
the Britons, before the Roman inyasion. They were afterwards changed for loose 
rushes and heather. Straw followed, and was used in the royal chambers of England 
■o late as the dose of the 15th century. The Romans were the first who used feathers. 

BEER. See Ale, A beverage of this sort is made mention of by Xenophon, in his 
famous retreat, 401 B.C. Beer was drunk generally in England in the thirteenth 
century. By a law of James I., when there was a kind of duty paid on '* o^ 
called bete** one quart of the best thereof was to be sold for a penny. Subjected to 
ezciae in 1 660. There haye been various statutes passed from time to time regulating 
the sale of beer. In England the number of retailers under the late acts of 1 William 
IV., and 4 William IV. 1834, amount to about 60,000. See Brewers; Porter, 

BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriferous flowers, thyme, and abundance of 
honey, has been poetically called the ** empire of bees." Hymettus, in Attica, is 
also famous for its bees and honey. The economy of bees was admired in the earliest 
ages ; and Enmelus,. of Corinth, wrote a poem on bees, 741 b.c. There are 292 
■pedes of the bee, or apit genus, and 1 1 1 in England. Strange to say, bees were 
not originally natives of New England : they were introduced into Boston by the 
English, in 1670, and have since spread over the whole continent ; the first planters 
never saw any. — Hardu^t America, 

BEET-ROOT. It is of recent cultivation in England. Margraff first produced 
sugar from the white beet-root, in 1747. M. Achard produced excellent sugar from 
it in 1799 ; the chemists of France at the instance of Buonaparte, largely extracted 
sugar from the beet-root in 1800. A refinery of sugar from beet-root was lately 
erected at the Thames-bank, Chelsea. 

BEGUINES. Nuns, first esUbUshed at Liege, and afterwards at Nivelle, in 1207. 
The "Grand Beguinage" of Bruges is the most extensive of modem times.— 
Some of these nuns once fell into the extravagant error that they could, in this life, 
arrive at the highest moral perfection, even to impeccability. The council of Vienne 
condemned this error, and abolished a branch of the order in 1311. 

BEHEADING— or DeeoUatio of the Romans, introduced into England from Nor- 
mandy, (as a less ignominious mode of putting high criminals to death) by William 
the Conqueror, 1074, when Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, Northampton, and 
Northnmberland, was first so executed. — Salmon' t Chron, Our English history is 
filled with instances of this mode of execution, particularly in the reigns of Henry 
VIII., and Mary, when even women of the noblest blood, greatest virtues, and most 
innocent lives, thus suffered death*. 

BEHRING'S STRAIT. Explored by a Danish navigator in the service of Russia 
whose name it bears. Behring thus established that the continents of Asia and 
America are not united, but are distant from each other about thirty-nine miles, 1728. 

BELFAST. First mentioned about a.d. 1315. Its castle is supposed to have been 
built by John de Courcy, then destroyed by the Scots, under Edward Bruce. Belfast 
was granted by James 1. to Sir Arthur Chichester, then lord deputy, 1612. It was 
erected into a corporation, 1613. The long bridge, 2,000 feet in length, and of 21 
arches, was commenced in 1682. William III. resided here several days, June, 
1690. Here was printed the first edition of the Bible published in Ireland, 1 704. 

* Amoof other fastanoea (besides queens of England), may be mentioned the lady Jane Grey, 
beheaded Feb. IS, 1064 ; and the venerable oonnteis of Salisbury,— the latter remarkable for her 
rmitiuntm ot the ezeoationer. When he directed her to lay her head on the block, she refused to do it ; 
toUing him, that she knew of no guilt, and would not submit to die like a criminaL He por- 
soed her round and round tibe seaflbid, aiming at her hoary head, and at length took it off, after 
HMnglhig the oeok and shoulders of the Ulualrious victim in a horrifying manner. She was daughter 
of George, duke of Clarawe, and last of the royal Ihie of Plantagenet May 27. 1541.— /fum*. 





The castle was burnt, April, 1708. The bank built 1787. The mechanica' inttitate 
established ] 825. The merchants of Belfast are the only commercial men in 
Ireland who ha?e uniformly used their own vessels as the carriers of their own trade. 
—Hardy's Tour, 

BELGIUM. Late the southern ]>ortion of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and 
anciently the territory of the Belgce, who were conquered by Julias Caesar, 47 b.c. 
Under the dominion of France so late as a.d. 1369 ; formed into a kingdom in 1831. 

Became an aoquisition of the house of 
Austria 1477 

Charles V. annexed the Metherlands to 
the crown of Spain .... 

Seven provinces, under William, prinoe 
of Orange, revolt, owing to the tyranny 
of Philip n. ; freed .... 

The ten remaining provinces are given 
to the archduke .... 

These again fall to Spain . 

Seven again ceded to Germany 

And three to France 

Austrians exi)elled ; but their rule after- 
wards restored 

The French entered Belgium . Nov. 1, 1792 

United to France . . Sept 90, ITM 

Placed under the sovereignty of the house 
of Orange 

Tho revolution commences at Brussels, 

Aug. 25, 

The Provisional Ctovemment declares 
Belgium independent Oct. 4, 

The Belgian troops take Antwerp ; the 
Dutch are driven to the citadel* from 
whence they cannonade the town, 

Oct 27. 1830 








the Allied Powers, announced by "Van 
dcr Weyer . Dec S6, ll» 

Duke de Nemours elected king ; bat hiM 
father, the king of France, refuses his 
consent .... Feb. 3, 1831 

M. Surlet de Chokicr is elected regent 
of Belgium . F^. 24, 18» 

Leopold, prince of Ck>bouig. is elected 
king .... July 12. 1831 

He enters Brussels . . July 19, 133) 

The king of the Netherlands recom- 
mences the war . . Aug: X Id 

[France sends 50.000 troops to aaslaC Bd- 
glum, and an armistice ensues.] 

A conference of the ministers of the five 
great powers is hold in London, whidi 
terminates in the acceptance of the 24 
articles of pacification . Nov. 15, 1831 

Leopold marries Louise, eldest daughter 
of Louis Philippe . . . Aug. 9. 1832 

The French army returns to Fraaoe, 

Deo. 27. 1832 

Riot at Bmss^ (see BrutteU); mndi 
mischief oisues . . . April 6, I83( 

Treaty between Holland and Belgium 
signed in London . . April 19, 1838 

Belgian independence acknowledged by 

This last treaty arose out of the conference held in London on the Belgian question ; 
by the decision of which, the treaty of November 15, 1831, was maintained, and the 
pecuniary compensation of sixty millions of francs, offered by fielginm for the terri- 
tories adjudged to Holland, was declared inadmissible. 

BELGRADE, Battlk of, between the German and Turkish armies, in which the latter 
was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, fonght 1456. Belgrade was taken bj 
Solyman, 1522 ; and re-taken by the Imperialists in 1688, from whom it again reverted 
to the Turks in 1690. Taken by prince Eugene in 1717 (tee neat article), and kept 
till 1739, when it was ceded to the Turks. It was again taken in 1789, and restored 
at the peace of Reichenbach, in 1790. 

BELGRADE, Sirgb of. The memorable siege, so often quoted, was undertaken in 
May, 1717, under prince Eugene. On August 5, of that year, the Turkish anny, of 
200,000, approached to relieve it, and a battle was fought, in which the Turks lost 
20,000 men ; after which Belgrade surrendered. Be^frade has been freqnea^ 
besieged. See Sieves, 

BELL, BOOK, and CANDLE ; an ecclesiastical ceremony of the Romish diorch, used 
in excommunication, tohich tee, and also Interdict. The bell is rung, the book doted, 
and candle extinguished ; the effect being to exclude the excommunicated firom the 
Kodety of the faithful, depriving them of die benefits of divine service and ^ sacrt- 
ments. — Pardon. Swearing by bell, book, and candle, is said to have originated in 
the manner of the pope's blessing the world yearly from the balcony of St. Peter's, 
at Rome. 

BELL-ROCK LiOHT-nousB ; justly esteemed as one of the finest stmctnres of the kind 
in Great Britain. It is nearly in front of the Frith of Tay, and is 115 feet high ; 
built upon a rock that measures 427 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and if 
about 12 feet under water. Upon this rock, tradition says, the abbots of the andent 
monastery of Aberbrothock succeeded in fixing a bell in such a manner that it was rang 
by the impulse of the sea, so as to warn mariners of their impending danger. Traditioa 
also tells us, that this apparatus was carried away by a Dutchman, who, to oonptoC* 




the story, was afterwmrds lost upon the rock, with his ship and crew. The present 
lighthoose was commenced in 1806 ; it is provided with two bells, for hasy weather 
and hence its name. * 

BELLAIR, Battlk of, in America. The town was attocked by the British forees 
ander command of sir PMer Parker ; but, after an obstinate eongement, in which 
the result was a long time donbtfd, they were repulsed with considerable loss 
and their gallant commander was killed, Aug. 30, 1814. ' 

BELLEISLE ; erected into a duchy in fayour of marshal Belleislc, in 1742, in reward 
of lus briUiant mUitory and diplomatic services, by LouU XV. Belleisle was taken 
by the Bntish forces under commodore Keppel and general Hodgson, after a despe- 
rate resistance, June 7, 1761 ; but it was restored to France in 1763. 

BELLES-LETTRES, or Politk Lbarnino. We owe the revival of the belles-lettres 
in Europe, after the darkness of previous ages, to Brunetto, Latini, and other learned 
men in diflFcrent countries, about a.d. 1272.— Gen. Hisl. Learning greatly pro- 
moted by the Medici family in Italy, about 1550.— Fontona. Literature began to 
flourish in France, Germany, and England, about this time. The beUes-lettres 
commenced with us in the reign of Elizabeth, and flourished in that of Anne. 

BELLMEN, first appointed in London, to proclaim the hour of the nigni before 
poblic clocks became -general. They were numerous about a. d. 1556. The bell- 
man was to ring his bell at night, and ery, <• Take care of your fire and candle, be 
charitable to the poor, and pray for the deMd,**—Northouck'g Hutory of London, 

BELLOWS. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have been the inventor of them, 
about 569 b.c. To him is also ascribed the invention of tinder, the potter's wheel, 
anchors for ships, &c. Bellows were not used in the furnaces of the Roman?. 

BELLS. Used among the Jews, Greeks, Roman Catholics, and heathens. The 
responses of the Dodontean oracle were in part conveyed by bells. — Strabo. The 
monument of Porsenna was decorated by pinnacles, each surmounted by bells. — 
PUmff, Introduced by Paulinus, bishop of Nola, in Campagna, about a.d. 400. 
First known in France in 550. The army of Clothair II., king of France, was 
frighted from the siege of Sens by the ringing of the bells of St Stephen's church. 
The second Excerption of our Egbert, in 750, commends every priest, at the proper 
hours, to sound the bells of his church. Bells were used in churches by order of pope 
John IX., as a difenoe^ by ringing them, agMnsi thunder and lightning, about 900. 
First cast in England by Turkeytel, chancellor of England, under Edmund I. His 
successor improved the invention, and caused the first tuneable set to be put up at 
C^land abbey, 960.— ^totoe. 

Great BeU of St. Panl'i» weighs 
QxmX Tom of Linooln 
Gnat Tom of Oxford . 
BeU of the Palasao, Florence . 






St Peter's, at Rome . 
Great Bell at Erf lurth . 
St. Ivan's Bell, Moacow 
BeU of the Kremlin 





The last is the great unsuspended bell, the wonder of travellers. Its metal alone is 
valued, at a very low calculation, at j£66,565 sterling. In its fusion great quantities 
of gold and silver were thrown in as votive offerings by the people. 

BBLLS, Bapttsm ov. They were eariy anointed and baptised in churches. — Du Fres- 
netf. The bells of the priory of Little Dunmow, in Essex, were baptised by the 
namee of St Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinity, &c., in 1501.— fTeeoer. 
The great bell of Notre Dame, in Paris, was baptised by the name of Duke of Angou- 
ttme, in 1816. On the Continent, in Cathohc states, they baptise bells as we do 
ships, but with religioits solemnity. — A$he, 

BBLLS, RiiTGiKG ov, in changes or regular peals, is almost peculiar to EngUnd ; and 
the English boaat of having brought the practice to an art. There were formeriy 
societies of ringera in London.— j^oUm. A sixth bell was added to the peal of five, 
in the chueh of St. Michael, 1430.— 5/oce0'< Survey. Nell Gwynne left the ringers 
of the chnreh bells of St. MartinVin-the-Fields, where there is a peal of twelve bells, 
a torn of moaej for a weekly entertainment, 1687. 

BENARES, a holy city of the Hindoos, abounding in temples. It was ceded by the nabob 
of Oude, Asoph ud Dowlah, to the English, in 1775. An insurrection took place 
bere. which bad nearly proved fatal tothe British interests in Hindostan, 178 1 . The 

F 2 

BEN C 66 ] BEN 

rajah, Cheyt Sing, was deposed in consequence of it, in 1783. Mr. Cherrj, capt Con- 
way, and others, were basely assassinated here by visier Aly, Jan. 14, 1 799. — Sm In^, 

BENCOOLEN. The English East India Company made a settlement here, which pre- 
served to them the pepper trade after the Dutch had dispossessed them of Bantam, 
1682. — Anderson. York Fort was erected by the East India Company, 1690. la 
1693, a dreadful mortality raged here, occasioned by the town being baUt on a pes- 
tilent morass : among those who perished were the governor and coancil. Marlbo- 
rough fort built, 1714. The French, under count D'Estaign, destroyed the English 
settlement, 1760. Bencoolen was reduced to a residency under the government of 
Bengal, in 1801. See India. 

BENDER, memorable as the asylum of Charles XII. after his defeat at Poltowi, 
July 8, 1709. Peace of Bender concluded in 1711. Bender was taken by storm, by 
the Russians, in 1770 ; and was again taken in 1789. Restored at the peace of 
Jassy ; but retained at the peace of 1812. 

BENEDICTINES. An order of monks founded by Benedict, who was the first that intro- 
duced the monastic life into the western part of Europe, in the beginning of the siith 
century. No religious order has been so remarkable for extent, wealth, and mend 
note, as the Benedictine. It spread over a large portion of Europe, but was super- 
seded in the vast influence it possessed by other religious communitiea, about a.d. 
1100. The Benedictines appeared early in England ; and William I. built them an 
abbey on the plain where the battle of Hastings was fought, 1066. See BeUtelJbbeg* 
William de Warrenne, earl of Warren, built them a convent at Lewes, in Essex, ia 
1077. At Hammersmith is a nunnery, whose inmates are denominated BenedictiM 
dames. — Leigh. Of this order, it is reckoned, that there have been 40 popes, 200 
cardinals, 50 patriarchs, 116 archbishops, 4600 bishops, 4 emperors, 12 empresses, 
46 kings, 41 queens, and 3600 saints. Their founder was canonisedL — Baronku. 

BENEFICES. Clerical benefices originated in the twelfth century ; till then the 
priests were supported by alms and oblations at mass. All that should become 
vacant in the space of six months were given by pope Clement VII. to his nephev, 
in 1534. — Notitia Monastica. The number of benefices in England, according to 
parliamentary returns, is 10,533, and the number of glebe-houses 5,527 ; these are 
exclusive of bishoprics, deaneries, canonries, prebendaries, priest-vicars, lay-vicars, 
secondaries, and similar church preferments. The number of parishes is 11,077, 
and of churches and chapels about 12,000. The number of benefices in Ireland 
is 1456, to which there are not more than about 900 glebe-houses attached, the rest 
having no glebe-houses — See Church of England. 

BENEFIT OF CLERGY. A privilege first enjoyed only by clergymen, bat afterwards 
extended to lettered laymen, relating to divers crimes, and particularly manslaughter. 
The ordinary gave the prisoner at the bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic 
character, from which to read a verse or two ; and if the ordinary said "Legit fU 
clericus" the offender was only burnt in the hand, otherwise he suffered death, 3 
Edward I., 1274. This privilege was abolished with respect to murderers and other 
great criminals, as also the claim of sanctuary, by Henry VIH., 1513.— 5Anp«. 
Benefit of clergy was wholly repealed by statute 7 and 8 George IV., June 1827.— 
See Clergy y Benefit of. 

BENEFIT SOCIETIES. These institutions originated among the humble and 
industrious classes in England. An act was passed for the r^^tion of them in 
1795, since when various statutes for their protection and encouragement have 
served to raise them into great usefulness and importance. Building societies and 
Friendly societies have also been promoted by the protection afforded to them by the 
legislature. The Benefit and other societies having accumulated large amounts of 
money, a plan was adopted to identify their funds with the public debt of the 
country. — See Savings Banks. 

BENEVENTO. Near here was erected the triumphal arch of Trajan, a.d. 114. 
Benevento was formed into a duchy by the Lombards, a.d. 571. The castle boilt 
1323 ; the town nearly destroyed by an earthquake, 1688 — again, 1703. Sosed bj 
the king of Naples, but restored to the pope on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. 

BENGAL. Of the existence of Bengal as a separate kingdom, there is no record. 
It was ruled by governors delegated by the sovereigns of Delhi in 1340, when it 
became independent, until 1560. It afterwards fell to the Mogul emDire.— See InSm, 

BEN C 67 ] BER 

the dreadful affair of the Black-hole 
{which tee) ; . a.d. 1706 

Retaken by Ck>loiiel Clive . . . . 1757 
New fort at Calcutta commenced . . 17M 
Imperial grant vesting the revenues of 
Bengal in the Company, by which the 
virtual sovereignty of the country was 
obtained Aug. 18, 1765 

Celebrated India-bill ; Bengal made the 

chief presidency . . June 16, 1779 
Supreme court established . June 16, 177S 
Courts of Judicature erected for civil 
causes .... Feb. 11, 1798 
See India. 

BENGAL, continued. 

The English were first permitted to 
trade to Bengal . aj>. 1534 

First regular despatch received by the 
Company at home .... 1648 

Oppressicm of the natives — the Com- 
pany's factories withdrawn . . 1656 

Factoriesof the French and Danes . 1664 

Bengal made a distinct agency . . . 1680 

First factory at Calcutta . . 1690 

The Settlements fir&t placed in a state of 
defence 1694 

Calcutta bought, and fortified . . . 1700 

Its garrison conidsted of only 129 soldiers, 
of whom but 66 were Europeans . 1706 

Calcutta taken by Sun^ah Dowla ; and 

BERBICE, in Guiana, surrendered to the British by the Dutch, April 23, 1796, and 
again Sept. 22, 1803. It was placed in the same relation as to trade with the 
British West India Islands in 1816| and is now a British colony. — See Cokmiea, 

BERESINA, Battlk of. Total defeat of the French main army by the Russians on 
the banks of the Beresina, followed by their disastrous passage of it when escaping ont 
of Russia. The French lost 20,000 men in the battle, and in their retreat the 
career of their glory was closed, Nov. 28, 1812. 

BERGEN, Battlk of, between the French and allies, the latter defeated, April 14, 
1759. The allies again defeated by the French with great loss, Sept. 19, 1799. 
In another battle, fought Oct. 2, same year, the allies lost 4,000 men ; and on the 
6tby they were again defeated before Alkmaer, losing 5,000 men. On the 20th, the 
duke of York entered into a convention by which he exchanged his army for 6,000 
French and Dutch prisoners in England. 

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, whose works were deemed impregnable, taken by the French, 
Sept 16, 1747, and again in 1794. Here, a gallant attempt was made by the 
British, under Graham, to carry the fortress by storm, but it was defeated ; after 
forcing an entrance their retreat was cut off, and a dreadful slaughter ensued ; 
nearly all were cut to pieoes or made prisoners, March 8, 1814. 

BERKELEY CASTLE, begun by Henry I. in 1108, and finished in the next reign. 
Here Edward II. was traitorously and cruelly murdered by the contri?ance of his 
queen Isabella (a princess of France), and her favourite and paramour, Mortimer, 
earl of March. This wicked woman first deserted, next invaded, then dethroned, 
and lastly caused her unhappy king and husband to be inhumanly deprived of life 
by the most frightful means, in Berkeley castle, Sept. 21, 1327. Mortimer was 
hanged on a gibbet at the Elms, near London, Nov. 29, 1330; and Edward III. confined 
his guilty mother in her own house at Castle Rising, near Lynn, in Norfolk, till 
her death. 

BERLIN. Founded by the margrave Albert, sumamed the Bear, in 1163. Its five 
districts were united under one magistracy, in 1714 ; and it was subsequently made 
the capital of Prussia. This city was taken by an army of Russians, Austrians, and 
Saxons, in 1760, but they were obliged to retire in a few days. On Oct. 27, 1806, 
thirteen days after the battle of Jena, the French entered Berlin, and from its palacci 
Napoleon issued his famous Berlin decree. — See next article, 

BERLIN DECREE, a memorable interdict against the commerce of England. It 
declared the British islands to be in a state of blockade, and all Englishmen found 
in countries occupied by French troops were to be treated as prisoners of war ; 
the whole world, in fact, was to cease from any communication with Great Britain ; 
issued by Buonaparte from the court of the Prussian king, shortly after the battle of 
Jena (which, for the time, decided the fate of Prussia), Nov. 21,1806. — See Jena. 

BERLIN, CoMYKMTiON OF, entered into vrith Prussia by Buonaparte, Nov. 5, 1808. 

By t^if treaty, the French emperor remitted to Prussia the sum due on the war-debt, 

and withdrew his troops from many of the fortresses in order to reinforce his 

armies in Spain* 
BERMUDAS, owl SOMMERS' ISLES, discovered by Joao Bermudas, a Spaniard, in 

1527 ; but they were not inhabited until 1609, when sir George Sommers was cast 

BER C 68 ] BIB 

away upon them. They were settled by a statute of 9 James I. ]6]2. Awful ud 
memorable hurricane here, Oct 31, 1780. Another, by which a third of the hooses 
was destroyed, and all the shipping driven ashore, July 20, 1813. 

BERNARD , MOUNT St. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginian army bj 
this pass into Italy ; and it was by the same route that Buonaparte \A hia troops to 
the plains of Lombardy, before the battle of Marengo, fought June 14, 1800. 

BERNARDINE MONKS. Thisorder was founded by Robert, abbot of MoIeme,in 
the twelfth century. On the summit of Great St. Bernard is a lai^e community of 
monks who entertain in their convent all travellers gratis for three days. — Brooke, 

BERWICK. This town was the theatre of many bloody contests between the Engiish 
and Scots ; and while England and Scotland remained two kingdoms, was always 
claimed by the Scots as belonging to them, because it stood on their aide of the rirer. 
Bervrick was burned in 1173, and again in 1216. It was taken from the Soots, sod 
annexed to England, in 1333 ; and after having been taken and retaken many timei, 
was finally ceded to England in 1502. The town surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, 
and afterwards to general Monk. Since the union of the crowns (James I. 1603), 
the fortifications, which were formerly very strong, have been much neglected. 

BESSY BELL and MARY GRAY, the subjects of the popular song, ao dear to Scot- 
land. They were the beautiful daughters of the lairds of Kinvaid and Lednock ; sad 
being neighbours, an affectionate intimacy subsisted between them. A plague broke 
out, and, to avoid it, they retired to a romantic spot, called Bum Braea, where they 
lived some time, but afterwards caught the infection from a young gentleman, an 
admirer of both, who came to visit them in their solitude ; and here tiiey died, snd 
were buried at some distance from their bower, near a beautiful bank of the rirer 
Almond, in 1645. — Greig. 

BETHLEHEM, the birth-place of Christ. The Bethlehemite monks, who had to 
order in England in 1257, are named from this once distinguished city. It nowoon- 
tains a church, erected by the famous St. Helena, in the form of a cross ; also 
a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, where they pretend to show the manger 
in which Christ was laid ; another, called the Chapel of Joseph ; and a third, of the 
Holy Innocents. Bethlehem is much visited by pUgrims. — Aahe. 

BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL, so cnlled from having been originally the hospital of 
St. Mary of Bethlehem. A royal foundation for the reception of lunatics, incoipo- 
rated by Henry VIII. in 1546. The old Bethlehem Hospital, which was erected in 
the year 1676, on the east side of Moorields, was pulled down in 1814. It wu 
built in imiution of the Tuileries at Paris ; and this copy of his palace gave so 
mnch offence to Louis XIV., that he ordered a plan of St. Jamea'i palace to be 
taken for offices of a very inferior nature. The present hospital was commenced 
AprU 20, lS\2.—Leigh. 

BEYROUT. This city, which was colonised from Sidon, was destroyed by an earth- 
quake, A.D. 566. It was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed by the Christians and 
Saracens ; and after a frequent change of masters, fell into the power of Amurath IV., 
since when it remained with the Ottoman empire up to the revolt of Ibraham Pacha, 
in 1832. Total defeat of the Egyptian army by the allied British, Turkish, and 
Austrian forces, and evacuation of Beyrout, the Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, and 20 pieces of cannon, Oct. 10, 1840. 

BUURTPORE, India, besieged by the British, Jan. 3, 1805, and attacked five times, 
up to March 21, without success. The fortress was taken by general Lake, after a 
desperate engagement with Holkar, April 2, 1805. The defeat of Holkar led to s 

• treaty, by which the rajah of Bhurtpore agreed to pay twenty lacs of rupees, and 
ceded the territories that had been granted to him by a former treaty, delivering ap 
his son as hostage, April 10, 1805. Bhurtpore was taken by storm, by lord Comber- 
mere, Jan. 18, 1826. See India. 

BIARCHY. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, he left two sona twins, Eniy- 
sthenes and Procles ; and the people not knowing to whom precedence should be 
given, placed them both upon the throne, and thus established die first biarcfay, 1103 
B.C. The descendants of each reigned alternately for 800 years. — Herodohu. 

BIBLE. The first translation from the Hebrew into the Greek was made by seventy* 
two interpreters, by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; it is thence called the Septoa- 

5 y^J.^/,^^ t^ ^ //Si»^ 

BIB [ tJ9 3 BIO 

gint vertion, and was completed in lerenty-two days, at Alexandria, 277 b.c.—- 
Jo$ephu9, It was commenced 284 b.c. — Lenglet, In 283. — Blair. The Jewish 
sanhedrim consisted of serenty or seventj-two members ; and hence, prohably, the 
seventy or se?enty.two translators of Josephus. — Hewlett. The seventy-two were 
shut up in thirty-six cells, and each pair translated the whole ; and on subsequent 
comparison, it was found that the thirty-six copies did not vary by a word or 
a letter. — Justin Martyr. 

BIBLE, Amciknt copiks of thb. The oldest Tersion of the Old and New Testament 
belonging to the Christians, is that in the Vatican, which was written in the fourth 
or fifth century, and published in 1587. The next in age is the Alexandrian MS., 
in the British Museum, presented by the Greek patriarch to Charies I., and said to 
have been copied nearly about the same time. The most ancient copy of the Jewish 
Scriptures existed at Toledo, about a.d. 1000 ; and the copy of Ben Asher, of Jeru- 
salem, was made about 1100. 

BIBLE, Bishops'. Bishop AUey prepared the Pentateuch ; bishops Daris and Sandys, 
the Historical Books ; bishop Bentham, the Psalms, &c. ; bishop Home, the l4o- 
phets ; bishop Grindal, the Minor Prophets ; bishops Parkhurst and Barlow« the 
Apocrypha ; bishop Cox, the Gospels and Acts ; and archbishop Parker, the remain- 
der. Printed a.d. 1558. 

BIBLE, DiYiSiON OF THB. The Bible was divided into twenty-two books by the Jews, 
the number of letters in the alphabet The Christians divided the Bible into thirty- 
nine books. The Hebrew division into chapters was made by the rabbi Nathan, 
about 1445. Our Bible was divided into chapters, and a part into verses, by arch- 
bidiop Langton, who died in 1228 ; and tlus division was perfected by Robert 
Stephens, abiout 1534. 

BIBLE, Editioms of thb. The vulgate edition, in Latin, was made by St. Jerome, 
A.D. 405 ; and is that acknowledged by the Catholic church to be authentic \ it was 
first printed in 1462. — Blair. The first perfect edition in English was finished, 
as appears from the colophon, by Tindal and Coverdale, Oct. 4, 1535. A revision 
of this edition was made, 1538-9. This last was ordered to be read in churches, 
1549. In 1604, at the conference at Hampton-court (see Conference), a new trans- 
lation was resolved upon, which was executed 1607-11, and is that now generally 
osed in Great Britain. The Bible was first printed in Ireland, at Belfast, in 1704. 
Permitted by the pope to be translated into the language of the Catholic states, 
1759. The Bible was printed in 


. 1478 


. 1581 


. 177 

German . 

. . 15S9 


. . 1588 

Italian . 

. . 177« 


. 1534 

Polish . 

. 1596 


. 1801 


. . 1535 

Modem Greek . 

. . 16^8 


. . 1813 


. 1541 


. 1066 


. 1815 


. . 1550 


. . 1685 

African . 

. . 181« 

Dutoh . 

. 15G0 

Portuguese . 

. 1748 


. 1820 

Editions of the Old and New Testament, separately, appeared in several instances at 
earlier dates, particularly in European languages. The Polyglot Bible, edited by 
Walton, bishop of Chester, in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, Samaritan, Arabic, Ethi- 
epic, Persie, Greek, and Latin languages, 1657. — Wood*t Fasti Oxon. 

BIBLE SOCIETIES. Among the principal and oldest societies which have made the 
dissemination of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive object, are the following : 
— ^The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge was formed 1698 ; Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701 ; Society, in Scotland, for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, 1709 ; Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge among the 
Poor, 1750 ; Naval and MlUtary Bible Society, 1780; Sunday School Society, 1785 ; 
French Bible Society, 1792; British and Foreign Bible Society, 1801 ; Hibernian 
Bible Society, 1806; City of London Auxiliary Bible Society, 1812. A bull from 
the pope against Bible Societies appeared in 1817. 

BIDASSOA, Pasbaok of thb. The allied army, under Lord Wellington, effected the 
passage of this river, Oct. 17, 1813; and the illustrious British chieftain, having 
thus completed his glorious career in Spain and Portugal, now pursued his conquered 
and flying enemy into France. 

BIGAMIf . The Romans branded the guilty parties with an infamous mark ; with us, 
the punishment of this offence, formerly, wss death. The first act respecting it was 

BIL C 70 3 BIR 

pasted 5 Edward I. 1276.— Fin«r> Slatutes. Declared to be felony , without benefit 
of clergy, 1 James I. 1 602. Subjected to the same punishments as grand or petit 
larceny, 35 George III. 1794. — SieUutes ai large, 

BILBO A, Battle op. This place, which had been inrested by the Carlists nnder Yii- 
lareal, and was in considerable danger, was delivered^ by the defeat of the besiegers 
by Espartero, assisted by British naval co-operation. Espartero entered Bilbos in 
triumph next day — Christmas'day, Dec. 25, 1836. 

BILL UP EXCEPTION. The right of tendering to a judge upon a trial between par- 
ties a bill of exceptions to his charge, his definition of the law, or to remedy other 
errors of the court, was provided by the 2d statute of Westminster, 13 Edward 1. 
1284. Such bills are tendered to this day. 

BILL OP RIGHTS. One of the great foundations of the British constitution, was 
obtained from Charles I. by parliament, 1628. This bill recognised all the legal 
privileges of the subject ; and notwithstanding the employment of all manner of arts 
and expedients to avoid it, Charles was constrained to pass it into a law. The Bill 
of Rights, declaratory of the rights of British subjects, passed 1 William and Mary, 
February 1689. This is the only written law respecting the libertiea of the people, 
except Magna Charta,^—Viner*t Statutes, 

BILLS OP EXCHANGE. Invented by the Jews, as a means of removing their pro- 
perty from nations where they were persecuted, a.d. 1160,'— Ander eon. Bills were 
used in England, 1307. — ^The only legal mode of sending money from England, 4th 
Richard II., 1381. Regulated, 1698— first stamped, 1782— duty advanced, 179/— 
again, June 1801 ; and since. It was made capital to counterfeit bills of exchange 
in 1734. In 1825, the year of disastrous speculations in bubbles, it was com- 
puted that there were 400 millions of pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange 
and promissory notes. The present amount is not supposed to exceed 50 millions. 
The many statutes regarding bills of exchange were consolidated by act 9 George IV. 
1828. A new act regulating bills of exchange, passed 3 Victoria, July 1839. 

BILLS OP MORTALITY por London. These bills were first compiled about 
A.D. 1536, but in a more formal and recognised manner in 1593, after the great 
plague of that year ; and however imperfect they still are, they yet afford valvable 
materials for computation on the duration of life ; no complete series of them hu 
been preserved. The following are returns, showing the numben at decennial dis- 
tances, within the last sixty years : — 

In the year 1780, Christenings . . 16.634 

1700. Christoninga . . 18,960 

1800. Christenings . . 19.176 

1810. Christenings . . 19.990 

1830. Christenings . . 96.158 

1830, Christenings . . 27,028 

1840. Christenings . . 30.387 

BILLIARDS. Invented by the French, by whom, and by the Germans, Dutch, and 
Italians, they were brought into genersl vogue throughout Europe. — iVott«. Did. 
The French ascribe their invention to Henrique Devigne, an artist, in the reign vf 
Charles IX., about 1571. Slate billiard-tablea were introduced in England in 1827. 

BILLINGSGATE, the celebrated market-place for fish, in London, is said to have 
derived its name from Belinus Magnus, a British prince, the father of king Lud. — 
Mortimer, It was the old port of London, and the customs were paid there under 
Ethelred II., 979,~'Stowe, Billingsgate was made a free market, 1669.— CAaw- 
berlain. Fish by /and-carriage, as well as searbome, now daily arrives here. 

BINARY ARITHMETIC, that which counts by twos, for expeditiously ascertaming 
the property of numbers, and constructing tables, was invented by L«ibnitx, baroB 
of Leipsic, the celebrated statesman, philosopher, and poet, a.d. 1694. — Mareri. 

BINOMIAL ROOT, in algebra, composed of only two parts connected with the signs 
plus or minui ; the term was first used by Records, about a.d. 1550, when he pub- 
lished his Algebra. The binomial theorem, the celebrated theorem of Newton, wu 
invented in 1688. 

BIRCH TREE, the Black {Betula nigra), brought from North America, 1736. The 
birch tree known as the Betula pumila, introduced into Kew-gardens, England* 
by Mr. James Gordon, from North America, 1762. 

In the year 1780, Burials . 

. »,Sfl7 

1790. Burials 

. . 18,098 

1800. Burials . 

. 23.008 

1810, Burials 

. . I9.80 

1820. Burials . 

. 19,318 

1830, Burials 

. . 23,aM 

1840, Burials . 

. «6.774 

BIH C 71 ] BM 

BIRDS. Divided by lAnnmuB into six orders ; by Blamenbach into eight ; and by 
Cnrier into six. Man is specially enjoined not to harm the nest of the bird : 
'* If a bird's nest chance to be before thee in the way in any tree, or on the ground, 
whether they be young ones or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon 
the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the young/' — Deuteronomy, xzii. 6. 

BIRMINGHAM. This town existed in the reign of Alfred, a.d. 872; but its im- 
portanoe as a manufacturing town commenced in the reigu of William III. Bir- 
mingham was besieged and taken by prince Rupert in 1643. The great works of 
Soho were established by the illustrious engineer, Matthew Boulton, in 1764. The 
Birmingham canal was originated by act of parliament, 1 768. The memorable riots 
commenced here, July 14, 1791, on some persons commemorating the French revo- 
lution. The theatre was destroyed by lire, August 17, 1792. More commotions, 
NoY. 1800. The theatre again burnt in 1817 ; and again, Jan. 7, 1820. The Bir- 
mingham Political Union was formed in 1831 ; it dissolved itself May 10, 1834. The 
town-hall was built in 1833. The Birmingham and Liverpool railway was opened 
as the Grand Junction, July 4, 1837. The London and Birmingham railway was 
opened its entire length, Sept. 17, 18.38. Great political riot, firing of houses, and 
wber outrages committed by the chartists, July 15, 1839. The Birmingham police 
act passed, 3 Victoria, 1839. 

BIRTHS. Parish registers of them, and of marriages and burials, were instituted by 
Cromwell, earl of Essex, 28 Henry VIII. 1536. The births of children were taxed 
in England, yiz. : birth of a duke, 30/.^-of a common person, 2s, — 7 Wm. III. 1695. 
Taxed again, 1783. The instances of four children at a birth are numerous ; but 
the most extraordinary delivery recorded in modem times is that of a woman of 
Konigsberg, who had five children at a birth, September 3, 1783. — Phillips, The 
wife of a man named Nelson, a journeyman tailor, of Oxford-market, London, had 
five children at a birth, in October 1800. — Annals of London. 

BISHOPS. The name was given by the Athenians to those who had the inspection of 
the city. The Jews and Romans had also a like officer ; but now it means only 
that person who has the government of church affairs in a certain district. In Eng- 
land, the dignity is coeval with Christianity. St. Peter, the first bishop of Rome, 
was martyred a.d. 33. The bishops of Rome assumed the title of pope in 138. 
Tlie rank was anciently assumed by all bishops ; but it was afterwards ordained that 
the title of pope should belong only to the occupant of St. Peter's chair. — Warner. 

BISHOPS OF ENGLAND. See them severally. The first was appointed in a.d. 180. 
Bee Fork, London. They were made barons, 1072. The Cong^ d'Elire of the 
king to choose a bishop originated in an arrangement of king John with the clergy. 
Bishops were elected by the king's Cong4 d^Elire, 26 Henry VIII. 1535. Seven 
were deprived for being married, 1554. Several suffered martyrdom under queen 
Mary, 1555-6. See Cranmer. Bishops were excluded from voting in the house of 
peers on temporal concerns, 16 Charles I. 1640. Twelve were committed for high 
treaaoD, in protesting against the legality of all acts of parliament passed while they 
remained deprived of tibeir votes, 1641. Regained their seats, Nov. 1661. Seven 
were sent to the Tower for not reading the king's declaration for liberty of con- 
■dence, contrived to bring the Catholics into ecclesiastical and civil power, and were 
tried, and acquitted, June 29-30, 1688. The archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. San- 
croft) and five bishops were suspended for refusing to take the oaths to William and 

Mary, 1689, and were deprived 1690 Warner's Eccles. Hist. The sees of 

Bristol and Gloucester were united, and that of Ripon created, in 1836 ; and by an 
order in council issued in October 1838, the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph are to be 
nnited on the next vacancy in either, and Manchester, a new see, is to be created 
thereapon.-»See Manchester, 

BISHOPS ov IRELAND. See them severally. Bishops are said to have been con- 
•eerated in this country as early as the second century. The bishopric of Ossory, first 
planted at Saiger, was founded a.d. 402, thirty years before the arrival of St. Patrick. 
The bishopric of Trim has been named as the first by some writers, although not 
erected before anno 432. Prelacies were constituted, and divisions of the bishoprics 
in Ireland made, by cardinal Paparo, legate from pope Eugene III. a.d. 1151. 
Several prelates were deprived by queen Mary, 1554. One suffered death ignomini- 
OQflly, 1640. Two were depriv^ for not taking the oaths to William and Mary, 

BIS C 72 ] BLA 

1691. One was depriTed (Clogher) in 1822. The Church Temporalities Act, for 
reducing the number of bishops in IreUnd, 3 and 4 William IV. August 1833. By 
this statute, of the four archbishopricSp of Armagh, Dublin, Tnam, and Cashd, the 
last two were abolished on the decease of the then archprelates, which has nnce 
occurred ; and it was enacted that eight of the then eighteen bishoprics should, 
as they became void, be thenceforth united to other sees, yiz. : 

Bishoprics when and m void to bt unUed to ArekbUhoprie* and bi^kaprict to nMeft 
other archbiihopries or bishoprics : those becoming void are to be nnited: 

1. Dromore . . to be united to . Down and ConnoE. 

9. liaphoe . . . to be united to . Deny. 

3. Clogher . . . . to be united to . Anna^. 

4. Elphin . . . to be united to . Kilmore. 

5. Killala and Achonry . . to be united to . Tuam, now a bidK^rle only. 

6. Clonfert and Kilmaoduagh to be united to . Killaloe and Kilfenora. 

7. Kildare . to be united to . Dublin and Olanddagh. 

8. Ossory to be united to . Feraa and Leighlln. 

9l Waterford and Linnore . to be united to . Caflhel and Bmly, now a Udieprie on^y. 
10. Cork and Roas . . . to be united to . Cloyne. 

Since the passing of the above act, six bishoprics have fallen in, and have been 
united to the respective sees, in compliance with it — namely, Kaphoe, Cknfert, 
Killala, Ossory, Waterford, and Cloyne — up to 184&. 

BISHOPS OF SCOTLAND. They were constituted in the fourth century. The see of 
St. Andrew's was founded by Hergnstns, king of the Picts, who, according to a 
legendary tale of this prelacy, encouraged the mission of Regulos, a Greek monk of 
Patne, about a.d. 370. The bishops were deprived of their sees, and episoopscy 
abolished in Scotland at the period of the revolution, 1688-9. Warner's Eeeset. Hist. 
— ^There are now, however, six bishops belonging to the Scotch Episcopal Chorckf 
vis : Aberdeen, Brechin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Moray, and St. Andrew's. 

BISHOPS, Precedency of, was settled by statute 31 Henry VIII. to be next to 
viscounts, they being barons of the realm, 1540 ; and they have the title of Lord, 
and Right Rev, Fattier in God, The archbishops of Canterbury and York, taking 
place of all dukes, have the title of Grace, The bishops of London, Durham, 
and Winchester have precedence of all bishops ; the others rank according to the 
seniority of consecration. A late contest in Ireland between the bishops of Meath 
and Kildare for precedency was decided in favour of the former, who now ranks after 
the archbishop of Dublin. The others rank according to consecration. 

BISHOPS IN AMERICA. The first was the Right Rev. Doctor Samuel Seabnry, con- 
secrated bishop of Connecticut by four nonjuring prelates, at Aberdeen, in Scotland, 
November 14, 1784. The bishops of New York and Pennsylvania were consecrated 
in London, by the archbishop of Canterbury, Feb. 4, 1787 ; and the bishop of Vir- 
ginia in 1790. The first Catholic bishop of the United States, was Dr. Carroll of 
Maryland, in 1789. Various colonial bishoprics have latterly been erected. 

BISSEXTILE OR LEAP YEAR. An intercalary day was thrown into every fourth 
year to adjust the calendar, and make it agree with the sun's coarse. It originated 
with Julius Caesar, who ordered a day to be counted before the 24th of February, 
which among the Romans was the 6th of the calends, and which was therefore 
reckoned twice, and called bissextile : this added day we name the 29th of February 
every fourth year, 45 B.C. — See Calendar and Leap Year, ' 

BITH YNIA. Conquered by Croesus, about 560 b.c. ; and again by Alexander, 332 b.c. 
It afterwards recovered its liberty ; but its last king bequeathed it to the Romans, 
40 B.C. In modem history Bithynia makes no figure, except that from its ruins 
rose the Othman Turks, who, in a.d. 1327, took Prusa, its capital, and made it the 
seat of their empire before they possessed Constantinople. 

BLACK BOOK, a book kept in the English monasteries, wherein details of the scan- 
dalous enormities practised in religious houses were entered for the inspectioB of 
visitors, under Henry VIII., 1535, in order to blacken them and hasten theur dissolu- 
tion ; hence the vulgar phrase '* I'll set you down in the bUck book. " 

BLACK-HOLE at CALCUTTA. Here, 146 British genUemen, merchants, and 
others, in tht service of the East India Company, were seized by order of the nabob, 
Surajah Dowlah, and thrust into a dungeon called the ** Black-hole," in the fort, by 
his soldiers. These latter saw that the place was too small for such a number, but 

BLA C 73 1 BLA 

they were afiraid to awaken the nabob, then asleep, for farther orders. One hundred 
and twenty.three of the sufferers died before morning, baring been suffocated by the 
heat, cmshing, and stench of a dungeon only eighteen feet square, June 20, 1756. 
CaicutU was retaken next year, and the nabob was deposed and put to death by his 
successor. — HolweWs India Traeta. 

BLACK MONDAY. In England, this was a memorable Easter Monday, which in 
the 34th of Edward III. "happened to be ftill dark of mist and hail, and so cold, 
that many men died on their horses' backs with the cold/' IZ^.Stowe. In 
Ireland it was the day on which a number of the English were slaughtered at a 
Tillage near DubUn, in 1209. See Cullen't Wood. 

BLACK ROD. The usher belonging to the order of the Garter is so called from the 
blaek-rod he carries in his hand. — Cowel. It has a gold lion at the top and is 
carried by the king's chief gentleman usher, instead of a mace, at the feast of St. 
George at Windsor, instituted a.d. 1349.50. He also keeps the chapter-house door 
when a chapter of the order is sitting, and during the sessions of parliament attends 
the house of lords. 

BLACK-FRI-ARS. Friars of the order of St Dominic, instituted in 1215 by Dominic 
de Gusman, a priest of Spain. They had monasteries throughout Europe, and 
their power, inflaenoe, and authority became almost universal. Among their con- 
Tents in England were those at Oxford and in London, on the banks of the 
Tbamss ; the site and ricinity of the latter are called Blackfiiars to this day. 

BLACKFRIARS-BRIDGE, London. The first stone of this bridge was laid October 
31, 1760 ; and it was completed by Mylne, in 1770, though for some time previously 
made passable. It was Uie first work of the kind executed in England in which 
arches approaching to the form of an ellipsis were substituted for semicircles. It is 
about a thousand feet in length and forty-five wide. Repaired in 1831. The 
tikorongh repair of its arches and piers (which had suffered from the combined 
exciting action of wind and water, and the vicissitudes of temperature) was commenced 
in 1837 ; the carriage-way was closed for the purpose of levelling the centre, and 
reducing the ascent, July 22, 1840 ; and the bridge was again opened, with im- 
proved approaches, October 1, following. 

BLACKGUARD. The name was originally given to the scullions and coal-carriers to 
great houses, and mean dependants who were employed in the lowest offices. — 
Sianihurtt, In modem nomenclature its import has undergone considerable change. 

BLACKHEATH. On this plain the celebrated Walter, the Tiler, assembled his 
100,000 men : his rebellion arose out of the brutal rudeness of a tax-collector to his 
daughter. The indignant plebeian having killed the collector in his rsge, raised 
this multitude of followers to oppose a grievous impost called the poll-tax, June 
12, 1381. Subsequently, in an interview with the king (Richard II.), in Smithfield, 
Tyler having frequently raised his sword in a menacing manner, William of Walworth, 
&en lord mayor of London, struck him down with the mace, and one of the king's 
knights despatched him. His awed followers, on being promised a charter by Richard, 
submitted and dispersed ; but the grant of it was afterwards revoked by parliament. 
Here, also. Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish men encamped, 1451. See Cade. 
Battle of Blackheath, in which the Cornish rebels were defeated and Flannoc's 
insurrection quelled, June 22, 1497. The cavern, on the ascent to Blackheath, 
supposed to have been the retreat of Cade, and the haunt of banditti in the time 
of dromwell, was rediscovered in 1780. 

BLACKWALL. In this neighbourhood are erected the finest commercial docks and 
warehouses in the worid. The West India docks were commenced Feb. 3, 1800, 
and opened Aug. 27, 1802. The East India docks were commenced under an act 
passed July 27, 1803, and opened Aug. 4, 1806. The Bhickwall railway was 
opened to tiie public July 4, 1840 ; the eastern terminus being at BlackwaU wharf, 
and the western in the Minories. 

BLANC COURSIER HERALD. Created by patent, on the revival of the order of the 
Bath, to attend on the first companion of the order, 12 George I. 1725. 

BLANDFORD ASSIZES. Memorable for the death of the jndge,»the jury, sheriflT, 
and many others, who caught an infection from the prisoners, Mlled the jail-fever i 
the dittcoiper In most cases carried off* the infected in forty-eight hours ; 1730. 

BLA C 74 ] BLO 

BLASPHEMY. This crime is recognised both by the civil mnd canon law of England. 
Justinian adjudged it the punishment of death. In Scotland, the tongue was ampu- 
tated. Visited by fine and imprisonment, 9 & 10 William III. 1696-7 .^StatuUi at 
large. In England this offence has been subjected, on some late occasions, to the 
▼isitation of the laws. Daniel IseMC Eaton was tried and convicted in London of 
blasphemy, 13th March, 1812. A protestant clergyman, named Robert Taylor, wss 
tried in London twice for the same crime, and as often conTioted. Tojflor was Isit 
brought to the bar, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, and largely fined, for 
(among other things) reviling the Redeemer in his discourses, July, 1831. Even si 
late as in Dec. 1840, two prosecutions against publishers of blasphemous writingi, 
subjected the offenders to the sentence of the court of Queen's Bench. 

BLAZONRY. The bearing coats-of-arms was introduced, and became hereditary la 
families in France and England, about a.d. 1192, owing to the knights painting their 
banners witb different figures, thereby to distinguish them in the crusadea. — Dugdak. 

BLEACHING. This art was known early in Egypt, Syria, and India. Kdowb in 
ancient Gaul. — Pliny. In the last century an improved chemical system wss 
adopted by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Scotland in 1768. 
There are now immense bleachfields in both countries, particularly in Lancashire, 
and in the counties of Fife, Forfar, and Renfrew, and in the vale of the Levea, in 
Dumbarton. The chemical prooesi of Berthollet was introduced in 1795.'- 
Blanchtment det Toiles, 

BLENHEIM, Battlk of ; between the English and confederates, commanded by the 
duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bavarians, under marshal Tallard and the 
elector of Bavaria, whom Marlborough signally defeated with the loss of 27,000 in 
killed, and 13,000 prisoners, Tallard l^ing among the latter : the electorate of 
Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. The nation testified its gratitude to the 
duke by the gifts of the honour of Woodstock and hundred of Wotton, and erected 
fur him one of the finest seats in the kingdom, known as the domain and house of 
Blenheim. Fought Aug. 2, 1704.— Hume. 

BLINDING, by consuming the eyeballs with lime or scalding vinegar, a punishment 
inflicted anciently on ^ulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In the middle ages they 
dhanged the penalty of total blindness to a diminution of sight. Blinding the con- 
quered was a practice in barbarous states ; and a whole army was deprived of their 
eyes by Dasilius, in the eleventh century. See Bttlgarians. Several of the Eastern 
emperors had their eyes torn from their heads. See article Eastern Empire. 

BLISTERS. They were first made, it is said, of cantharides.^FreindL Blisters are 
said to have been first introduced into medical practice by Aretseus, a physician of 
Cappadocia, about 50 b.c. — Le Clcrc*t Hist, of Physic. 

BLOOD, Circulation of the, through the lungs, first made public by Michael Ser- 
vetus, a Spanish physician, in 1553. Cisalpinus published an account of the genersl 
circulation, of which he had some confused ideas ; improved afterwards by experi- 
ments, 1560. Paul of Venice, commonly called Father Paolo, whose nal name 
was Peter Sarpi, certainly discovered the valves which serve for the dreulation; 
but the honour of the positive discovery of the circulation of the blood belongs to 
onr immortal countryman, Harvey, by whom it was fully confirmed, 1628. — Freind's 
Hist, of Physio. 

BLOOD, Drinking op. Anciently a mode was tried of giving vigour to the system by 
administering blood as a draught. Louis XI., in his last illness, drank the warm 
blood of infants, in the vain hope of restoring his decayed strength, 1438. — Henamlt, 
Eating blood was prohibited to Noah, Gen. iz. ; and to the Jews, Lev. xrii. The 
prohibition repeated by the apostles at the council of Jerusalem, Acts xv. 

BLOOD, Transfusion of. In the fifteenth century an opinion prevailed that the 
declining strength and vigour of old people might be repaired by transfusing the blood 
of young persons, drawn from their veins, into those of the infirm and aged. It wu 
countenanced in France by the physicians, and prevailed for many years, tiU the most 
fatal effects ensued from the operation. Some of the principal nobility having died, 
and others turned raving mad, it was suppressed by an edict. Attempted in France 
in 1797. Practised more recently there, in a few cases, with success ; and in England 
(but the instances are rare) since 1823. — Med. Jour. ** One English physician, 
named Louver, or Lower, practised in this way ; he died in 1691." — FrniuTs Hist. 

BLO L 75 3 B<E 

BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's household, 
and his confederates, seized the dnke of Ormond in his coach, and had got him to 
Tyburn, intending to hang him, when he was rescued bj his friends. Blood after- 
wards, in the disguise of a clergyman, stole the regal crown from the Jewel-office in 
the Tower : yet, notwithstanding these and other offences, he was not only pardoned, 
but had a pension of j^SOO per annum settled on him by Charles II. 1673. 

BLOOMSBURY GANG. An old political knot, that ruled the councils of the king for 
many years, was known by this designation^ in consequence of the then duke of Bed- 
ford being at its head : of this knot was the marquis of Stafford, and other conspicuous 
men of the reign of Greorge III. The marquis of Stafford, the last surriTor of the 
Bloomsbury gang, died Oct. 26, 1803. 

BLOWING M ACH INES. The first cylinders of magnitude, used in blowing machines, 
erected by Mr. Smeaton at the Carron iron-works, 1760. One equal to the supply 
of air for forty forge fires lately erected at the king's dock-yard, Woolwich. By 
means of the Blow-pipk the alkalies are melted, and even volatilised, in a few 
minutes ; rock crystal and quartz are converted into glass ; opal and flint into 
enamel ; blue sapphire, talc, emerald, and lapis lazuli, are converted into glass ; gold 
and diamond are volatilised ; platina and brass wire burn with a green flame ; copper 
melts without burning ; but iron bums with brilliant light. — Phillips. 

BLUE-COAT SCHOOLS. There are numerous schools in the empire under this 
denomination, so called in reference to the costume of the children. The Blue- 
coat ichool in Newgate- Street, London, ii regarded as the first cbariUble founda- 
tion of the kind in the world; it was instituted by Edward VI. in 1552. See 
ChrUt*a Hospital. 

BLUE STOCKING. This term is applied to literary ladies, and was originally conferred 
on a society of literary persons of both sexes. One of the most active promoters of 
the society was Benjamin Stillingfleet, the distinguished naturalist and miscellaneous 
writer, who always wore blue worsted stockings, and hence the name : the society existed 
in 1760, et seq, — Arieo. of Bowyer, The beautiful and fascinating Mrs. Jemingham 
is said to have worn blue stockings at the conversaziones of lady Montague ; and this 
peculiarity also fastened the name upon accomplished women. 

BOADICEA TRANSPORT, with a large body of military on board, stranded in a vio-' 
lent gale near Kinsale, Ireland, when upwards of 200 of the 82nd regiment perished : 
this ^amity was made more deplorable by many attendant circumstances and affecting 
incidents, which produced universal sympathy, Jan. 31, 1816. 

BOARD OF CONTROL. Mr. Pitt's celebrated bill, establishing this board for the 
purpose of aiding and controlling the executive government of India, and of superin- 
tending the territorial concerns of the company, was passed 24 George III. Aug. 1784. 
This act was amended 1786 ; and the board remodelled in 1793. — See India, 

BOARD OF TRADE and PLANTATIONS. Charles II., on his restoration, esta- 
blished a council of trade for keeping a control over the whole commerce of the 
nation, 1660 ; he afterwards instituted a board of trade and plantations, which was 
remodelled by William III. This board of superinspection was abolished in 1782 ; 
and a new council for the affiurs of trade was appointed, Sept. 2, 1786. 

BOATS. Their invention was so early, and their use so general, the art cannot be traced 
to any age or country. Flat-bottomed boata were made in England in the reign of 
the Conqueror: the flat-bottomed boat was again brought into use by Barker, a 
Dutchman, about 1690. The life-boat was first suggested at South Shields ; and one 
was built by Mr. Greathead, the inventor, and was first put to sea, Jan. 30, 1790. 

BOCCACCIO'S BOOK, II DiCAMiROinE, a eoUectionof a hundred stories or novels, 
not of moral tendency ; feigned to have been related in ten days, and, as is said by 
Petrarch, ** ponetiing many charmi." A copy of the first edition (that of Valdafer, 
in I471)wa8 knoeked down, at the duke of Roxburgh's sale, to the duke of Marl- 
borough, for £2260, Jane 17, 1812. This identical copy was afterwards sold, by 
public anction, for 875 guineas, June 5, 1819. 

BCBOTIA, the country of which Thebes was the capital. Thebes was equaUy celebrated 
for ito antiquity, ito grandeur, and theexploita and mbfortones of ita kings and heroes. 
The country was known successively as Aonia, Messapia, Hyantis, Ogygia, Cadmeis, 
and Boeotia ; and it gave birth to Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, Democritus,.Epaminon. 
dat, and the accomplished and beautiful Corinna. 




BCEOTIA, eoniinued. 

Arrival of Cadmui, tho founder of Cad- 

mea mjc 1498 

Reign of Polydore 1450 

LabdaooB aacends the throne . 1480 

Amphiom and Zethua beaiege Thebes* 

and dethrone Lalus .... 1388 
(Edipus, not knowing hia father Laloa, 
Idlla him in an affny, oooflnntng the 
oracle as to his death by the hands of 

his son 1S76 

CEdipus enoounters the Sphinx, and re- 
solves her enigmas .... 1966 
War of the Seven Captains . . . 1S25 
Thebes besieged and taken . . . Iil6 

Thersander reigns in Thebes . • a£.12l5 

The Thebans abolish royalty, and ages 
of obeeority follow . . . .lis 
4e 3|e 3|e 

Battle of Chvronea, in which the The- 
bans defeat the Athenians . .447 

Haliartus, son of Thenander, baUds the 
city so called ** 

E^paminondas defeats the Lacedemonians 
at Leootra, restores his country to in- 
dependence, and puts it in a oonditfon 
to dictate to the rest of Greece . . 371 

Philip, Icing of Ifaoedoo, defsats the 
Thebans and Atiienians, near CtuBrooca 3S 

Alexander destroyed Thebes, the c^Mtal, 

Here the greatness of this coantry ends. 

335 B.C., when the hoase of Pindar alone was left standing, and all the inhabitanti 

were either killed or sold as slayes. — Strabo. 

BOGS. Commonly the remains of fidlen forests, covered with peat and loose soil 
Moving bogs are slips of land carried to lower levels by accumulated water. AcU 
relating to Ireland, for their drainage, passed, March. 1830. The bog-land of Irdand 
has been estimated at 3,000,000 acres ; that of Scotland, at upwards of 2,000,000 ; 
and that of England, at near 1,000,000 of acres. 

BOH, a fierce barbarian general, son of Odin, lived 60 b.c. The exclamation of his naaae 
petrified his enemies, and is yet used to frighten children. 

BOHEMIA. This country was originally governed by dukes : the title of king was 
obtained from the emperor Henry IV. The kings at first held their territory of the 
Empire, but they at length threw off the yoke : the crown was elective till it came into 
the nouse of Austria, in which it is now hereditary. — See Germany, 

The Sdavonians, seiaing Bohemia, are 
ruled by dukes .... a.d. 

City of Prague founded . . . . 

Introduction of Christianity . . 

Bohemia conquered by the emperor 
Henry IIL, who spreads devastation 
through the country .... 

The regal title is conferred on Uratislas, 
the first king 1061 

The regal title is farther confirmed to 

Reign of Ottoacre IL, who carries his 
arms into Prussia .... 

Ottoacre, refusing to do homage to the 
emperor Rodolphus, is by him van- 
quished, and deprived of Austria, Sty- 
ria, and Camiola .... 

In the reign of Wlnceslas III. mines of 
silver are first discovered, and agri- 
culture is encouraged and improved 

Winceslas lY. becoming odious for his 
vices, is assassinated .... 

John, count of Luxemburgh, is chosen 
to succeed 

Silesia is made a province of Bohemia . 

King John slain at the battle of Creoy, 
fought with the English . 










John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two of 
the first Reformers, are burnt for he- 
resy, which occasions an insuirectioo ; 
when Bigismund, who betrayed them, 
is deposed, and the Imperialists are 
driven from the kingdom . 1415 and 1416 
Albert, duke of Austria, marries the 
daughter of the late emperor and king, 
and receives the crowns of Bohemia 

and Hungary 1497 

The succession infringed by T^iflfft, 
son of the king of Poland, and George 
Podiebrad, aprotestant chief . 1440 to 14SS 
Ladislas YT., king of Poland, elected king 

of Bohemia, on the death of Podiebrad M71, 
The emperor Ferdinand L marries Anne, 
sister of Louis the late king, and ob- 
tains the crown ISSt 

The elector palatine Frederick is driven 

from Bohemia 1618 

The crown secured to the Austrian fa- 
mily by tho treaty of ... 1648 
Silesia and GlaU coded to Prussia . . 1742 
Prague taken by the Prussians . 1744 
The memorable siege of Prague . . . 1787 
Revolt of the peasantry . . . 1773 
The French occupy Prague . . . 1605 
See (Teraianjf. 

BOILING OF LIQUIDS. Liquids first ascertained by Dr. Hooke not to be incressed 
in heat after they have once begun to boil ; and that a fire, if made fiercer, can only 
make them boil more rapidly, but without adding a degree to their heat, a.d. 1683. 
The following have been ascertained to be the boiling points of certain liquids : — 

Oil of turpentine 500 
Sulphur . . 570 
Linseed oil . . GOu 
MercuJ7 . . 060 


. 96 degrees. 

Muriate of lime . 230 degreesu 


. . 140 

Nitric acid . . 248 

Alcohol . 

. 176 

Sulphuric acid . 500 

Water . 

. . 212 

Phosphorus . . 554 

BOI C 77 ] BOO 

BOILING TO DEATH. A capitel pmuBliiiicnt in EngUnd, by statute 23 Henry VIII. 
1532. This act was occasioned by lerenteen penoni having been poisoned by Rouse, 
the bishop of Rochester's cook, when tiie offence of poisoning was made treason, and 
it was enacted to be punished by boiling the criminal to death ! Margaret Davie, a 
young woman, suffered in the same manner for a similar crime, in 1541. 

BOIS-LE-DUC, Battle of, between the British and the French republican army, in 
which the British were defeated, forced to abandon their position, and to retreat to 
Schyndel, Sept. 14, 1794. This place was captured by the French Oct. 6 following : 
it surrender^ to the Prussian army, under Bulow, in 1814. 

BOLOGNA. Distinguished for its many rare and magnificent specimens of architecture. 
Its ancient and celebrated university was founded by Theodosius, a.d. 433. Pope 
Julius II., after besieging and taking Bologna, made his triumphal entry into it with 
a pomp and magnificence by no means fitting (as Erasmus observes) for the vice- 
gerent of the meek Redeemer, Nov. 10, 1506. Here, in the church of St. Patronius, 
which is remarkable for its pavement, Cassini drew his meridian line, at the close of 
the seventeenth century. Taken by the French, 1796 ; by the Austrians, 1799 ; again 
by the French, after the battle of Marengo, in 1800 ; restored to the pope in 1815. 

BOMBAY, India. Given as part of the marriage- portion of the princess Catherine of 
Portugal, on her marriage with Charles II. 1661. Granted by William III. to our 
East India Company in 1688, and it now forms one of the three presidencies. An 
avrfiil fire raged here, and a number of lives were lost, Feb. 27, 1803. — See India, 

BOMBS, invented at Venlo, in 1495, but according to some authorities near a century 
after. They came into general use in 1634, having been previously used only in the 
Dutch and Spanish armies. Bomb- vessels were invented in France, in 1681. — 
Foliaire. The Shrapnel shell is a bomb filled with balls, and a lighted fuse to make 
it explode before it reaches the enemy ; a thirteen-inch bomb-shell weighs 198 lbs. 

BONDAGE, OR VILLANAGE, was enforced under William I. A villain in ancient 
times meant a peasant enslaved by his lord. A release from this species of servitude 
was ordered on the manors of Elizabeth, in 1574. See Villanage. 

BONE. " Crive him a bone to pick," took its rise from a custom at marriage feasts, 
among the poor in Sicily, when the bride's father, at supper, gave the bridegroom a 
bone, saying, "Pick this bonef far you have undertaketh to pick one more difficult," 
To bene him is a vulgar phrase for seize or arrest. To make no bones iB to make 
no scruple.— jBitAop HaU. 

BONE-SBTTING. This branch of the art of rargery cannot be said to have been 
practised scientifically untii 1620, before which time it was rather imperfecUy under- 
stood^— JBtf//. The celebrity obtained by a practitioner at Paris, about 1600, led 
to the general study of bone-ietting as a science. FretntTe Hist, if Phpeio, 

BONES. The art of softening bones was discovered about a.d. 1688, and they were 
used in the manufiseture of cutlery, and for various other purposes immediately 
afterwards. The declared value of tiie bones of cattle and of other animsls, and of 
fish (ezdusiTe of whale-fins) imported into the United Kingdom from Russia, 
Prussia, Holland, Denmark, &c, amounts annually to nearly 200,000/. 

BONHOMMES. These were hermits of simple and gentie lives who made their appear- 
ance in France about the year 1257 ; and they came to England in 1283. Hie prior of 
the order was called Le ban homme, by Louis VI., and hence they derived their 
name. — Du Fresnoy. 

BOOKS. Ancient books were originaUy boards, or the inner bark of trees ; and bark 
ia still used by some nations, as are also skins, for which latter parchment was 
sabstituted. Papyrus, an Egyptian plant, was adopted in that country. Books whose 
leaves were vellum, were invented by Attains, king of Pergamus, about 198 B.C., at 
which time books were in volumes or rolls. The MSS. in Herculaneum consist of 
papyrus, rolled and charred, and matted together by the fire, snd are about nine 
inches long, and one, two, or three inches in diameter, each being a separate treatise. 
The Pentateuch of Moses, and the hutory of Job, are the most ancient in the world ; 
and in profane literature, the poems of Homer, though the names of others still 
more andent are preserved. 

BOOKS, pRicss or. Jerome states that he had ruined himself by buying a copy of 
the work* of Origen. A large estate was given for one on cosmography, by Alfred, 

BOO [ 78 ] BOR 

about A.D. 872. The Roman de la Rose was sold for above 30/. ; and a Homflf 
was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quarters of wheat ; and they usually fetched 
double or treble their weight in gold. They sold at prices varying from 10/. to 4(M. 
each, in 1 400. In our own times, the value of some volumes is very i^esL A 
copy of Macklin's Bible^ ornamented by Mr. Tomkins, has been declared worth 
500 guineas. — Butler, A yet more superb copy is at present insured in a Londoa 
office for 3,000/. — Timet. II Decamerone of Boccaccio, edition of 1471, wai 
bought at the duke of Roxburgh's sale by the duke of Marlborough for 2260/.. Jane 
\7,IS12,— Phillips. 

BOOKS, pRiNTKD. The first printed books were trifling hymns and psalters, ind 
being printed only on one side, the leaves were pasted back to back. The fint 
printing was, as a book, the Book of Psalms, by Faust and Schaeffer, his son-in-lav, 
August 14, 1457. Several works were printed many years before ; but as the 
inventors kept the secret to themselves, they sold their first printed works u 
manuscripts. This gave rise to an adventure that brought calamity on Faust ; ht 
began in 1450 an edition of the Bible, which was finished in 1460. See artide 
Derril and Dr. Faustus. The second printed was Cicero de Officiis^ 1466. — Blair. 
The first book printed in England was The Game and Play of the Cheste, by Caxtoo, 
1474. The first in Dublin was the Liturgy, in 1550. The first classical work printedia 
Russia was Corn. Nepotis Vita, in 1762. Litcian''s Dialogues was the first Greek 
book printed in America (at Philadelphia), 1 789. Books of astronomy and geometry 
were all destroyed in England as being infected with magic, 6 Edward VI. 1552. 
— Stowe*s Chronicles, 

BOOK-BINDING. The book of St. Cuthbert, the eariiest ornamented book, is supposed 
to have been bound about a.d. 650. A Latin Psalter in oak boards was bound in 
the ninth century. A MS. copy of the Four Evangelists, the book on which oor 
kings from Henry I. to Edward V I. took their coronation oath, was bound in oakeo 
boards, nearly an inch thick, a.d. 1 100. Velvet was the covering in the fourteenth 
century ; and silk soon after. Vellum was introduced early in the fifteenth century; 
it was stamped and ornamented about 1510. Leather came into use about the suae 
time. Cloth binding superseded the common boards, generally, about 1831. Caout- 
chouc, or India-rubber backs to account-books and Urge volumea introduced 1341. 

BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-entry, called originally Italian book-keepioft 
was taken from the course of algebra which was published by Burgo, at Venice, 
then a great commercial state, in the fifteenth century. It was made known in 
England by James Peele, who published his Book'keeping in \h^9,^ Anderson. 

BOOTS. They are said to have been the invention of the Carians, and were made of 
iron, brass, or leather; of the last material some time after their invention, booti 
were known to the Greeks, for Homer mentions them about 907 b.c. 

BORAX. Known to the ancients. It is used in soldering, brazing, and casting gold 
and other metals, and was called ehrysocolla. It is also used in medicine, and in 
composing /t/cu«, or a wash or paint for the ladies. — Pardon, Borax is naturally 
produced in the mountains of Thibet ; and was brought to Europe from India about 
1713. It has lately been found in Saxony. 

BORODINO OR MOSKWA, Battle of, one of the most sanguinary in the records 
of the world, fought Sept. 1, 1812, between the French and Russians; commanded 
on the one side by Napoleon, and on the other by Kutusoff, 240,000 men being 
engaged. Each party claimed the victory, because the loss of the other was so 
immense ; but it was rather in favour of Napoleon, for the Russians subsequently 
retreated, leaving Moscow to its fate. The road being thus left open, the French 
entered Moscow, Sept. 14, with little opposition. But a signal reverse of fortune now 
took place, which preserved the Russian empire from ruin, and paved the way to the 
downfall of the French military power over Europe. See Moscow. 

BOROUGH. Anciently a company of ten families living together. The term has been 
applied to such towns as send members to parliament, since the election of bnigesses 
in the reign of Henry III. 1265. Burgesses were first admitted into the S<^ttisb 
parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326 — and into the Irish, 1365. 

BOROUGH ENGLISH. This was an ancient tenure by which the younger son 
inherits. Its origin is thus explained : in feudal times the lord is said to have claimed 
the privilege of spending the first night with the vassal's bride, and on such occasioos 

BOR [ 79 1 BOT 

the land was made to descend to the next son, in consequence of the supposed 
ilkgitimacT of the ehler. This kind of tenure is mentioned as occurring a.o. 834. 
It existed in Scotland, bat was abolished by Malcolm III. in 1062. 

BOROUGH-BRIDGE, Battlb of, between the earls of Hertford and Lancaster and 
Edward II. The latter, at the head of 30,000 men, pressed Lancaster so closely, 
that he had not time to collect his troops together in sufficient force, and being 
defeated and made prisoner, was led, mounted on a lean horse, to an eminence near 
Pdntefract or Pomfret, with great indignity, and beheaded by a Londoner, 1322. — 

BOSCOBEL. Here Charles II. concealed himself in the renowned oak, after the battle 
of Worcester, in which Cromwell defeated the Scots army that had marched into 
England to reinstate him on the throne. Sept 3, 1651. The streets were strewed 
with the dead ; the whole Soots army was either killed or taken prisoners, and Charles 
escaped with great difficulty into Vnnoo.'^GoldsmUh. 

BOSPHORUS, now called Circassia. The history of this kingdom is involved in 
obscnrity, though it continued for 530 years. It was named Cimmerian, from the 
Cimm&ri, who dwelt on its borders. The descendants of Archeanactes of Mytilene 
settled in this country, but they were dispossessed by Spartacus, in 438 b.c. 

of the kings who were tributary to the con- 
querors, are onreoorded and unknown-] 


Mithridates conquers Bosphorus b.o. 80 
An awful earthquake lays numerous cities 

and towns in ruins . . M 

Battle of Zela, gained by JuUus Cesar 

oyerPhamaces .47 

Cesar makes Mithridates of Pergamus 

king of Bosphorus . * 47 

Asander usurps the crown .46 

Polemon conquers Bosphorus. and favour- 
ed by Agrippa, reigns .14 

Polemon killed by barbarians of the Falus 

Mcotis AA>, S3 

Polemon IL reigns 3S 

Mithridates IL reigns . . 40 

The Archeanactidse rule here b.c. 480 

They are succeeded by Spartacus . . 438 
Eumdus, aiming to dethrone his brother, 

flatyrus n. is defeated ; but Satyrus is 

wounded, and dies .... 310 
Pritanis, his next brother, ascends the 

throne. He is soon after murdered in 

his palace by Emnelus . . . 309 

Bomelus, to secure his usurpation, puts 

to death all his relations, and the 

fHeods of his brothers, and their wives 

and children 300 

His Buttkcts, disgusted at his cruelties, 

call him to an account ; but he remits 

their taxes^ and is now adored for his 

Tirtnes! 309 

Bnmelus is killed . .304 

The Scythians invade Boq>horus . . 88S 
[During thetr rule of S04 years, even thenames 

Mithridates is conducted a prisoner to Rome, by order of the emperor Claudius, and 
his kingdom is soon afterwards made a province of the empire. The strait of the 
Bosphorus was closed by the Turks, Sept. 8, 1828. It was blockaded by the Russian 
squadron under admiral Greig, Dec. 31 , same year. See Dardanelles. 

BOSTON, Am vniCA. Here originated that resistance to the British authorities which 
led to American independence. The act of parliament laying duties on tea, paper, 
colours, &c. passed June 1767, and it so excited the indignation of the citizens of 
Boston, that they destroyed scTeral hundreds of chests of tea, Nov. 1773. Boston 
was proscribed in consequence, and the port shut by the English parliament, until 
restitution should be made to the East India company for the tea that had been 
lost, March 25, 1774. The town was besieged by the British next year, and 400 
houses were dntroyed. Battle between the royalists and independent troops, in 
which the latter were defeated in June 1775. The city was evacuated by the 
king's troops, April, 177G. 

BOSWORTU FIELD, Battlb of, the thirteenth and last between the houses of 
York and Lancaster, in which Richard III. was defeated by the earl of Richmond, 
afterwards Henry VII., the former being slain, Aug. 22, 1485. The crown of 
Richard was found in a hawthorn bush, on the plain where the battle was fought, 
and Henry was so impatient to be crowned, that he had the ceremony performed on 
the spot with that Tery crown. In tiie civil contests between the ** Rotes" many of 
the most ancient families in the kingdom were entirely extinguished, and no less than 
100,000 human beings lost their Utcs. 

BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder of the philosophy of botany. The 
HiMtoria Plantarum of Theophrastus, written about 320 b.c Authors on botany 
are numerous from the earlier ages of the world, to the close of the 15th century, 


BOX C 80 ] BOD 

when the science became better understood. The atndy was adTinced by WwAmmt 
Bock, Bauhin, Ceesalpinus, and others, between 1^5 and 1600.— Jlfdoitor Adam. 
The system and arrangement of Linnseos, the first botanist of moden times, msde 
known about 1 750. Jnssieu's system, in 1 758. At the time of Linnseva's death, a.b. 
1778, the species of plants actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The 
number of species of all denominations now recorded cannot fall short of 100,000. 

BOTANY BAY, originally fixed on for a colony of convicts from Great Britain. The 
first governor, Phillips, who sailed from England in May, 1787, arrived at the 
settlement in Jan. 1788. I'he bay had been discovered by captain Cook in 1770, 
and the place took its name from the great variety of herbs which abounded on the 
shore. The colony was fixed at Port Jackson, about thirteen nules to the north of 
the bay. See New South Waiet and TransportaHon, 

BOTTLE-CONJUROR. The famous imposition of this charlatan occurred at the oU 
Haymarket theatre, Jan. 16, 1748; he had announced that he would jump into a 
quart bottle, and so imposed upon the credulous multitude, that the theatre «m 
besieged by 10,000 persons, anxious to gain admittance and witness the feat. The 
object of filling the house was accomplished ; but the duped crowd (who really 
expected to see the man enter the quart bottle), in the storm of their indignatks, 
neariy pulled the whole edifice down. 

BOTTLES, of glass, were first made in England, about 1558. — See GUus. The art of 
making glass bottles and drinking glasses was known to the Romans at least before 
79 A.D., for these articles and other vessels have been found in the ruins of Pooi- 
peii. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was blown, we are told, at Leith, id 
Scotland, in January, 1747-8. 

BOULOGNE, Francb. Taken by the British in 1542, but restored to France upon 
the peace, 1550. Lord Nelson attacked Boulogne, disabling ten vessels, and ainloBK 
five, Aug. 3, 1801. In another attempt he was repulsed with great loss, and captaia 
Parker of the Medusa and two-thirds of his crew were killed, Aug. 15 foUowiai. 
Again, in Oct. 3, 1804, when the catamaran project for destroying the flotilla fiuled, 
Congreve-rockets were used in another attack, and they set the town on fire, Oct. 
8, 1806. Prince Louis Napoleon made a descent here with about fifty fdlowen, 
Aug. 6, 1840. — See next arHcle^ and France, 

BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. This celebrated armament against England ezdted much 
attention for some years, but the grand demonstration was made in 1804. In that 
year, Buonaparte had assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, and a flotilla of 
1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors to invade England. The coasts of Kent and Susaei 
were covered with martello towers and lines of defence ; and nearly half the adalt 
population of Britain was formed into volunteer corps. It is supposed that this 
French armament served merely for a demonstration, and that Buon^wrte neier 
seriously intended the invasion. — See Flotilla. 

BOUNTIES. They were first granted on the exportation of Britiah commodities-Hi 
new principle introduced into commerce by the British parliament. The first boon- 
ties granted on corn, were in 1688. First legally granted in Engluid for raising 
naval stores in America, 1 703. Bounties have been granted on sail-cloth, linen, and 
other goods.— jE/ewien/* of Commerce. 

BOUNTY, MUTINEERS of the Ship. Memorable mutiny on board the JBomty, 
armed ship returning from Otaheite, with bread-firuit. The mutineers put their cap- 
tain, Bligh, and nineteen men into an open boat, near Annamooka, one of the Friendly 
Islands, April 28, 1789, and they reached the Island of Timor, south of the Mo- 
luccas, in June, idfter a perilous voyage of nearly 4000 miles, in which their pre- 
servation was next to miraculous. The mutineers were tried Sept. 15, 1792, wiiea 
six were condemned, of whom three were executed. See Pilcaim*M Island, 

BOURBON, HOUSE of. Anthony de Bourbon was the chief of the branch of Boor- 
boo, so called from a fief of that name which fell to them by marriage with the 
heiress of the estate. Henry IV. of France and Navarre, justly styled the Great, 
was son of Anthony, and came to the throne in 1589. The crown of Spain was 
settled on a younger brauch of this family, and guaranteed by the peace of Utrecht, 
1713. — Rapin. The Bourbon Family Compact took place, 1761. The Bourbons 
were expelled France, 1791, and were restored, 1814. Re-expelled, and agani 

BOU [ 81 ] BOY ^ 

restored, 1815. The elder bnmch was expelled once more, in the persons of 
Charles X. and his familjin 1830, a oonseqaence of the revolution of the memorable 
days of July in that year.^-See France. 

BOURBON, ISLE OF, discoTered by the Portngnete^ in 1545. The French first 
settled here in 1672, and built sereral towns. The island surrendered to the 
British, July 2, 1810. It is near the Isle of France, and the two are styled the 
Manritias« There oocnrred an awful harricane here in Febmary 1829, by which 
immense mischief wss done to the shipping, and in the island. See Mautititts, 

BOURDEAUX (or Bobdvaux) was nnited to the dominions of Henry II. of Englsnd, 
by his marriage with Eleanor of Aqnitaine. Edward the Black Prinoe brought his 
royal captiTC, John, king of France, to this city after the battle of Poitiers, In 1 356, 
and here held his court during elcTcn years : his son, oar Richard II., was bom at 
Bonrdeauz, 1362. The fine equestrian statue of Louis XV. was erected in 1743. 
Bourdeaux was entered by the netorious British army, after the battle of Orthes, 
fought Feb. 25, 1814. 

B0URI6N0NISTS, a sect founded by Madame Antoinette Bourignon, a fanatic, who, 
io 1658, took the habit of St. Augustin,and traTcUed into France, Holland, England, 
and Scotland. In the last she made a strong party and some thousands of sectarists, 
about 1670. She maintained that Christianity does not consist in fiiith or praotice| 
but in an inward feeling and supernatural impulse. This Tisionary published a 
book entitled the Light of the Worlds in whidi, and in several other works, she 
Bsaintained and taught her pemidous notions. A disdple of hers, named Court, 
left her a good estate. She died in 1680. 

BOWLS, OR BOWLING, an English game, played as early as the thirteenth century, 
and once in great repute among the higher ranks. Charles I. played at it. It 
formed a daily share in the diversions of Charles II., at Tanbridgc^Jf^mofrM de 

BOWS AKD ARROWS. See Arehery, The invention of them is ascribed to Apollo. 
Known in England previous to a.d. 450. The use of them was agaih mtrodaced 
into England by the Conqueror, 1066 ; and greatly encouraged by Richard I., 1 190. 
'^ Baker* » Chronicle. The usual range of the long-bow was from 300 to 400 yards ; 
the length of the bow was six feet, and the arrow three. Cross-bows were fixed 
to a stock of iron or wood, and were discharged by a trigger. 

BOXING, OR PRIZE-FIGHTING, the pugilatus of the Romans, and a favourite 
sport with the British, who possess an extraordinary strength in the arm, an 
advantage which gives the British soldier great superiority in battles decided by the 
bayonet. A century ago, boxing formed a regular exhibition, and a theatre was 
erected for it in Tottenham-court — Broughton's amphitheatre, behind Oxford-road, 
built 1742. Schools were opened in England to teach boxing as a science in 1790. 
Mendosa opened the Lyceum in the Strand in 1791. Owing to the dishonest 
practices in the " ring," selling the victory, and one combatant allowing the other 
to beat him, dec., the fights have been fewer of late, and the number of the patrons 
of boxing have declined. 

BOXTEL, Battlb of, between the British and allied army, commanded by the duke 
of York and the army of the French republic. The latter attacked the allies and 
obtained the victory after an obstinate engagement, taking 2,000 prisoners and eight 
pieces of cannon, and the duke retreated across the Meuse, Sept. 17, 1794. 

BOYDELL'S LOTTERY. This was a lottery of a gallery of paintings, got up at vast 
expense by the eminent alderman Boydell, a great encourager of the arts. The col- 
lection was called the Shakspeare Gallery, and every ticket was sold at the time the 
alderman died, Deo. \% 1804. He was lord mayor of London in 1791. 

BOYLE LECTURES. Instituted by Robert Boyle (son of the great earl of Cork), 
an exceedingly good man and philosopher, distinguished by his genius, virtues, 
and unbounded benevolence. He instituted eight lectures in vindication of the 
Christian religion, which are delivered at St. Mary-ie-Bow church, on the first 
Monday in each month, from January to May, and September to November — 
endowcMi 1691. 

BOYNE, Battle of, between king William III. and his father-in-law, James TI., 
fought July 1, 1690. The latter was signally defeated, his adherento losing 1500 
men, and the Proteatant army about a third of that number. James immediately 
afterwards fled to Dublm, thence to Waterford, and escaped to France. The duke 
of Sdiomberg was killed in the battle, having been shot by misUke as be was crossing 


ItoY Q 8i ] 


the liTer Boyne, by the soldiers of his own regiment. Near Drogfaeda is a splendid 
obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 by the Protestants of the empire, ia 
commemoration of this Tictory. 

BOYNE, Man of War, of 98 guns. This magnificent ship was destroyed by fire it 
Portsmouth, when great mischief was occasioned by the explosion of the matasiiie, 
and numbers perished, May 4, 1795. Large portions of the Boyne have beea 
recovered from time to time, and explosions, with the riew of clearing the harboor 
of the wreck, were successfully commenced in June 1840. 

BRABANT. It was erected into a dudiy a.d. G20, and deroWed apon Lambert I^ 
count of Louvain, in 1005, and from him descended to Philip II. of Burgundy, sad 
in regular succession to the emperor Charles Y. In the seventeenth century it was 
held by Holland and Austria, as Dutch Brabant, and Walloon. These proviaces 
underwent many changes in most of the great wars of Europe. The Asstriu 
division was taken by the French 1746 — again in 1794 by their Repablie; and it 
now forms part of the kingdom of Belgium, under Leopold, 1831. See BelgiMm. 

BRACELETS. They were early worn and prised among the ancients; we rasdof 
them in almost all nations ; those that were ealled armitla were naiiaUy diatribsted 
as rewards for valour among the Roman legions.^ JNToice. DieL Those ol pesrii 
and gold were worn by the &man ladies ; and armlets are female omaments to the 

' present day. 

BR\GANZA, House of, owes its elevation to royalty to a remarkable and bloodlea 
revolution in Portugal, a.d. 1640, when the nation, throwing off the Spanish yoke, 
which had become intolerable, advanced John, duke of Braganxa, to the throne, oa 
which this family continues to relgn.-^Abb/ Vertot, 

BRAHMINS, a sect of Indian philosophers, reputed to be so ancient that PythagoiM 
is thought to have learned from them his doctrine of the Afetempsfehosu ; and it is 
affirmed that some of the Greek philosophers went to India on purpose to converM 
with them. The modem Brahmins derive their name from Brahme, one of three beings 
whom God, according to their theology, created, and with whose assistance he Ibmed 
tlie world. They never eat flesh, and abstain from the use of wine and all camsl 
e/^oyments. — Sirabo, The modem Indian priests are still considered as the 
depositaries of the whole learning of India. — HolweU, 

BRANDENBURGH, Family of, is of great antiquity, and some historians ssy it 
was founded by the Sclavonians, who gave it the name of Banber, which signifiei 
Guard qf the Forests, Henry I., sumamed the Fowler, fortified Biandenbuigh, 
a.d. 923, to serve as a rampart against the Huns. He bestowed the gOTemmeat on 
Sifroi, count of Ringelheim, vrith the title of Margrave, which signifies protector of 
the marches or frontiers, in 927. The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual invcstiturs 
to Frederick lY. of Nuremberg, who was made elector in 1417. See PrueeUi. 

BRANDENBURGH-HOUSE, Ham if BasM ith, celebrated as the residence of Csioliae, 
the unfortunate consort of George IV. The queen took possession of it August 3, 
1820, and here received the various addresses and deputations of the British people, 
consequent upon her mijesty's trial in the House of Lords, under a bill of paias 
and penalties, that year. She expired at Brandenburgh-house, Aug. 7, 1821 ; and 
the house was demolished in 1823. See Qtie^ii Caroline, 

BRANDYWINE, Battlb of, between the British royalist forces and the revolted 
Americans, in which the latter were defeated with great loss, and Philadelphia fell 
to the possession of the victors, September 11, 1777. 

BRASS. Its formation was prior to the Flood, and it vras discoTered in the seventh 
generation from Adam. — Bible. Brass was known among all the early nations. — 
Usher, The Britons from the remotest period were acquainted with its use, — 
WhUtaker, When Lucius Mumonius bumt Corinth to the ground, 146 B.C., the 
riches he found were immense, and during the conflagration, it is said, all the metals 
in the city melted, and mnning together, formed the valuable composition sinoe 
known under the name of Corinthian brass. This, however, may well be doubted, 
for the Corinthian artists had long before obtained great credit for their method of 
combining gold and silver with copper ; and the Syriac translation of the Bible says, 
that Hiram made the vessels for Solomon*s temple of Corinthian braaa. Artides 
made of this brilliant composition, though in themselves trivial and insignificant, were 
yet highly valued .-^Du Fresno^, 

BRA C 83 ]] BRB 

BRAURONIA, festiTals in Attica, at Brauron, where Diana had a temple. The 
moit remarkable that attended these featlTala were joung Tirgins in yellow gowns 
dedicated to Diana. They were about ten years of age, and not under five, and 
therefore their consecration was called '' dekateueinf* from *' deka,*' decern ; 
660 B.C. 

BRAY, THB Vicar of. Bray, in Berks, is famous in national song for its Ticar, 
the Rer. Symon Symonds, who was twice a papist and twice a protestant in four 
snooessiTe reigns — those of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. Upon 
being called a turncoat, he said he kept to his principle, that of " liring and dying 
the Ticar of Bray," between the years 1533 and 1558. The story was first published 
by Fuller in his Church HUiory. 

BRAZEN BULL. Perillus, a brass-founder at Athens, knowing the cruel disposition 
of Fhalaris of Agrigentum, contrived a new species of punishment for him to inflict 
vpon his oppreiwed subjects. He cast a brazen bull, larger than life, with an 
cypening in the side to admit the Tictims. Upon their being shut up in this engine 
of torture, a fire was kindled underneath to roast them to doith ; and the throat was 
so contriTed that their dying g^roans resembled the roaring of a bull. He brought it 
to the tyrant, and expected a Urge reward. Phalaris admired the invention and work- 
mamhip, but said it was reasonable the artist should make the first experiment upon 
his own work, and ordered his execution. Ovid mentions that the Agrigentes, 
maddened by the tyrant's cruelties, revolted, seized him, cut his tongue out, and 
then roasted him in the brazen bull, by which he had put to death so great a number 
of their fellow-dtizens, 561 b.c. — Vita Phalaridis. 

BRAZIL. It was discovered by Alvarez de Cabral, a Portuguese, who was driven upon 
its coasts by a tempest in 15(M). He called it the Land of the Holy Cross ; but it 
was subsequently called Brazil on account of its red wood, and was carefully ex- 

?lored by Amerigo Vespucci, about 1504. The gold mines were first opened in 
684 ; and the duimond mines were discovered 1730 (see Diamonds). The French 
having seized on Portugal in 1807, the royal family and most of the nobles embarked 
for Brazil. A revolution took place here in 1821. Brazil was erected into an 
empire, when Don Pedro assumed the title of emperor, in November 1825. He 
abmcated the throne of Portugal, May 2, 1826 ; and that of Brazil, in favour of his 
infant son, now emperor, April 7, 1831, and returned to Portugal, where a civil war 
ensued. — See Portugal. 

BREAD. Ching-Noung, the successor of Fohi, is reputed to have been the first who 
tanght men (the Chinese) the art of husbandry, and the method of making bread 
from wheat, and wine from rice, 1998 b.c — Univ, HimL Baking of bread was 
known in the patriarchal ages ; see Exodus xii. 15. Baking bread became a pro- 
fession at Rome, 170 b.c. During the siege of Paris by Henry IV., owing to the 
fiunine which then raged, bread, which had been sold whilst any remained for a 
crown a pound, was at last made from the bones of the charnel-house of the Holy 
Innocents, a.d. 1594. — HenauJt, In the time of James I. the usual bread of the 
poor was made of barley ; and now in Iceland, cod-fish, beaten to powder, is made 
into bread ; and the poor use potato-bread in many parts of Ireland. Earth has 
been eaten as bread in some parts of the world : near Moscow is a portion of 
land whose clay will ferment when mixed with flour. The Indians of Louisiana 
eat a white earth with salt ; and the Indians of the Oronooko eat a white unctuous 
earth. — Greiff; Phillips, 

BREAD, HOUSEHOLD. There was an assize of bread in England in 1202. The 
London Bakers' Company was incorporated in 1307. Bread-street in London was 
onoe the market for bread in that city, and hence its name. Until the year 1302, 
the London bakers were not allowed to sell any in their shops. — Stawe, Bread was 
made with yeast by the English bakers in 1634. For the recent statutes relating to 
bread, see Assise of Bread. 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE. It is mentioned by several voyagers,— by Dampier, Anson, 
and Wallis, among others. A vessel under the command of captain Bligh was fitted 
out to convey these trees to various parts of the British colonies in 1791. The 
number taken on board at Otaheite was 1151. Of these, some were left at St. 
Helena, 352 at Jamaica, and five were reserved for Kew Gardens, 1793. The Bread- 
firuit tree was successfully cultivated in French Guiana, in 1802. In the West Indies, 


the negroes prefer their own preparations of the plaintain fruit to bread ; and hence 
the bread-fruit tree, transported at such an expense from the South Sea IsUnda, hat 
been attended with no success in the colonies. 
BREAKWATER at PLYMOUTH. The ftnt itone of tbii ttapendoiis work wm 
lowered in the presence of the army and navy, and multitudes of the great, Angut 
12, 1812. It was designed to break the swell at Plymouth, and ttretefaei 5280 Isst 
across the Sound ; it is 360 feet in breadth at the bottom, and more than thirty at 
the top, and consumed 3,666,000 tons of granite blocks, from one to fiTe tons each, 
up to April, 1841 ; and cost a million and a half sterling. The architect was Reanie. 
Tlie first stone of the lighthouse on its western extremity was laid Feb. 1, 1841. 

BREAST-PLATES. The iuTention of them is aacribed to Jason, 937 b.c. The bitait. 
plate formerly coTered the whole body, but it at length dwindled in the Upae of sgei 
to the diminutiTe gorget of modem times. See Armour. 

BRECHIN. The siege here was sustained against the army of Edward III. 1333. 
The battle of Brechin was fought between the forcea of the earls of Hnntly andCrsv* 
furd ; the latter defeated, 1452. The see of Brechin was founded by David L ia 
1150. One of its bishops, Alexander Campbell, was made prelate when but a boy, 
1556. The bishopric was diseontinned soon after the rerolution in 1688. 

BREDA. This city was taken by prince Maurice of Nassau in 1590 ; by the Spaniardi 
in 1625 ; and again by the Dutch in 1637. Our Charles II. resided here at the 
time of the Restoration, 1660. See Rettoration, Breda was taken by the French 
in 1793, and retaken by the Dutch the same year. The French garrison was shot 
out by the burgesses in 1813, when the power of France ceased here. 

BREECHES. Among the Greeks, this garment indicated slavery. It was worn by 
the Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations ; and in Italy, it is said, it was 
worn in the time of Augustus Caesar. In the reign of Honorius, about a.d. 394, die 
braccarif or breeches-makers, were expelled from Rome ; but soon afterwards the 
use of breeches was adopted in other countries, and at length it became generaL 

BREHONS. These were ancient judges in Ireland. It was enacted by the statute of 
Kilkenny, that no English subject should submit to the Brehon law, 40 Edward III. 
1365. This law, however, was not finally abolished or disused until some time after. 

BREMEN, a venerable Hanse town, and duchy, sold to George I. as elector of Han- 
over, in 1716. It was taken by the French in 1757 ; they were driven out by the 
Hanoverians in 1758 ; and it was again seized in 1806. Bremen was annexed by 
Napoleon to the French empire in 1810 ; but its independence waa restored in 1813. 
See Uanse Towns. 

BRESLAU, Battlb op, between the Austrians and Prussians, the latter under prince 
Bevem, who was defeated, but the engagement was most bloody on both sides, 
Nov. 22, 1757, when Breslau was taken: but was regained the same year. This 
city was for some time besieged by the French, and surrendered to them January 5, 
1807, and again in 1813. 

BREST. It was besieged by Julius Caesar, 54 b.c. — possessed by the English, a.d. 
1378— given up to the Duke of Brittany, 1391. Lord Berkeley and a British fleet 
and army were repulsed here with dreadful loss in 1694. The magazine burnt, to 
the value of some millions of pounds sterling, 1744. The marine hospitals, with 
fifty galley-slaves, burnt, 1766. The magazine again destroyed by a fire, July 10, 
1 784. From this great depot of the French navy, numerous squadrons were equipped 
against England during the late war. 

BRETHREN in INIQUITY. The designation arose from persons oovenanting 
formerly to share each other's fortune, in any expedition to invade a country, as did 
Robert de Oily and Robert de Ivery, in William I.'s invasion of England, 1066. 

BR£)TIGNY, Peacb of, concluded with France at Bretigny, and by which Englsnd 
iretained Gascony and Guienne, acquired Saintonge, Agenois, Perigord, Limousia, 
Bigorre, Angoumois, and Rovergne, and renounced her pretensions to Maine, Anjoa, 
Touraine, and Normandy ; England was also to receive 3,000,000 crowns, and to re- 
lease king John, who had been long prisoner in London, May 8, 1360. 

BREVIARIES. The breviary is a book of mass and prayer used by the church of 
Rome. It was first called the ctutos, and afterwards the breviary ; and both the 
clergy and laity use it publicly and at home. It was in use among the ecdesias- 

BRE E ^^ D ^^^ 

tical orders about a.d. 1080 ; and was reformed by tbe councils of Trent and Cologne, 
and by Pius V., Urban YIII., and other popes. The quality of type in which the 
breiiary was first printed gare the name to the type called brevier at the present day. 

BREWERS. The first are traced to Egypt. Brewing was known to our Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors^ — Tmdal. " One William Murle, a rich maultman or bruer, of Dunstable, 
had two horses all traped with gold, 1414." — Stowe. There are about 1700 public 
brewers in England, about 200 in Scotland, and 250 in Ireland : these are exclusively 
of retail and intermediate brewers, of which there are in England about 1400 ; 
there are, besides, 28,000 Tictuallers, &c. who brew their own ale. In London, there 
are about 100 wholesale brewers, many of them in immense trade. Various statutes 
relating to brewers and the sale of beer have been enacted from time to time. 
Set Beer, Porter, 

BRIAR*S CREEK. Battlb or. One of a series of successftil actions which occurred 
with the rerolted Americans this year ; the Americans, under the command 
of their general, Ashe, were t>tally defeated here by the English forces, March 16, 

BRIBERY. In England an indictable offence to bribe persons in the administration of 
public justice. Thomas de Weyland, a judge, was banished the land for bribery, 
in 1288 ; he was chief justice of the Common Pleas. William de Thorpe, chief 
justice of the King's Bench, was hanged for bribery in 1351. Another judge was 
fined 20,000/. for Uie like offence, 1616. Mr. Walpole, secretary -at- war, was sent 
to the Tower for bribery in 1712. Lord Strangford was suspended from voting in 
the Irish House of Lords, for soliciting a bribe, January 1 784. 

BRIBERY AT ELECTIONS, as in the preceding cases, made an indictable offence. 
Messrs. Sykes and Rumbold fined and imprisoncid for bribery at an election, March 
14, 1776. An elector of Durham convicted, July 1803. Messrs. Davidson, Parsons, 
and Hopping convicted and imprisoned for bribery at Uchester, April 28, 1804. 
Mr. Swan, M.P. for Penryn, fined and imprisoned, and sir Manasseh Lopez sentenced 
to a fine of 10,000/. and to two years' imprisonment for bribery at Grampound, Oct. 
1819. Of late years several elections have been made void, and boroughs dis- 
franchised, on account of bribery : among others, the members for Liverpool and 
Dublin were unseated, in 1831, and new Sections proceeded. The friends of Mr. 
Knight, can d i d ate for Cambridge, were convicted of bribery, Feb. 20, 1835 ; and 
the electbns for Ludlow and Cambridge were made void in 1840. 

BRICKS, for building, were used in the earliest times in Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and 
Rome. Used in England by the Romans, about a.d. 44. Made under the direction 
of Alfred the Great, about 886. — Sa»on Chron. The size regulated by order of Charles 
I. 1625. Taxed, 1784. The number of bricks which paid duty in England in 1820 
was 949,000,000 ; in 1830, the number exceeded 1,100,000,000; and in 1840 it 
amounted to 14,000,000,000. See Building, 

BRIDAL CEREMONIES. Among the more rational ceremonies observed by the 
ancients, was the practice of conducting the bride to the house of her spouse on a 
chariot, which was afterwards burned ; it originated vrith the Thebans, and was 
intended as a symbol of the bride's fntore dependence on her husband, from whom 
tlMre was no chariot to convey her back to her parents ; it is mentioned Ubi) a. c. 

BRIDEWELL. Origmaily the name of s royal palace of king John, near Fleet-ditch, 
London ; it was built anew by Henry YIII. in 1522, and was given to the city by 
Edward YI. in 1558. There are several prisons of this name throughout the 
kingdom ; among others is a new house of correction for Westminster so called, 
and Ibr which an act was passed in 1826. There is a new Bridewell in Southwark, 
as also various houses of correction. The new Bridewell prison was erected in 1829, 
and that of Tothill-fields was rebuilt in 1831. The first London Bridewell was in a 
locality near to Bride's well ; but this is no reason, as is justly observed, why similar 
prisons, not in a similar locality, should have this name. 

BRIDGES. So early and general, and the expedients for their construction so various, 
their origin cannot be tra^ ; they were first of wood. The ancient bridges in China 
are of great magnitade, and were built of stone. Abydos is famous for the bridge of 
boats which X^es built across the Hellespont. Trajan's magnificent stone bridge 
over the Danube, 4770 feet in length, was built in a.d. 103. The Devil's Bridge in 
tile canton of XJri, so called from its frightful situation, was built resting on two high 
rocks, so that it could scarcely be conceived how it was erected, and many fabulous 
stories were invented to account for it At Schaffhausen an extraordinary bridge 

BRl [ 86 J BRI 

was built OTer the Rhine, which is there 400 feet wide : there wai a pier in the 
middle of the river, but it is doubtfol whether the bridge rested upon it : a mm of 
the lightest weight felt the bridge totter under him, yet waggons heavily laden pasted 
over without danger. This bridge was destroyed by the French in 1799. 

BRIDGES IN ENGLAND. The ancient bridges in England were of wood, and were 
fortified with planks and merlined ; the first bridge of stone was built at Bow, near 
Stratford, a.d. 1087. Westminster bridge, then the finest erected in these realms, and 
not surpassed by any in the world, except in China, was completed in twelve yean, 
1750. The first iron bridge, on a large scale, was erected over the Severn, ia 
Shropshire, 1779. The finest chain suspension bridge is that of the Menai Strait, 
completed in 1825. Hnngcorford suspension bridge was completed and opened May 
I, 1845. See BkuJ^Hars, Hungerford, London, Menai Strait^ and other bridges. 

BRIDGETINS, an order of nuns, whose founder was St. Bridget. Several comma- 
nities of Bridgetins obtained in Catholic countries in a.d. 1344, ei teq, Henry?, 
of England built the English order a nunnery near Richmond in 1415. 

BRIDGE WATER, incorporated by king John, and made a distinct county by Heniy 
VII. In the wars between Charles I. and the parliament, the forces of the latter 
reduced great part of the town to ashes. The canal, the first great work of the tiad 
in England, was begun by the duke of Bridgewater, styled the father of canal 
navigation in this country, in 1758 : Mr. Brindley was the architect. The canal 
commences at Worsley, seven miles from Manchester ; and at Barton-bridge is aa 
aqueduct which, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys the canal across the navigabis 
river Irwell ; its length is twenty-nine miles. 

BRIEF. A written instrument in the Catholic church, of early but uncertain date. 
Briefs are the letters of the pope despatched to princes and others on public affaiisi 
and are usually written short, and nence the name, and are without nnhoe or 
preamble, and on paper ; in which particulars they are distinguished from buBt. 
The latter are ample, and always written on parehment ; a brief ia sealed with red 
wax, the seal of the fisherman, or St. Peter in a boat, and always in the presence of 
the pope ; they are used for graces and dispensations, as well as baalneti. 

BRIENNE, Battlk or, between the allied armies of Russia and Prussia, and the 
French, fought on the 1st, and resumed on the 2d February, 1814. The allies were 
defeated with great loss ; this was one of the last battles in which the French achieved 
victory, previously to the fall of Napoleon. 

BRIGHTON. Now a place of most fashionable resort, though formerly inhabited ehieflf 
by fishermen. From here Charles II. embarked for France, after the disastroas 
battle of Worcester, in 1651. The prince of Wales, afterwards Greorge IV., built a 
iianciful yet magnificent marine palace at Brighton, formerly known as the Psvihon, 
1784. It was afterwards greatly enlarged, and the entire exterior altered into a 
general reaemblance of the kremlin at Moscow : it is still distinguished as a rojal 
palace. The Block-house was swept away, Mareh 26, 1786. Part of the cliff fell, 
doing great damage, Nov. 16, 1807. The chain pier, 1134 feet long and thirteen 
wide, was completed in 1823. The length of the esplanade here from the Steyne is 
about 1250 feet. 

BRISTOL. This city, one of the principal in England, was buUt by Brennus, a 
prince of the Britons, 380 b.o. It was granted a charter and became a distinct 
county in the reign of Edward III. Taken by the earl of Gloucester, in his defence 
of his sister Maude, the empress, against king Stephen, 1 138. St Mary'a charck 
was built 1292. A new charter was obtained in 1581. Bristol was attacked with 
great fury by the forces of Cromwell, 1655. An act was passed for a new exchange 
in 1723, but it was not erected until 1741. The bridge was built by act. May 1760. 
The memorable attempt to set the shipping on fire was made Jan. 22, 1777. 

BRISTOL RIOTS. Riot at Bristol on account of a toll, when the troops fired on the 
populace, and many were wounded, Oct. 25, 1793. Riot on the entrance of sir 
Charles Wetherell, the recorder, into the city, attended by a large police and special 
force, to open the sessions. He being politicidly obnoxious to the lower order of the 
citixens, a riot ensued, which was of several days' continuance, and which did not 
terminate until the mansion-house, the bishop's palace, several merchants' stores, 
some of the prisons (the inmates liberated), and nearly 100 houses were burned, snd 



[ ^7 ] 


many lives lost, Oct. 29, 1831. Trial of the rioters, Jan. 2, 1832 ; four were executed, 
and twenty-two transported. Suicide of col. Brereton during bis trial by court- 
martial, Jan. 9, same year. 

BRISTOL, Sss or. One of tbe six bisboprics erected bj Henry YIII. out of tbe 
spoils of the monasteries and religious bouses which that monarch bad dissoWed. The 
cathedral was the church of the abbey of St. Austin, founded here bj Robert Fitx- 
Harding, son to a king of Denmark, and a citixen of Bristol, a.d. 1 148. It is 
Taloed in the king's books at 338/. Bm, Ad, Paul Bushe, provincial of the Bons-hommes, 
was the first bishop, in 1542 — deprived for being married, 1564. The see of Bristol 
was united by an order in council with that of Gloucester, in 1836, and they now 
fbrm one see under the name of Bristol and Gloucester. 

BRITAIN. The earliest records of tiie history of this island are the manuscripts and 
poetry of the Cambrians. The Celts were the ancestors of the Britons and modem 
Welsh, and were the first inhabitants of Britain. Britain, including England, 
Scotland, and Wales, was anciently called Albion, the name of Britain being applied 
to all the islands collectively — Albion to only one. — Pliny. The Romans first 
invaded Britain under Julius Csesar, 55 b.c, but they made no conquests. The 
emperor Claudius, and his generals, Plautius, Vespasian, and Titus, subdued several 
provinces after thirty pitched battles with the natives, a.d. 43 and 44. The conquest 
was completed by Agricola, in the reign of Domitian, a.d. 85. 

First fnvaakm of Britain b7 the Romans, 

imder Julias Ccssr bx. A5 

CymbeUnSb king of Britain . . 4 

Ezpeditkmof CUttdins into Britain, A. o. 40 
London founded l^ the Romans , 49 

Oaractacas carried in chains to Rome ' 51 
The Romans defeated by Boadioea; 

TOtOOO slain, and London burnt . 61 

A vast army of Britons is defeated by 

Suetonius, and 80,000 slain . 61 

Reign of Looias, the first Christian king 

of Britain, and in the world . . . 179 
fievems keeps his court at York, then 

eaOed Bboraoum .807 

Be diss at York 211 

CaraBrins, a tyrant, usurps the throne of 

Britain .886 

He is killed by Alsotus^ who continues 

the usurpation 893 

CuBstantins recovers Britain by tbe de- 

Isat of Alectos .996 

Constantius, emperor of Rome, dies at 

York A.D. 306 

The Roman forces are finally withdrawn 

from Britain 480 to 496 

The Saxons and Angles are called in to 

aid the natires against their northern 

netghboars the Picts and Scots . 
Having expelled these, the Anglo-Saxons 

attack the natiYcs themselves, driving 

them into Wales .... 
Many of the natives settle in Armories, 

since called Brittany . 
The Saxon Heptarchy ; Britain dirided 

into ssTcn kingdoms .... 
Reign of the renowned Arthur . . . 
Arrival of St Augustin (or Austin), and 

establishment of Christianity 
Cadwallader, last king of the Britons, 

began his reign 678 

The Saxon Heptarchy ends 

See England. 






vnoM joLios cjcsaa to tbs saxows. 

£Wkere dates are not mentioned, it has been 
fonnd impossible to reconcile the conflict- 
ing anthorities for them ; and in the same 
way, in tbe orthography of names, a Uke 

dificnlty oocurSi] 

mttwoMM caaitr. 
« Gamibelau. 
e Tbcomantina. 
4 Cymbellna 

• Onlderius. 

Arraa cnaisr. 
4A. Arviragus. 
7& Marina. 
135. CoilusL 
179. St. LooiuB. 

^Fiiat christened king of Britain, and in 
the worid. He dies, and leaves the 
Roman emperors hii» heirs.] 
907. Sevtfus, emperor of Rome. Died at 
York in 910. 
a Bavianns. 

* AedepiodOTus^dukeof Cornwall. 

• CoUns n. 
884. Caraosius, tyrant of Britain. 
293. AlectuB, sent from Rome by the senate. 
9aR i Bt. Helena. 

1 Constantius, emperor of Rome. 
306. Constantino, son of the two former, who 

added Britain to the Roman empire, 

and was the first Christian emperor 

of Rome, in 306. 
337. Constantino : son of the above. 
MO. Constans ; his brother. 
350. Ikfsgnentius. 
353. Constantius ; Gratianus Funarius, and 

afterwards Martinus, his vicars in 

3G1. Jolian, the Apostate. 

363. Jovian ; found dead in bed. 

364. Valentinian. 
375. Gratian. 

381. Maximiis; assumes the purple in liri- 

tain ; is beheaded. 
38a ValentinJlAn ; colleague of Hratian abuvc 

30). Honorius. 


BRITAIN, KINGS or, ccniin»t4. 
1^:^ . 

«i. Vurli, 

813. Cadwwi TI. 1 prtaiaof 

611, ddwrnlliia. 

tun. CUvalladtr : ■tts' whiH imtit tba 

or lbs Sanra, ud dJTUa It. Tba 
BriUih prUHH lo* 

Uoga, imil aie uUod jHinm otWilM. 

aid. EdiHidi UwniDiEaMniHt. 

MO. Bmiabcrt icwnd xa ol £dluld. 
fl(H. Egbert ; destroya Hid Ida] templos. 
073. LuiIikIt, tinilber ol Efbcrt. 
686. felrio. iil»in by Hi •ubJocU, In M7- 
SM. Wigbtnd : ■ ]B(£sfiil reign. 
— " ovtd by hli people. 

7«. li 

n II.; 

IBirki, SonaamfUK, WOU, BammH, Dfr- 

S33. Kmriciu Hn<>( Cerdic 

tW. ChIwIh ! wn uf KhiHciu. 

lOi. CteliUi, llm naphow at CcBlvin. 

W- CartmUt, or Cooinill. 

Oil. C^nugUi, or Klnill hiancpheiv. 

7H. Bliobrjrbt, u Blisbert ; IbilH- 
7W. Cjuwulf. of (ha llna of Cardio- 
7IM. Bwrblrio.oiBlthrlo. 
wu. Eibarti wbo beouw, In BK tb 

ua Oborallnai ilM In »a*M.H,i|. 

8N. eig)icTandSt.eebbi Jolstl;. 
eg*- Bigrluud and Senfrrd, or CaobUa 
701' Offa; frfi-amc njiionli al Seme. 
TOfl. Eelr«d & pLjua ud Jutt prIiiDa. 
}«. BwiUied, or Sulliinid 41 pianfi.1 
n*. Siganid. Tlie kinfrdi'm kIhiI gj 
fcgtwrl, king of Weswi. in ^ 

[X«/«a, auTott. CVmfeHi^ /tit ti- £4 1 

79). Caolnulf.orCiMlnulpii. 
7» Esbml Imiiiu a aioiC 
7M' OiwuU.OrOswulpb 1 
7W'£:liloiild,DrUDlla m. 

7ia AUmld ; il 
791. Oind IL r 
7M Eltulndn 




BRITAIN, KINGS of, coniinued. 

796. Otwald, or (Hbald ; reigned 88 daya. 
796. Eardalf. or Ardalph. 
807. Alf wold IL 

810. Andred ; and perhaps others. Com- 
pelled to submit to Egbert, in 836. 

KINGS or MJsaciA. 

ICountu* qf QUmcesUr, Her^ord, Chestert 
Stafford, WoreetUTt Oj^ordt Salop, War- 
wUk, Derbp, LeicetttTt Bucks, Northamp- 
ton, Notts, Lincoln, Bedford, Rutland, 
Huntingdon, and pari of Herts.'] 

* Crida, or Cridda. 
599. Wibba, son of Crlda. 
616. Ceorl, or Cheori. 
ess. Penda ; a fleroe and omel warrior. 
655. Peada ; son of Penda. 
658. Wulfbere ; sUuf his two sons. 

675. Ethdred ; became a monk» 

704. Cenred.orKenred. 

709. Ceolred, or Celrsd, or Chelred. 

716. Ethdbald : murdered. 

757' Beumred ; slain in battle. 

757. Offia ; formed the dyke in Wales, 774. 

796. Egfertb, or Egfrido. 

796. Kenulph, Kenwolfe. or Genwulf. 

819. St. Kenelm, or Cenelm; reigned five 

819. Ceolwulf. 
821. Bemulf, or Beomwulf. 
825. Lndecan, or Ludican. 
896. Wtthlafe. 
899. Berthulf. 
809. Bnrhred ; af tar whose dsath Merola was 

incorporated with the kingdom of 


The Saxons, although they were divided into seren different kingdoms, yet were for the most 
part sabject to one king alone, who was entitled Rex gentis Anglorum, or King of the English 
■ation ; those wiiicfa were stronger than the rest giring the law to them in their several turns, till. 
In the end, th^ all became inoorporated in the empire of the West Saxons. The following also 
were kings or ootarchs daring tbo Heptarchy :» 


457. Hengist, first king of SLent 

49a Ella, king of the South Saxons. 

5ia Cerdic, king of the West Saxons. 

533. Kenric, ditto. 

559. Cealwin, ditto. 

693. St Ethelbert, ditto, and of Kent. 

616. Redwald. king of the East Angles. 

630. Edwine, king of Northumbria. 

655. Oswald, ditto ; slain. 

f4i. Osweo. or Oswy, ditto. 

670. Wulfhere, king of Merda. 

675. Ethelred, ditto. 

704. Cenred, king of Merola. 

709. Celred ; slain in battle. 

716. Etbelbald, ditto ; slain. 

758. Offa, ditto. 

79a Egferth, or Egfrido ; ditto. < 

796. Kenulph, ditto. 

880. Egbert, king of the West Saxons ; the 
first and absolute numarch <k the 
whole Heptarchy, who vanquished 
all or most of the Saxon kings, and 
added their dominions to his own. 

Tliat Britain formerly joined the Continent has been inferred from the similar cliffi 
of the opposite ooasti of the English Channel, and from the constant encroaehments 
of the sea in still widening the channeL For instance, a large part of the cliffs of 
Dorer fieli, estimated at six acres, Not. 27, 1810. — PhUlip8*9 AnnaU, 

BRITISH INSTITUTION, Pall Mall, founded in 1805, and opened Jan. 18, 
1 806, on a plan formed by sir Thomas Bernard, for the encouragement of British 
artists. The gallery that was purchased for this institution was erected by Alder- 
man Boydell, to exhibit the paintings that had been executed for his edition of 
Shakspeare. — Leigh, 

BRITISH MUSEUM. The origin of this great national institution was the grant by 
parliament of 20,000/. to the daughters of sir Hans Sloane, in payment for his fine 
library, and yast collection of the productions of nature and art, which had cost him 
50,000/. The library contamed 50,000 Tolumes and valuable MSS., and 69,352 
•articles of rertU were enumerated in the catalogue of curiosities. The act was passed 
April 5, 1753 ; and in the same year Montagu-house was obtained by government 
as a place for the reception of these treasures. The museum has since been gradu- 
ally increased to an immense extent by gifts, bequests, the purchase of eveiy species 
of curiosity, MSS., sculpture and work of art, and by the transference to its rooms 
oi the Cottonian, Harleian, and other libraries, the Elgin marbles, &c. George IV. 
presented to the museum the library collected at BucUngham-house by George III. 
— See Cotioniim Library, and other collections. 

BROAD SEAL of ENGLAND, first affixed to patents and other grants of the erowo, 
by Edward the Confessor, a.d. 1048. — Baker* e Chron. See Great Seal. 

BROCADE. A silken stuff variegated with gold or silver, and raised and enriched 
with flowers and various sorts of figures, originally made by the Chinese. — Johnson. 
The trade in thic article was carried on by the Venetians. — Anderson. Its manu- 
facture was established with great success at Lyons, in 1757. 

BRO C ^ J ^^^ 

BROCOLI : an lulian plant. — Pardon. The white and purple, both of whidi ire 
raiietiet of the canlillover, vere brought to England from the Isle of Cypros, in 
the KTenteenth century. — Amdenon. About 1603. — Burns, The cnltiTation of 
this T^etable was greatly improTcd in the gardens fA England and came into grat 
abondanoe about 1680. — Amderum. 

BROKERS. Thoae both of money and merchandise were known early in Englfod. 
See Appraisers. Their dealings were regulated by law, and it was enacted thit 
they should be licensed before transacting business, 8 and 9 William III. 1695-6. 
The dealings of stock-brokers were regulated by act 6 Geoige 1. 17 19, and 10 George 
II. nze.^SiatuU* ai large.—See Pawnbnkers. 

BRONZE, known to the ancients, some of whose statues, yessels, and Tmrious otiier 
articles, made of bronze, are in the British Museum. The equestrian statue of Loaii 
XIV., 1699, in the Place Vendome at Paris, (demolished Aug. lOth, 1792,) was the 
most coloasal ever made ; it contained 60,000 lbs. wdght of £ronxe. Bronse ii tvo 
parts brass and one copper, and the Greeks added one fifteenth of lead and nlTer. . 

BROTHELS, were formerly allowed in London, and considered a necessary eril, under 
the regulation of a good police. They were all situated on the Bankside, Southwuk, 
and subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop of Winchester ; and they were lidtei 
weekly by the sheriff's officers, the severest penalties being enacted against keepiag 
infected or msrried women, 8 Henry II. 1162. — Survep qf London. Brothels tote- 
rated in France, 1280. Pope Stxtus IV. licensed one at Rome, and the prostitBtei 
paid him a weekly tax, which amounted to 20,000 ducats a year, 1471. — lUU. Chrm. 

BROWNISTS, a sect founded by a schoolmsster in Southwark, named Robot 
Brown , about 1615. It condemned all ceremonies and ecclesiastical distinctions, end 
affirmed that there was an admixture of corruptions in all other communions. Bit 
the founder subsequently recanted his doctrines for a benefice in the ehvchof 
England. — Collinses Eecles. Hist. 

BRUCE'S TRAVELS, underUken to discover the source of the Nile. The iUustriots 
Bruce, the *' Abyssinian Traveller,*' set out in June 1768, and proceeding first to 
Cairo, he navigated the Nile to Syene, thence crossed the desert to the Red Sea, and, 
arriving at Jidda, passed some months in Arabia Felix, and after various detentions, 
reached Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, in Feb. 1770. On Nov. 14th, 1770, lie 
obtained the great object of his wishes — a sight of the sources of the Nile. Brsot 
returned to England in 1773, and died in 1794. 

BRUNSWICK, House or. This house owes its origin to Azo, of the fsmilyof 
Este. Azo died in 1055, snd left, by his wife Cunegonde (the heiress of Guelph IIl^ 
duke of Bavaria), a son who was Guelph IV., the great-grandfather of Henry die 
Lion. This last married Maude, daughter of Henry 11. of England, and is always 
looked upon as being the founder of the Brunswick fiunily. The dominions of 
Henry the Lion were the most extensive of any prince of his time ; but having 
refused to assist the emperor Frederick Barbarossa in a war against pope Alexander 
III., he drew the emperor's resentment on him, and in the diet of Wnrtzbuig, in 
1 179, he was proscribed. The duchy of Bavaria was given to Otho, from whom ii 
descended the family of Bavaria ; the duchy of Saxony, to Bernard Ascanius, founder 
of the house of Anhalt ; and his other territories to different persons. On this, he 
retired to England ; but on Henry's intercession, Brunswick and Lunenburg wen 
restored to him. The house of Brunswick has divided into several branches. The 
present duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel is sprung from the eldest ; the duke of 
Brunswick-Zell was from the second ; and from this last sprang the royal family of 
England. A revolution took place at Brunswick, when the ducal palace wtf 
burnt, and the reigning prince obliged to retire and seek shelter in England, 
Sept. 8, 1830. 

BRUNSWICK CLUBS. EsUbHshed to mainUin the principles of the revolutioa, 
the integrity of the bouse of Hanover, and Protestant ascendency in church and statf. 
The first was formed in England at a meeting held at Maidstone, in Sept 1828. 
The first general meeting for the formation of Brunswick clubs in Ireland was held 
at the Rotunda in Dublin, Nov. 4, same year. 

BRUSSELS, founded by St. Gery of Cambray, in the seventh century. The meoBor- 
able bombardment of this city, by Marshal Viileroy, when 14 churches and 4000 
houses were destroyed, 1695. Taken by the French, 1746. Again, by Dnmonrits, 

BUB E_^_L] ^ " 

1792. The reToIution of 1830 commenced here, Aag. 25.— See Belgium, Thig 
town is celebrated for its fine lace, camlets, and tapestry. There is here a noble 
building, called the U6tel de VUle, whose turret is 364 feet in height ; and on its top 
is a copper figure of St. Michael, 17 feet high, which turns with the wind. Riot in 
Bmssels, in which the costly fornitnre of 16 principal houses was demolished, in 
cootequence of a display of a t tachment to the house of Orange 5th April, 1834. 

BUBBLE COMPANIES, in commerce, a name given to projects for raising money 
npon false and imaginary grounds, much practised, often with disastrous conse- 
quences, in France and England, in 1719 and 1721. Many such projects were 
formed in England and Ireland in 1825. See Companiftf and Law*t Bubble, 

BUCCANEERS. These piratical adyenturers, chiefly French, English, and Dutch, com. 
menoed their depredations on the Spaniards of America, soon after the latter had 
taken possession of that continent and the West Indies. The principal commanden 
of the firat expeditions were, Montbar, Lolonois, Basco, and Morgan, who murdered 
thousands, and plundered millions. The expedition of Van Horn, of Ostend, was 
undertaken in 1603 ; that of Gramont, in 1685 ; and that of Pointis, in 1697. 

BUCHANITES. Hundreds of deluded fanatics, followers of Margaret Bnchan, who 
promised to conduct them to the new Jerusalem, and prophesied the end of the 
world. She aii|>eared in Scotland in 1779, and died in 1791, when her followen 

BUCHAREST, T&batt of. The preliminaries of peace ratified at this place between 
Russia and Turkey, it being stipulated that the Pruth should be the frontier limit of 
those empires, signed May 28, 1812. The subsequent war between those powen 
altered many of the provisions of this treaty. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE, London. The original edifice, called Buckingham-house, 
was built on the site known as Mulberry-gardens, by John Sheffield, duke of Buck> 
ingham, in 1703. In 1761, it became the property of the late queen Charlotte, who 
made it her town residence ; and here all her children, with the exception of the 
ddest, were bom. Here likewise several royal marriages have taken place : the late 
duke of York and princess Frederics of Prussia, in 1791 ; duke of Gloucester and 
princess Mary, 1816; prince of Hesse-Homburg and princess Elizabeth, 1818 ; and the 
duke of Cambridge and princess of Hesse, in the same year. Buckingham -house was 
pulled down in 1825, and the new palace commenced on its site ; and after an expen- 
diture which must have approached a million sterling, it was completed, and was 
taken possession of by queen Victoria, July 13, 1837. 

BUCKLERS. Those used in smgle combat were invented by Proetus and Acrisius, of 
Argoe, about 1370 b.c. When Lucius Papirius defeated the Samnites, he took from 
than their bucklen, which were of gold and silver, 309 b.c. See article Armour. 

BUCKLES. The wearing of buckles commenced in the reign of Charles II. ; but people 
of infSerior rank, and such as affected plainness in their garb, wore strings in their 
shoes some yean after that period : these last were, however, ridiculed for their sin- 
gularity in using them. 

BUDA ; onoe called the Key of Christendom. It was taken by Solyman 11. at the 
memorable battle of Mohatx, when the Hungarian king, Louis, was killed, and 
200,0(N) of his subjects were carried away captives, 1526. Buds was sacked a second 
time, when the inhabitants were put to the sword, and Hungary was annexed to the 
Ottoman empire, 1540. Re-taken by the Imperialists, and the Mahometans delivered 
up to the fury of the soldiers, 1686. See Hungary. 

BUENOS AYRES. The capital was founded by Pedro Mendoza, in 1535. It was taken 
by the Britirii under sir Home Popham, June 21, 1806; and was re-taken, after an 
attack of three days, Aug. 12, the same year. The British suffered a great repulse 
here under general Whitelocke, who was disgraced, July 6, 1807. Declaration of 
independence of this province, July 19, 1816 : the treaty was signed in Feb. 1822. 

BUFFOONS. These were originally mountebanks in the Roman theatres. The shows 
of the buffoons were discouraged by Domitian, and were finally abolished by Trajan, 
A.o. 98. Our ancient kings had jesters, who are described as being, at first, practi- 
tioners of indecent raillery and antic postures; they were employed under the Tudora. 
Some writera state that James I. converted the jestera into poet-laureates ; but poet- 
laureates existed long before ; Selden traces the latter to 1251. — JVarion. 

BUILDING. The firat structures were of wood and clay, then of rough stone, and in 

BUI [ 92 ] BUO 

the end the art adTanced to polished marble. Building with stoue was early among 
the Tynans ; and as ornaments and taste arose, erery nation parsned a differeot 
system. The art of building with stone may be referred in England to Benedict, or 
Benet, a monk, about a.d. 670. The first bridge of this material in England wu 
at Bow, in 1087. In Ireland, a castle was built of stone at Tuam by the king of Coo- 
naught, in 1161 ; and it was *' so new and uncommon as to be called the fVondeijvl 
Cattle.** Building with brick was introduced by the Romans into their proTinca. 
Alfred encouraged it in England, in 886. Brick-building was generally introdooed by 
the earl of Arundel, about 1598, London being then almost built of wood. The 
increase of building in London was prohibited within three miles of the dty-gatei by 
Elizabeth, who ordered that one funily only should dwell in one house, 1580. The 
buildings from High Holbom, north and south, and Great Queen-street (built on the 
ground where stooid the Elms, or the ancient Tyburn, in Edward III.'s reign), were 
erected between 1607 and 1631. — Strype. 

BUILDING ACTS. The early and principal sUtntes relating to building were paned, 
▼is., 5, 23, and 35, reign of Elizabeth ; 19 and 22 of Charles II. ; and 6 and 7 of 
Anne. The principal statutes since were, 33 George II. and 6 Greorge III., foUowed 
by enactments in 1770, 1772, and 1783. The recent acts are yery numerous. 

BULGARIANS. They defeat Justinian, a.d. 687 ; and are subdued by the emperor 
Basilius, in 1019. On one occasion, this emperor having taken 15,000 Bulgarimf 
prisoners, he caused their eyes to be put out, leaving one eye only to every hundredth 
man, to enable him to conduct his countrymen home. Bulgaria was governed by 
Roman dukes till 1186 ; subdued by Bajazet, 1396.— (7mo. HisL vol. zvii. 

BULL, OR EDICT op the POPE. This is an apostolical rescript, of ancient use, sad 
generally written on parchment. The bull is, properly, the seal, deriving its name 
m>m hulla^ and has been made of gold, silver, lead, and wax. On one side are the 
heads of Peter and Paul ; and on the other, the name of the pope, and year of hb 
pontificate. The celebrated golden bull of the emperor Charles IV. was so called 
oecause of its golden seal ; and was made the fundamental law of the Grerman anfure, 
at the diet of Nuremburg, a.d. 1356. Bulls denouncing queen Bllizabeth and her 
abettors, and consigning them to hell-fire, accompanied the Spaniah Armada, 1588. 

fiULL-BAlTING, or BULL-FIGHTING. This atrociously criminal sport of Spsin 
and Portugal is somewhat equivalent in those countries to the fights of the gUdiaton 
among the Romans. It is recorded as being an amusement at Stamford so early ss 
the reign of John, 1209. Bull-running was a sport at Tutbury in 1374. In the 
Sports of England f we read of the *' Easter fierce hunts, when foaminc boars fought 
for their heads, and lusty bulls and huge bears were baited with dogs ;'' and near the 
Clink t London, was the Paris, or Bear Garden, so celebrated in the time of Elizabeth 
for the exhibition of bear-baiting, then a fashionable amusement. A bill to abolish 
bull-baiting was thrown out in the Commons, chiefly through the influence of the late 
Mr. Windham, who made a singular speech in favour of the custom, May 24, IS02, 
— Butler. It has since been declared illegal. See Cruelty to Animab. BuU-fighti 
were introduced into Spain about 1260 : abolished there, ** except for pkmt and 
patriotic purposes," in 1784. There was a bull-fight at Lisbon, at Campo de Sants 
Anna, attended by 10,000 spectators, on Sutuiayt June 14, 1840. 

BULLETS. Those of stone were in use a.d. 1514 ; and iron ones are first mentioned 
in the Fadera^ 1550. Leaden bullets were made before the close of the sixteenth 
century, and continue to be those in use in all nations for musketry. Hie cannon- 
ball in some Eastern countries is still of stone, instead of iron. — Athe. 

BUNKER'S HILL, Battle of, fought between the British forces and the revolted 
Americans, who made a formidable stand against the royal troops, but were ulti- 
mately defeated with considerable loss — the Americans were nearly 2000, and the 
British near 3000 men. It was one of the earliest actions of the provincials with 
the mother country ; and notwithstanding its issue, the American people refer to 
it with great national pride, on account of the obstinate fight they made against 
the superior numbers of the British ; fought June 17, 1775. 

BUONAPARTE'S EMPIRE of FRANCE. Napoleon Buonaparte, the most extra- 
ordinary man of modem times, ruled over France, and subdued most of the nationi 
of the Continent, in the earlv part of the present century. See his various militsry 
and other achievements under their respective heads throughout the volume i-^ 





Napoleon born at Ajaodo, in Italy, 

Aug. 15, ifm 
He first distingaisbes himself In the com- 

mand of the artillery at Toulon . . 1793 
He embarks for ^gypt BCay 10, 1796 

Is remised before Acre . . May S7, 1799 
He returns fnmi Egypt Aug. S3, 1799 

D^Mses the Fraich directory, and be- 

ccnnee first consul Nor. 9, 1799 

Sends orertures of peace to the king of 

England Jan. I. 1800 

His life attempted by an " infernal ma- 
chine** .... Dec. 24, 1800 
Elected president of the Italian, late 

Cisalpine repnblio . Jan. 85, 1809 

Elected consul for 10 years . May 8, 1808 
Made first consul for life Aug. 8, 1809 

Accepts the title of emperor from the 

senate in name of the people . May 18, 1804 
Crowned emperor by the pope . Dec 8, 1804 
Crowned king of Italy May 96, 1805 

Diroroed firom the empi es s Josephine 

Dec. 16, 1809 
MarriesMaria Louisa . April 7> 1810 

A son, the fruit of this marriage, bom, 

and styled king of Rome . March 90, 1811 
His OTCTtures of peace to England re- 
jected .... April 14, 1818 
CTbe re v e r se s of Buonaparte now foUow 

in qnlek su ce eas i on.^ 
He renounces the thrones of France and 
Italy, and accepts of the Isle of Elba 
for his retreat . April 5, 1814 

Embarks at Fr<|us . April 88, 1814 

ArriTes at Elba . May 3, 1814 

Again appears in France ; he quits Elba 
and lands at Cannes . . March 1, 1815 


Enters Lyons March 10, 

Arrires at Fontainebleau . March 80, 
Joined by all the army . March 88, 
The allies sign a treaty for his eztermi* 



March 85, 

Bfarch89, 1815 

June 12, 1815 

June 18, 1815 

June 80. 1815 

his infant 


He abolishes the sUre-trade 

Leares Paris for the army . 

Is defeated at Waterloo . 

Returns to Paris 

And abdicates in farour of 
son June 28, 1815 

Intending to embark for America, ho 
arrires at Rochefort July 3, 1815 

He surrenders to Capt. Maitland, of the 
BeWirophon . . July 15, 1815 

Transferred at Torbay to the Northum' 
berland, and sails for St Helena Aug. 8, 1815 

Arrives at St Helena (where It is decreed 
by the allied sovereigns he shall re- 
main for life) . . Oct 15, 

The family of Buonaparte excluded for 
ever from France by the law of am- 
nesty .... Jan. 18, 

Death of Buonaparte May 5, 

His will registered in England . Aug. 

His son, ex-klng of Rome, dies . July 28, 1838 

The French chambers decree, with the 
consent of England, that the ashes of 
Napoleon be removed from St Helena, 
and brought to France . . May 18, 1840 

They are exhumed . Oct 16, 1840 

The BtlU PouU, French frigate, arrives 
at Cherbourg with the remains of Na- 
poleon, in the oare of the prince de 
Joinville . . Nov. 30, 1840 

Thoy are interred with great solemnity 
in the Hdtel des Invalides . Deo. 15, 1840 



BURGESS, from the French Bourgeois, a distinctioa coeyal in England with iti 
corporations. Burgesses were called to parliament in England a.d. 1265 ; in 
Scotland, in 1326 ; and in Ireland, about 1365. Burgesses to be resident in the 
places which they are elected to represent in parliament, 1 Henry V. 1413. — Viner^t 
Statutes. See Borough. 

BURGHER SECEDERS, dissenters from the church of Scotland. Their separation 
from the associate presbytery arose in a difference of sentiment regarding the 
lAwfolness of taking the burgess oath, 1739. 

BURGLARY. Until the reign of Greorge IV. this crime was punished with death. 
Formerly, to encourage the prosecution of offenders, he who convicted a burglar was 
exempted from parish offices, 10 and 11 William III. 1699. Statute of Rewards, 
5 Anne, ]706> and 6 George I. 1720. Receivers of stolen plate and other goods to 
be transported, 10 George III. 1770. Persons having upon them picklock keys. 
Sec to be deemed rogues and vagabonds, 13 George III. 1772-3. The laws with 
respect to burglary were amended by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) Peel's acts, 
between 4 and 10 George IV. 1823 and 1829. 

BURGOS, SiKOE OF. Lord Wellington entered Burgos after the battle of Salamanca, 
which was fousht July 22, 1812, and the castle was besieged by the British and 
allied army, and several attempts were made to carry it by assault, but the siege 
was abandoned in October, same year. The castle and fortifications were blown up 
by the French in June 1813. 

BURGUNDY. This kingdom begins in Alsace, a.d. 413. Conrad II. of Germany 
being declared heir to the kingdom, is opposed in his attempt to annex it to the 
empire, when it is dismembered, and on its ruins are formed the four provinces 
of Burgondy, Provence, Viennes, and Savoy, 1034. Burgundy becomes a circle 
of the German empire, 15'21. It falls to Philip II. of Spain, whose tyranny and 

BUR Q 94 ] BUR 

religious persecutions cause a reTolt in the Batavian provinces, 1 566. After Tarioos 
changes, Burgundy annexed to France, and formed into departments of that kingdooL 

BURIAL. The earliest and most rational mode of restoring the body to earth. The 
first idea of it was formed by Adam, on his observing a live bird covering a dead one 
fvith leaves. Barrows were the most ancient graves. See Barrows. Places of 
burial were consecrated under pope Calixtus I. in 210. — Eusebius. The firrt 
Christian burial-place was instituted in 596 ; burial in cities, 742 ; in consecrated 
places, 750 ; in church-yards, 758. Vaults were erected in chancels first at 
Canterbury, 1075. Woollen shrouds used in England, 1666. Linen scarfs intro- 
duced at funerals in Ireland, 1729 ; and woollen shrouds used, 1733. Burials were 
taxed, 1695~again, 1783. See Cemeteries, 

BURIALS. Parochial registers of them, and of births and marriages, were institvted 
in England by Cromwell, Lord Essex, about 1536. — Stowe. A tax waa exacted on 
burials in England ~ for the burial of a duke, 50/., and for that of a common pawn 
4«., under William III. 1695, and Geo. III. 17 S^.^Statutee, See BiUs o/MortoRtg. 

BURKING. A new and horrible species of murder committed in England. It was 
thus named from the first known criminal by whom the deed was perpetrated being 
called Burke. His victims were strangled, or made lifeless by preasnre, or other 
modes of suffocation, and the bodies, which exhibited no marks of violence, were 
afterwards sold to the surgeons for the purpose of dissection. Burke waa executed 
at Edinburgh in February 1829. The crime has been more recently perpetrated by 
a g^ng of murderers in London. The monster nam^ Bishop was apprehended 
in November 1831, and executed with 9ViUiamst one of his accomplices, for the 
murder of a poor Italian boy named Carlo Ferrari, a friendless wanderer, and 
therefore selected as being less likely to be sought after (they confessing to this and 
other similar murders), December 5, same year. 

BURLINGTON HEIGHTS, Battle of, between the British and the United States 
American forces, an obstinate and memorable engagement, contested with grest 
valour on both sides. The Americans were routed, and the British carried the 
heights, June 6, 1813. 

BURMESE EMPIRE. Founded in the middle of the last century, by Alompra, the 
first sovereign of the present dynasty. Our first dispute with this formidable poMr 
occurred in 1795, but it was amicably adjusted by general Erskine. Hostilities 
were commenced by the British in 1824, when they took Rangoon. The fort and 
pagoda of Syriam taken, 1825. After a short armistice^ hostilities were renewed, 
December 1, same year, and pursued until the successive victories of the British 
led to the cession of Arracan, and to the signature of peace on the 3d January, 182& 
— See India, 

BURNING ALIVE. This punishment was inflicted among the Romans, Jews, and 
other nations, on the betrayers of councils, incendiaries, and for incett in the 
ascending and descending d^rees. The Jews had two ways of burning aUve : one 
with wood and faggots to bum the body, the other, by pouring scalding lead doira 
the throat of the criminal, combusHo anitntf, to bum the soul.---See Sutiees, 

BURNING ALIVE, in England. Even in England (see preceding artieU) burning 
alive was a punishment upon the statute-book, llie Britons punished heinous 
crimes by burning alive in wicker baskets. See Sionehenge, This punishment was 
countenanced by bulls of the pope ; and witches suffered in thia manner. — See 
Witches, Many persons have been burned alive on account of religious principles. 
The first sufferer was sir William Sawtree, parish priest of St. Osith, London, 
3 Henry IV., February 9, 1401. In the reign of the cruel Mary numbers were 
burned, among others, Ridley « bishop of London, Latimer, bishop of Rochester, 
and Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, who were burned at Oxford in 1555 and 
1556. Numerous others suffered this dreadful death in Mary's reign *. 

♦ It Is computed, that during the three years of Mary's reign In whSoh these ihocking 
and barbarities wore carried on, there were 877 persons brought to the stake ; besidea those who wore 
punished by imprlaonmeiit, fines, and confiscations. Among those who suffered by fire were 5 bbhoiMi 
SI cletgynien, 8 lay gentlemen. 84 tradesmen, 100 hufibandmon, servants, and labourers. 55 women, 
and 4 children. The unprincipled agents of this merciless queen were the bishops Gardiner and 
lk>nner. The latter especially was a man of brutal character, who seemed to derive a savage pies- 
sure in witnessing the torture of the sufferers. 

BUR t 95 ] BUS 

BURNING THE DEAD. The andqaity of this custom rises as high as the Theban 
war ; it was practised among the Greeks and Romans, and the poet Homer abounds 
with descriptions of such foneral obsequies. The practice was very general about 
1225 B.C., and was reTired by Sylla, lest the relics of the dead in graves should be 
violated ; and to this day the burning of the dead is practised in many parts of the 
East and West Indies. See Barrows, 

BURNING-GLASS and CONCAVE MIRRORS. Their power was not unknown to 
Archimedes, but the powers of these instruments are rendered wonderful by the 
modem improrements of Settalla : of Tchimhausen, 1680 ; of Buffon, 1747 ; and of 
Parker and others, more recently. The following are experiments of the fusion of 
substances made with Mr. Parker's lens, or burning mirror : 

Su^taiuet /itud. 






Pore gold . 

. SO grains 

4 seconds. 

A topac 

. 3 grains 

45 seconds. 

SQver . 

. . SOgratnt 

3 seconds. 

. . S grains 

95 seconds. 


. S3 grains 

!<> seconds. 

A crystal pebble . 

. 7 grains 

6 seconds. 

Platina . 

. . 10 grains 

3 seconds. 

Flint . 

. . 10 grains 

3U seconds. 

Cast iron . 

. 10 grains 

3 seconds. 

Comeliwn . 

. 10 grains 

75 seconds. 


. 10 grains 

19 seconds. 

Pumice stone . 

. . 10 grains 

24 seconds. 

Green wood takes fire Instantaneously; water boils immediately; bones are calcined; 
and things, not capable of melting, at once become red-hot like iron. 

BURWELL FIRE. A number of persons assembled to see a puppet-show at Burwell, 
near Newmarket, in the evening of September 8, 1727. The entertainment was in 
a bam, and a candle haTing been placed too near a heap of straw, a fire was 
occasioDed, which was one of the most fatal on record. Seventy-six indiyiduals 
perished in the fire, and others died of their wounds. Among the sufferers were 
■ereral young ladies of fortune and many children. The bodies were reduced to a 
mass of mangled carcases half consumed, and wholly undistinguishable, and were 
promiscuously buried in two pits, dug for the purpose in the church-yard. 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS. Took its name from St. Edmund, who was murdered by 
the Danes in 870, and buried here, and to whom its magnificent abbey vras founded. 
It shares with Rannymede the honour of producing Magna Charts in 1215. At this 
town the barons met, and entered into a league against king John ; and Henry VI. 
summoned a parliament in 1446, when Humphry, duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned, 
and died here, it is supposed by poison. It was almost consumed by fire in 1608 ; 
and an awfid and desolating plague raged in 1636. 

BURYING ALIVE. A mode of death adopted in Boeotia, where Creon ordered 
Antigone, the sister of Polynices, to be buried alive, 1225 b.c. The Roman vestals 
were subjected to this horrible kind of execution for any levity in dress or conduct 
that oonld excite a suspicion of their virtue. The vestal Minutia was buried alive on 
a diarge of incontinence, 337 b.c. The vestal Sextilia was buried alive 274 b.c. 
The vestal Cornelia a.d. 92. Lord Bacon gives instances of the resurrection of 
persons who had been buried alive ; the famous Duns Scotus is of the number. The 
assassins of Capo d'Istria, President of Greece, were (two of them) sentenced to be 
immured in brick walls built around them up to their chins, and to be supplied vrith 
food in this species of torture until they died, October 1831. — See Greece. 

BUSACO, OB BUZACCO, Battle of, between the BriUsh under Lord Wellington 
and the French army, commanded by Massena. The latter were repulsed with 
great slaughter. The British subsequently retreated to the lines of Torres Vedras, 
which were too strong for Massena to attempt to force, and the two armies remained 
in sight of each other to the end of the year : fought September 27, 1810. 

BUSHEL. This measure was ordered to contain eight gallons of wheat, 12 Henry 
YIII. 1520; the legal Winchester bushel was regulated 9 William III. 1697 ; the 
imperial com bushel of 2218192 cubic inches, is to the Winchester of 2150*42, as 
32 to 31. Regulated by act 5 George IV. June 1824, which act came into operation 
January 1. lS26,^Siatulet. 

BUSTS. This mode of preserving the remembrance of the human features is the same 
with the hemuB of the Greeks. Lysistratus, the statuary, was the inventor of moulds 
from which be cast wax figures, 328 b.c. — P/iny. Busts from the face in plaster 
of Pkris were first taken by Andrea Verrochi, about a.d. 1466. — Vatari. 



BUTCHERS. Among the Romans there were three classes : the Suarii proTided hop, 
the Boarii oxen, and the Laniif whose office was to kill. The butchers' trade is 
Tery ancient in England ; so is their company in London, although it was not 
incorporated until the second year of James I. 1604. — Annals of London. 

BUTTER. It was late before the Greeks had any notion of butter, and by the early 
Romans it was used only as a medicine — nerer as food. The Christiana of Egypt 
burnt butter in their lamps instead of oil, in the third century. Butter forming an 
important article of commerce as well as food in these countries, yarions statutes 
have passed respecting its package, weight, and sale ; the principal of which are the 
36th and 38th George III. and 10 George IV. 1829. In 1675, there fell in Ireland, 
during the winter timci a thick yellow dew, which had all the medicinal properties 
of butter. In Africa, regetable butter is made from the fruit of the shea tree, and is 
of richer taste, at Kebba, than any butter made from cow's milk. — Mungo Park, 

BUTTONS, of early manufacture in England ; those coTered with cloth were prohibited 
by a statute, thereby to encourage the manufacture of metal buttons, 8 George I. 
1721. The manufacture owes nothing to encouragement from any quarter of Ute 
years, although it has, notwithstanding, much improved. — Phillips. 

BYNG, Hon. Admiral JOHN, shot on board the Monarch ship of war at Spitbead, 
March 14, 1757. This brave officer, so distinguished by his services, and who had 
given so many signal proofs of his courage as a commander, was charged widi 
neglect of duty in an engagement with the enemy off Minorca on the 20th of May 
preceding. As his conduct could not merit the accusation of cowardice, and as he 
was too British for that of disaffection to be hazarded against him, he was condemned 
for an error of judgment ^ and suffered death. The following bold inscriptioD was 
cut upon his tomb, at South-hill, Bedfordshire : — 







BYRON'S VOYAGE. Commodore Byron left England on his voyage round the globe, 
June 21, 1764, and returned May 9, 1766. In his voyage he discovered the populooa 
island in the Pacific Ocean which bears his name, August 16, 1765. Though brave 
and intrepid, such was his general ill fortune at sea, that he was called by the 
sailors of the fleet *' Foul-weather Jack.'' — Bellchambers. 

BYZANTIUM. Now Constantinople, founded by a colony of Athenians, 715 b.c.— 
Eutebius. It was taken by the Romans a.d. 73, and was laid in ruins by Sevenu 
in 196. Byzantium was rebuilt by Constantine in 338 ; and after him it received 
the name of Constantinople. See Constantinople. 


CABAL. A Hebrew word, used in various senses. The rabbins were cabalists, and 
the Christians so called those who pretended to magic. In English history, the 
Cabal was a council which consisted of five lords in administration, supposed to be 
pensioners of France, and distinguished by the appellation of the Cabals from the 
initials of their names : Sir Thomas Clifford, the lord Ashley, the duke of Bucking- 
ham, lord Arlington, and the duke of Lauderdale, 22 Charles II. 1670. — Hume. 

CABBAGES. Three varieties were brought to these realms from Holland, a.d. 1510. 
To Sir Arthur Ashley of Dorset, the first planting them in England is ascribed. This 
vegetable was previously imported from the Continent. It was introduced into 
Scotland by the soldiers of Cromwell's army. See Gardening, 

CABINET COUNCIL. There were councils in EngUnd so early as the rdgn of 
Ina, king of the West Saxons, a.d. 690 ; Offa, king of the Mercians, 758, and in 
other reigns of tlie Heptarchy. The cabinet council in which secret deliberations 
were held by the king and a few of his chosen friends, and the great officers of state, 
to be afterwards laid before the second council, now styled the privy council, was 

CAB Q 97 ] CM 

instituted by Alfred the Great aboat a.d. 896. — Spelman, The modern cabinet 
oonncil, as at present constituted, was reconstructed in 1670, and usually consists of 
the following twelve members* : 

Home, foreign, and colonial secretaries of statoi 

President of the board of controL 

President of the board of trade. 

Master of the mint. 

First lord of the admiralty. 

Lord president. 

Lord chancellor. 

Lordpriry seaL 

First lord of the treaaory. 

Chancellor of the exchequer. 

In 1841 the number was 14, and included the Secretary at War, the Woods and 
Forests, and Chief Secretary for Ireland, the Mint and Board of Trade being 
united in right hon. H. Labouchere. The cabinet ministers of the various reigns 
will be found under the head Administrationt of England. 

CABLES. Their use was known in the earliest times : a machine for making the 
largest, by which human labour was reduced nine-tenths, was invented in 1792. This 
machine was set in motion by sixteen horses, when making cables for ships of large 
size. Chain cables were introduced into the British navy in 1812. 

CADDEE, OR Lbaoub of God's House. The celebrated league of independence in 
Switzerland, formed by the Grisons to resist domestic tyranny, a.d. 1400 to 1419» 
A second league of the Grisons was called the Grise or Gray league, 1424. 

CADE'S INSURRECTION. Jack Cade, an Irishman, a fugitive from his country 
on account of his crimes, assumed the name of Mortimer, and headed 20,000 
Kentish men, who armed ** to punish eril ministers, and procure a redress of 
grievances." Cade entered London in triumph, and for some time bore down all 
opposition, and beheaded the lord treasurer, I^rd Saye, and several other persons of 
consequence. The insurgents at length losing ground, a general pardon was 
proclaimed ; and Cade, finding himself deserted by his followers, fled : but a reward 
being offered for his apprehension, he was discovered, and refasing to surrender, 
was slain by Alexander Iden, sheriff of Kent, 1451. 

CADIZ, formerly Gades, was built by the Carthaginians 530 b.c. — Priestley, One 
hundred vessels of the armament preparing, as the Spanish Armada, against England, 
were destroyed in the port by sir Francis Drake, 1587. Csdiz was taken by the 
English, under the earl of Essex, and plundered, September 15, 1596. It was 
attempted by sir George Rooke in 1702, but he failed. Bombarded by the British 
In 1797, and blockaded by their fleet, under lord St. Vincent, for two years, 
ending in 1799. Again bombarded by the British, on board whose fleet were 18,000 
land forces, October 1800. Besieged by the French, but the siege raised after the 
battle of Salamanca in 1812. Massacre of the inhabitants by the soldiery, March 
6, 1812. Cadiz was declared a free port in 1829. 

C^SARIAN OPERATION. The Csesarian section, it is said, first gave the name 
of Csetar to the Roman family : it is performed by cutting the chUd out of the 
womb, when it cannot be otherwise delivered. Of twenty-two cases operated on in 
these islands, twenty-one of the mothers died, and ten of their children were bom 
dead. Of twelve extracted alive, four sunrived only a few days. The case of Alice 
O'Neil, an Irishwoman, who survived the section, which was performed by a female, 
is authenticated by Dr. Gabriel King, of Armagh, and surgeon Duncan Stewart, 
of Dongannon. On the Continent the operation has been abundantly successful. — 
M. Baudehcque, 

CiESARS, ERA of ths ; or Spanish Era, is reckoned from the first of January 
38 B.C., being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It was 
much used in Africa, Spain, and the south of France ; but by a synod held in 
1180 its use wai aboUiiiea in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. Pedro IV. 
of ArragpD, abolished the use of it in his dominions in 1 350. John of Castile did 
the same in 1383. It continued to be used in Portugal till 1455. The months and days 

a The term cabinet council is of comparatively modem date, and originated thus : The affairs of 
•late in the reign of Charles I. were principally managed by the archbishop of Canterbury, the carl 
of Strmjfbrd, and the lord Cottb&gton ; to these were added the earl of Northumberland, for ornament ; 
the Ushc^ of London for his place, being lord treasurer ; the two secretaries, Vane and Windebonk, 
for anrvioe and inteDigcnco; only the marquis of Hamilton, by bis skill and interest, meddled Just so 
far, and no furtfaor, than he bad a mind. These persons made up the committco of state, reproach- 
fully caUed tb» Junto, and afterwarda, enviously, the cabinet council.^honD CLAJtEnrooN. 


CAl [] 98 ] CAL 

of thif era are identical with the Julian calendar, and to tarn the time into that of 
our era subtract thirty-eight from the year ; if before the Christian era subtract 

CAI-FONG, in. China. This city being besieged by 100,000 rebeb, the commander of 
the forces who was sent to its relief, in order to drown the enemy, broke down its 
embankments : his stratagem succeeded, and erery man of the besiegers perished ; 
but the city was at the same time overflowed by the waters, and 300,000 of the 
citizens were drowned in the overwhelming flood, a.d, 1642. 

CAIRO, OB GRAND CAIRO. The modem capital of Egypt, remarkable for the 
minarets of its mosques, and the splendid sepulchres of its caliphs in what is csDed 
the city of the dead : it was built by the Saracens, in a.d. 969. Burnt to prevent 
its occupation by the Christian huTaders, called Crusaders, in 1220. Taken by the 
Turks from the Egyptian sultans, and their empire subdued, 1517. Ruined by ta 
earthquake and a great fire, June, 1754, when 40,000 persons perished. Set on fire 
by a lady of the beglerbeg, Dec., 1755. Taken by the French under Napoleoo 
Buonaparte, July 23, 1798. Taken by the British and Turks, when 6000 Fmch 
capitulated, June 27, 1801. 

CALAIS. Taken by Edward III. after a year's siege, August 4, 1347, sndhddhy 
England 210 years. It was retaken in the reign of Mary, Jan. 7, 1558, and tbeloa 
of Calais so deeply touched the queen's heart, historians say it occasioned her death, 
which occurred soon afterwards. Calais was bombarded by the English, 1694. Hera 
Louis XVIII. landed after his long exile from France, April 24, 1814. See Frtmce. 

CALCUTTA. The first settlement of the English here was made in 1689. Itwu 
purchased as a Zemindary, and Fort William built in 1698. Calcutta was attadced 
by a large army of 70,000 horse and foot, and 400 elephants, in June, 17^6^ 
On the capture of the fort, 146 of the British were crammed into the Black-hole 
prison, a dungeon about eighteen feet square, from whence twenty-three only came 
forth the next morning alire. See Black-hole. Calcutta was retaken the fbUowing 
year, and the inhuman Soubah put to death. Supreme Court of Judicature established 
1773. College founded here, 1801. — See Bengal and India. 

CALEDONIA. Nov Scotland, The name is supposed by some to be derived from Getl 
or Gaelmen, or Gadel-doine^ corrupted by the Romans. Tacitus, who died a.d. 99, 
distinguishes this portion of Britain by the appellation of Caledonia ; but the etymo- 
logy of the word seems undetermined. Venerable Bede says, that it retained this 
name until a.d. 258, when it was invaded by a tribe from Ireland, and called Scoti§. 
The ancient inhabitants appear to have been the Caledonians and Picts, tribes of the 
Celts, who passed over from the opposite coasts of Gaul. About the bc^nning of the 
fourth century of the Christian era, they were invaded (as stated by some autho- 
rities), by the Scuyths or Scythians (since called Scots), who, having driven the 
Picts into the north, settled in the Lowlands, and gave their name to the whole 
country. Hence the origin of that distinction of language, habits, eostoms, and 
persons, which is still so remarkable between the Highlanders and the inhsbitanti 
of the southern borders. 

Cftledonian monarchy, said to hare been 

founded by Fergua I., about . B.C. 330 

The Picts from the north of England settle 

in the southern borders . . .140 
Agricola carries the Roman arms into 
Caledonia, with little succees, in the 
reign of Oaldus, otherwise called Cor- 

bredlL a.o. 79 

He is signally defeated by the forces of 

Corbred 80 

Christianity is introduced into Caledonia 
in the relffn of Donald I. . . . 201 

The origin of the Scots, it should be stated, is very uncertain ; and the history of 
the country lintil the eleventh century, when Malcolm III., sumamed CanDorSf 
reigned (1057) is obscure, and intermixed with many and improbable fictions. 
CALEDONIAN CANAL. The act for this stupendous undertaking— a canal from the 
North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean— received the royal assent, July 27, 1803 ; and the 
works were commenced same year. By means of this magnificent canal, the nauticsl 
intercourse between the western ports of Great Britain, and those also of Ireland to 

The country Is Invaded by the Sonyth^ 
or Boots, and the government is over> 
thrown, about . a.D. 301 

The Caledonian monaroby is rcrvlved by 
Fergus IL 4M 

After many s a ngwin a r y wars be t ween the 
Caledonians, Plots, and Soots, Ken- 
neth IL obtains a glorious victniy over 
the Plots, unites the whole oountry un- 
der one monardhy, and gives it the 
name of ScoUatid 83BtoM3 

Bee BooTLaim. 

— I m.^.1 I I !■■.■■ 1 - - I • 1 • ■ ■ *~ ' ^-"-^ — ..^^^ P^ , 

CAL r 99 ] ^^ 

the North Sea and Baltic, U shortened in some instances 800, and in others, 1000 
miles. A sum vastly exceeding a million sterling was g^ranted by parliament from 
time to time ; and this safe navigation for ships of nearly every tonnage was com- 
pleted, and opened in 1822. 

CALENDAR. The Roman calendar, which has in great part been adopted by almost 
all nations, was introduced by Romulus, who divided the year into ten months^ 
comprising 304 days, a.d. 738 B.C. The year of Romulus was of fifty days less 
duration Uian the lunar year, and of sixty-one less than the solar year, and its 
commencement did not, of course, correspond with any fixed season. Numa 
Pompilius, 713 B.C. corrected this calendar, by adding two months ; and Julius Csesar, 
desirous to make it more correct, fixed the solar year as being 365 days and six hours, 
45 B.C. This almost perfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and 

?revailed generally throughout the Christian world till the time of pope Gregory XI II. 
"he calendar of Julius Caesar was defective in this particular, that the solar year 
consisted of 365 days, five hours, and forty-nine minutes : and not of 365 days, six 
hoars. This difference, at the time of Gregory XTII. had amounted to ten entire 
days, the vernal equinox falling on the 11th, instead of the 2l8t of March. To 
obviate this error, Gregory ordained, in 1582, that that year should consist of 365 
days only ; and to prevent further irregularity, it was determined that a year beginning 
m century should not be bissextile, with the exception of that beginning each fourth 
oentnry : thus, 1700 and 1800 have not been bissextile, nor will 1900 be so ; but the 
year 2000 will be a leap year. In this manner three days are retrenched in 400 years, 
because the lapse of eleven minutes makes three days in about that period. The 
year of the calendar is thus made as nearly as possible to correspond with the true 
solar year ; and future errors of chronology are avoided. See New Style. 

CALENDER. This machine, which is used in glazing various kinds of cloth, was 
introduced into England by the Huguenots, who were driven by persecution from 
France, Holland, and the Netherlands, to these countries, about 1685. — Anderson. 

CALICO. The well-known cotton cloth, is named from Calicut, a city of India, which was 
discovered by the Portugese, in 1498. Calico was first brought to England by the 
East India company, in 1631. Calico printing, and the Dutch loom engine, were 
first used in 1676. — Anderson. Calicoes were prohibited to be printed or worn, in 
1700 ; and again, in 1721. They were first made a branch of manufacture in 
Lancashire, in 1771. See Cotton, 

CALIFORNIA. Discovered by Cortex, in 1535. Taken possession of by sir Francis 
Drake, who had his right to it confirmed by the king of the country, in 1578. The 
Jesuits made their settlements here, about 1690 ; but they were subsequently 
expelled by the Spaniards. Ceded by Spain to Russia, in 1820. 

CALIPER COMPASS. An instrument whereby founders and gunners measure the 
bore or diameter of cannon, mortars, and other pieces of ordnance, and also of small 
arms, and the diameter of shot, invented at Nuremberg, in 1540. 

CALIPH. In Arabic, vicar, or apostle ; the title assumed by the Sophi of Persia, in 
the succession of Ali, and by the Grand Seigniors as the successors of Mahomet 
The caliphat was adopted by Abubeker, the father of the Prophet's second wife, in 
whose arms he died, a.d. 631. In process of time the soldans or sultans engrossed 
all the dvil power, and little but the title was left to the caliphs, and that chiefly in 
matters of religion. — iS^tr T, Herbert. 

CALIPPIC PERIOD. Invented by Calippus, the first observer of the revolution of 
eclipses — a series of seventy-six years, at the expiration of which he imagined the 
new and luQ moons returned to the same day of the solar year, which is a mistake ; 
for in 553 years they come too late by one whole day ; this period was begun about 
the end of June, in the third year of 112th Olympiad, in the year of Rome 424, 
and 329 b.c. — Pardon. 

CALIXTINS. A sect derived from the Hussites, in the middle of the fifteenth century. 
They asserted the use of the cup as essential to the Eucharist Among the Lutherans 
they are those following the sentiments of Calixtus, who died 1656. 

CALITUG ERA, or Era of China, dates from 3101 b.c. and begins with the entrance 
of the sun into the Hindoo sign Aswin, which is now on the 11th April, N.S. In 
the year 1600, the year began on the 7th of April, N.S. from which it has now^ 

CAL [ 100 ] CAM 

adTtDced foar days, and, from the procesnon of the equinoxes, is still adTancing it 
the rate of a daj in sixty years. The nomber produced by subtracting 3102 from 
any given year of the Caliyng era, will be the Christian year in which the given yeir 

CALLIGRAPHY. Beantiful writing, in a small compass, invented by Callicrates, who 
is said to have written an elegant distich on a sfsamnm seed, 472 bx. The modem 
specimens of this art are, many of them, astonishing and beantiful. In the sixteeoth 
century, Peter Bales wrote the Lord's Prayer, creed, decalogue, two short Litia 
prayers, his own name, motto, day of the month, year of our Lord, and of the reign 
of queen Elisabeth, to whom he presented it at Hampton-court, all within the drcfe 
of a silver penny, endiased in a ring and border of gold, and covered with crystal, m 
accurately done as to be plainly legible, to the great admiration of her majesty, the 
whole of the privy council, and several ambassadors then at court, 1574. — HoUtuhed. 

CALLAO, IN PxRU. Here, after an earthquake, the sea retired from the shore, sod 
returned in mountainous waves, which destroyed the dty, a.d. 1687. Hie fuae 
phenomenon took place in 1746, when all the inhabitants perished, vrith the exceptkn 
of one man, who was standing on an eminence, and to whose succour a wave provida- 
tially threw a boat. 

CALOMEL. The mercurial compound termed calomel is first mentioned by Croffias, 
early in the seventeenth century, but must have been preriously known. The fiiit 
directions given for its preparation vrere those announced by B^^in, in 1608. It is 
said that corrosive sublimate was known some centuries before. 

CALVARY, Mount. The place where the Rsdiemer suffered death, a.d. S3. 
Calvary was a small eminence or hill adjacent to Jerusalem, appropriated to the 
execution of malefactors. See Luke xxiii. 33. Adrian at the time of lus persecadon 
of the Christians erected a temple of Jupiter on Mount Calvary, and a temple of 
Adonis on the manger at Bethlehem, a.d. 142. Here is the churdi of the Hoi; 
Sepulchre, whither pilgrims flock from all Christian countries. 

CALVES'-HEAD CLUB, suppressed, owing to a riot. Some noblemen and gentienei 
who composed it having ridiculously exposed raw heads in bloody douis at the 
windows of the tavern where it was held, the mob would have pulled down the boose 
if the guards had not dispersed them, Jan. 16, 17 ZA •"^Salmon s Chron, 

CALVl, Siege of. The British forces besieged this strong fortress on the 12tii Jane, 
1794, and after a close investment of it for fifty •nine da3rs, it surrendered on Angait 
10, following. Calvi surrendered to the French, in 1796. 

CALVINISTS. Named after their founder, John Calvin, the celebrated reformer of 
the Christian church from Romish superstition and doctrinal errors. Calvin was s 
native of Noyon, in Picardy ; but adopting the principles of the reformers, he fled 
to Angouldme, where he composed his InsiUutio Christiana BeligioHis, in 1&33» 
published about two years afterwards. He subsequently retired to Basle, and next 
settled in Geneva. Although he differed from Luther in essential points, still his 
followers did not consider &mselves as different on this account firom the adSiereati 
of Luther. A formal separation first took place after the conference of Poissy, in 
1561, where they expressly rejected the tenth article of the confession of Augsbvg» 
besides some others, and took the name of Calvinists. 

CAMBRAY. The town whence the esteemed manufiicture called cambric takes iti 
name. This city was taken by the Spaniards by a memorable surprise, in 1595. 
Cambray was taken and retaken several times. In the war of the French revolutioa it 
was invested by the Austriaus, August 8, 1793, when the republican general, Dedsj* 
replied to the Imperial summons to surrender, that ** he knew not how to do (Asfi 
but his soldiers knew how to fight.*' In the late war it was seised by die British 
under general sir Charles Colville, June 24, 1815. The citadel surrendered the next 
day, and was occupied by Louis XVIII. and his court. 

CAMBRAY, League of. This was the celebrated league against the republic of 
Venice, comprising the pope, the emperor, and the kings of France and Spain ; and 
whereby Venice was forced to cede to Spain her possessions in the kingdom of Naples, 
entered into Dec. 10, 1508. 

CAMBRICS. A fabric of fine linen used for ruffles. — Shakspeare, Cambrics were 
first worn in EngUnd, snd accounted a great luxury in dress, 22 Elisabeth, 1580.— 




Stowt. The importation of them was restricted, in 1745 ; and was totally prohibited 
bj sUtute of 32 George II. 1758. Readmitted in 1786, but afterwards again 
prohibited : the importation of cambrics is now allowed. 

CAMBRIDGE, once called Granta, and of most ancient standing, being frequently 
mentioned in the earliest accounts of the oldest British historians. Roger de 
Montgomery destroyed it with fire and sword to be revenged of king William Rufus. 
The uniTcrsity is said to have been commenced by Sigebert,king of the East Angles^ 
about A.D. 636 ; but it lay neglected during the Danish iuTasions, from which it 
suffered much. It was somewhat restored by Edward the Elder, in 915 ; and learning 
began to rerive about 1110, when Henry I. bestowed many privileges upon the town; 
as did Henry III. In Wat Tyler*s and Jack Straw's rebellion, in the reign of 
Richard II. the rebels entered the town, seized the university records, and burnt 
tbem in the market-place, 1381. Cambridge now contains thirteen collq^^es and four 
halls, of which first, Peter-house is the most ancient, and King's Collie the noblest 
foundation in Europe, and the chapel one of the finest pieces of Gothic architecture 
in the world. 


Christ College, founded . . ▲.!>. 
[Endowed by Margaret, coantea of 

Richmond, mother of Henry VIL] 
Corpus Chriati, or Benet . 
Downing College, by sir George Downing, 

by will, in 1717 : its charter 
Kmmanod CoU^s®, by sir Walter Mild- 


Gonville or Ckius, by Edmund Gonvil . 
Enlarged by Dr. John Caiiu in 
Jems College, by the blahop of Ely 
KingiB College 1^ Henry YI. . . 

Magdalene College, by Stafford, duke of 







Peterhouae College, by Hugo deBalaham 1257 

Queen's Collie, by Margaret of Ajqjou, 

consort of Henry VL 
St. John's College, endowed by Margaret, 

countess of Richmond . . . . 
Sidney-Susaex College, founded by F. 

Sidney, coimtess of Sussex . 

Trinity College, by Henry YHL . . 


Catherine Hall, founded . . 

Chire Hall, first by Dr. Richard Baden, 

in 1326 ; destroyed by fire, and le-es- 

tablJBhed by Elizabeth de Burg . 
Pembroke Hall, founded by the coun> 

teas of Pembroke . . . . 
Trinity Hall, by William Bateman, 

bishop of Norwich . . . . 







In 1687, the university refused the degree of M.A. to father Francis, a Benedictine 
monk, recommended by the king ; and the presidency of Magdalene college was 
also refused to Farmer, a Roman catholic, notwithstanding the mandate of the 
infatuated James, same year. 

CAMDEN, Battlss of. The first battle between general Gates and lord Comwallis, 
the former commanding the revolted Americans, who were defeated, was fought 
August 16, 1780. The second battle between general Greene and lord JRawdon, when 
the Americans were again defeated, April 25, 1781. Camden was evacuatCMl, and 
burnt by the British, May 13, 1781. 

CAMERA LUCIDA. Invented by Dr. Hooke, about 1674.— FToorTs Ath, Os. 
Also an instrument invented by Dr. Wollaston» in 1807. The camera obscura, or 
dark chamber, was invented, it is believed, by the celebrated Roger Bacon, in 1297 ; it 
was improved by Baptista Porta, the writer on natural magic, about 1500. — Moreri. 
Sir I. Newton remodelled it. By the recent invention of M. Daguerre, the pictures 
of the camera are rendered permanent ; this last was produced in 1 839. 

CAMERON! ANS. A sect in Scotland which separated from the Presbyterians, snd 
continued to hold their religious meetings in the fields. — Burnet, The name 
of Cameroru'ans proudly distinguishes some of the brave regiments of native Scotch 
in the British army. 

CAMLET. This stuff was originally made of silk and camel's hair, but now it is 
manufactured of wool, hair, and silk. Camlet is mentioned by writers of the middle 
ages, as a stuff prepared firom camel's hair alone. The true oriental camlet first 
came to these countries firom Portuguese India, in 1660. — Anderson, 

CAMP. All the early warlike nations had camps, which are consequently most sncient. 
The disposition of the Hebrew encampment was, we are told, at first laid out by 
God himselt The Romans and Gauls had intrenched camps in open plains ; and 
▼estiget of such Roman encampments are existing to this day in numerous places 
in England and Scotland. The last camp in England was formed at Hyde Park in 1745. 

CAHPEACHY-BAY. Discovered about a.d. 1520 ; it was taken by the English in 

CAM Q lOa ] CAN 

1659 ; and was taken bj the Buccaneers, in 1678 ; and by the freebooters of St 
Domingo, in 1685. These last burnt the town and blew op the citadeL The Eogliah 
logwood cutters made their settlement here, in 1662. 
CAMPERDOWN, Battle of. Memorable engagement off Camperdown, south of 
the Texel, and signal victory obtained by the British fleet, under admiral Doncaa, 
over the Dutch fleet, commanded by admiral de Winter ; the latter losing fifteen 
ships, which were either taken or destroyed ; this was one of the most brilliant nanl 
achievements of the late war, Octob^ 11, 1797. This victory obtained the brave sad 
good British admiral a peerage *. 

CAMPO FORMIO, Treaty of, concluded between France and Aostria, the latter 
power yielding the Low Countries and the Ionian Islands to France, and Milan, 
Mantua, and Modena to the Cisalpine republic. This memorable and humiiisting 
treaty resulted from the ill success of Austria on the Rhine. By a secret articl^ 
however, the emperor took possession of the Venetian dominions in oompensatioB 
for the Netherlands, Oct. 17, 1797. 

CANADA. This country was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, a.d. 1499, snd 
was settled by the French, in 1608, but it had been previously visited by them. 
Canada was taken by the English, in 1628, but was restored in 1631. It was agiin 
conquered by the English, in 1759, and was confirmed to them by the peace of 1763. 
This country was divided into two provinces. Upper and Lower Canada, in 1791 ; 
and it was during the debates on this bill in the British parliament, that the quarrd 
between Mr. Burke and Mr. Fox arose. Mr. Fox seemed anxious for a reconciliation, 
but Mr. Burke rejected it with disdain. Canada made a bishopric, in 1793. In the 
war of 1812, the Americans invaded Canada at different points, with 30,000 men, 
but they were forced to retire after several sanguinary battles, discomfited in their 
attempts to reduce the country. Immigration rapidly increased here, firom 1820. 

CANADIAN INSURRECTION. The Papineau rebellion commenced at Montiesl, 
Dec. 6, 1837. The Canadian rebels came to an engagement at St. Eostsce, 
Dec. 14, following. See St. EuMtace. The insurgents surrounded Toronto, and 
were repulsed by the governor, sir Francis Head, Jan. 5, 1838. Appointment of 
Lord Durham as governor general, Jan. 16, 1838. Lount and Mathews hanged 
as traitors, April 12, 1838. Lord Durham announced his resolve to resign his 
government, Oct. 9, 1833, and immediately returned to Europe. The spirit of 
rebellion again manifested itself in Beauharnais, Nov. 3, 1838. The insurgents 
concentrated at NapierviUe under command of Nelson and others, Nov. 6 ; soma 
skirmishes took place, and they were routed with the loss of many killed and seversl 
hundred prisoners. Sir John Colbome announced the suppression of the rebellioa 
in his despatches dated Nov. 17, 1838. An act to make temporary provision for the 
government of Lower Canada passed Feb. 1838, and was amended by act 2 and S 
Victoria, Aug. 1839. 

CANALS. The most stupendous in the world is a canal in China, which passes over 
2000 miles, and to 41 cities, commenced in the tenth century. The canal of Lan- 
guedoc which joins the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean was commenced in 
1666. That of Orleans, from the Loire to the Seine, commenced in 1675. Thst 
between the Caspian Sea and the Baltic, commenced 1709. That from Stockholm 
to Gottenburg, commenced 1751. That between the Baltic and North Sea at Kiel, 
opened 1 785. That of Bourbon, between the Seine and Oise, commenced 1790. 
The great American Erie canal, 330 miles in length, was commenced in 1817. The 
first canal made in England was by Henry I., when the river Trent was joined to the 
Witham, a.d. 1134. The most remarkable canals in Great Britain are ;— 
New River oanal oommenced . a.d. 1608 I Thames made nsvigaUe to O^cfbrd . . 104 
Brought to London • • . 1614 I Keonet made nsvigable to Reading . . 171> 

* The unaffoctod piety, and Christian example (one of the ol^eots of that piety) of this illoflrioai 
eommander, are recorded by his biographers Mrith respect and admiration : When the victory was 
decided, he ordered the crew of his ship to be called together, and feeling it an hcmonr to be a C^iriatisiw 
and encouraging religion by his own practice, he knelt at their head, and upon hia bended kniBCik and 
in the pretence of the captured Dutch admiral, (who was greatly affected by the scone,) he aoteonly 
and patheUoally oflTered up praise and thanksgiving to the God of Battles for his snccees, stroogiy 
lUustrating the truth, that piety and coivage reside together in the hearts of the truly gieat Lord 
Punean died suddenly on his way to Bdinburgh, Aug. 4, 1804 



CANA.LS continued. 

Logan naTigatkm oommenod . ajk 1755 
Caemiarthenahire canal • . 17^6 

Droit witch to the Serem . . 1756 

Duke of Biidgwater's naTigatkm <fint 

great canal), commenced . . 175B 

Northampton narigation • . 1761 

1>ublin to the Kiannon (the Grand) com- 

menoed (opened to Sallina, 1788) 
Stafford ai^ Worcester commenced 
Finth to Clyde, commenced . 
Birmingham to BUston . 
Oxford to Coventry, commenced 
I^ea made navigable from Hertford 

Ware. 1739 ; to London . 
Leeds to Liverpool .... 
Monkland (Scotland) commenced 
Elleemere and Chester 
Basingstoke canal, commenced 
Liverpool to Wigan 
Strood to the Severn 
StaflTordshire canal, commenced . 
Btoorbtidge canal, completed . 
Runcorn toBfanchester 
Trent and Mersey, ojMned 
Chesterlield to the Trent . . . 
Belfast to Lough Nesgh 
Thames to Leacbdale 
Sallins to Monsstereven 
Dublin to the Shannon (Royal) 
Severn to the Thames, completed 
Forth and Clyde, completed 
Bradford completed 
Grand Junction canal 





Birmingham and Coventry a.o. 1790 

Monastereven to Athy . . • 1791 
Worcester and Birmingham • 1791 

Manchester, Bolton, and Bury . •1791 
Lancaster, act passed * 1798 

Warwick and Birmingham 1793 

Bamsley, cut 1794 

Rochdale, act passed .... 1794 
Ruddersfleld. act passed . . 1794 

Derby, completed • , .1794 

Hereford and Gloucester . . 1796 

Paddiogton canal, commenced . . 1798 
Kcnnet and Avon, opened . * 1790 

Peak-forest canal, completed . ItfjO 

Thames to Fenny Stratford . \ 1800 

Buckingham canal . . , . ! 1801 
Grand Surrey, act passed . . 1801 

Brecknock canal 1809 

Caledonian canal (theGreat) rommenoed 1803 
EUesmere aqueduct 1805 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, opened . ] 1805 
Aberdeen, completed . ', 1807 
Glasgow and Ardrossan, opened . 1811 
Leeds and Liverpool, opened . 1816 
Wey and Avon ... • . 1816 
Edinburgh end Glasgow Union . . 1818 
Sheffield, completed . ... 1819 
The Regent's canal .... 1820 
Birmingham and Liverpool, begun . 1828 
Gloucester and Berkeley ship canal, com- 
pleted 1897 

Norwich and Lowestoft navigation, 
opened *..... 1831 

In England, there are 2800 milei of canali, and 2500 miles of riven, taking the 
length of thoie only that are navigable— total, 5300 miles. In Ireland, there are but 
300 miles of canals ; 150 of narigable rivers, and 60 miles of the Shannon, navigable 
below Limerick, making in all 510 miles.— H^illiams, 

CANA.RY ISLANDS. These islands were known to the ancients as the Fortunate 
Isle*. The first meridian was referred to the Canary isles by Hipparchus, about 140 
B.C They were re^iicoTered by a Norman, named Betbenoourt, a.d. 1402 ; and 
were aeiied by the Spaniards, who planted vines, which floorish here, abont 1420. 
The canary-bird, so mnch esteemed in all parts of Europe, is a native of these isles ; 
it waa brought into England in 1600. 

CANDI A, the ancient Crete, whose centre is Mount Ida, so fiimous in history. It waa 
seized by the Saracens, a.d. 808, when they changed its name. Taken by the 
Greeks, in 961 ; sold to the Venetians, 1194, and held by them until the Turks ob- 
tained it, after a 24 years* siege, during which more than 200,000 men perished, 1669. 

CANDLE. The Roman candles were composed of strings surrounded by wax, or 
dipped in pitch. Splinters of wood, fatted, were used for light among the lower 
classes in England about a.d. 1300. At this time wax candles were little used, and 
esteemed a luxury, and dipped candles usually burnt The wax-chandlers' com- 
pany was incorporated, 1484. Mould candles are said to be the invention of the 
■ieur Le Brez of Paris. Spermaceti candles are of modem maaufacture. The 
Chinese can<Ues (see Candleberry Myrtle) are made from the berries of a tree, and 
they universally bum this wax, which is fragrant, and yields a bright light. The 
duty upon candles in England amounted, previously to the abolition of the impost, 
to about 500,000/. annually ; it was repealed by statute, 1 and 2 William IV. and 
the makers were placed upon the same footing as melters of tallow, 1831. 

CANDLE, SALE bt INCH of : The custom of selling at public auctions by inch of 
CTindlf, is said to have been borrowed from the church of Rome, where there is an 
ezoommnnication by inch of candle, and the sinner is allowed to come to repentance, 
before final ezoommnnication, while yet the candle bums. 

CAN [ 104 ] CAN 

CAN DLEBERRY MYRTLE. Plauti of this extraordinarf tree came to this coantrr 
from N. America, in 1699. The tree is found, in perfection, at Nanlon, in China, 
where it flourishes in beautiful blossoms, and fruit. The latter when ripe, is gathered 
and thrown into boiling water, the white unctuous substance which cotch the 
kernels is thereby detached, and swims at the top ; it ia slummed off and puiified 
by a second boiling, when it becomes transparent, and of a consistenoe between 
tallow and wax, and is oonverted into candles. 

CANDLEMAS'DAY. A feast instituted by the early Christians, who consecrated oa 
this day all the tapers and candles used in churches during the year. It is kept in 
the reformed church in memory of the purification of the Virgin Mary, who, inh- 
mittiog to the law under which she lired, presented the infant Jesus in the Temple. 
Owing to the abundance of light, this festiTal was called Candlemas, as wdl ss tke 
Purification. The practice of lighting the churches was discontinued by English Pro- 
testants by an order of council 2 Edward VI. 1548 ; but it is still continaed in the 
church of Rome. 

CWNDY, IN Cbtlon. In an expedition against it, a whole British detachment which 
took possession Feb. 20, 1803, capitulated June 23, following, anxious to eracnsfie 
the place on account of its unhealthiness, and the perfidy of the Candians ; bat on 
the third day they were treacherously massacred at Colombo or imprisoned. The 
war against the natives was reneweid in October 1814. The king was Tanquiabed 
and made prisoner, by general Brownrigg, Feb. 19, 1815 ; he was deposed, and the 
sovereignty vested in Great Britain, March 2, 1815. 

CANNiE, Battle of. One of the most celebrated in history, and most fittal to the 
Romans. Hannibal commanded on one side 50,000 Africans, Gauls, and Spaniards ; 
and Paulus iEmilius and Terentius Varro, 88,000 Romans, of whom 40,000 were 
slain. — Livy, The victor, Hannibal, sent three bushels of rings, taken firom the 
Roman knights on the field, as a trophy to Carthage. Neither party perceived sa 
awful earthquake which occurred during the battle. The place is now denominated 
the field of blood ; fought May 21, 216 B.C. — Bostuet. 

CANNIBALISM has prevailed from the remotest times. The Greeks inform us that 
it was a primitive and universal custom, and many of the South American tribes 
and natives of the South Sea Islands eat human flesh at the present day, and the 
pn>|>en(iity for it prevails more or less in all savage nations. SL Jerome says, that 
itonic British tribes ate human flesh ; and the Scots firom Galloway killed and est 
the English in the reign of Henry I. The Scythians were drinkers of human blood. 
Columbus found cannibals in America. See Anthropophagi, 

CANNON. They are said to have been used as early as a.d. 1338. According n 
some of our historians they were used at the battie of Cressy in 1346; but this 
Voltaire disputes. They are said to have been used by the English at the siege of 
Calais, 1347. Cannon were first used in the English service by the governor of 
Calais, 6 Richard II. 1383. — Rymer*s Ftedera. Louis XIV. upon setting out on 
his disastrous campaign against the Dutch, inscribed upon his cannon, *' The Isit 
argument of kings." See Artilkry. 

CANNON, Rrmarkadle. The largest known piece of ordnance is of brass, cast in 
India in 1685. At Ehrenbreitstein castie, one of the strongest forts in Germsny, 
opposite Coblentz on the Rhine, is a prodigious cannon eighteen feet and a half 
long, a foot and a half in diameter in the Irare, and three feet four inches in the 
brei^h. The ball made for it weighs ISOlbs. and its charge of powder 941b. The 
inscription on it shows that it was made by one Simon, in 1529. In Dover castle is 
a brasA gun called queen Elisabeth's pocket-pistol, which was presented to her by 
the States of Holland ; this piece is 24 feet long, and is beautifully omameBted, 
having on it the arms of the States, and a motto in Dutch, importing thus, 

** Cbargo mo well and spongo me clean, 
I'll throw a t>all to Calais Green." 

Some fine specimens are to be seen in the Tower. A leathern cannon was fired three 
times in the King's Park, Edinburgh, Oct. 23, m^.—PhiUipt. The Turkish 
piece, now in St. James's Park, was taken by the French at Alexandria, but wss 
retaken, and placed there in March, 1803. 

CANON. The first ecclesiastical canon was promulgated, a.d. 380. — Usher, Cs- 
nonical hours for prayer were instituted in 391. llie dignity of canon existed not 

CAW Q 105 ] CAP 

previously to the rule of Cbarlemagnef about 768. — Pasehier, Canon law was first 
introdnced into Europe by Gratian, the celebrated canon law author, in 1151 ; and 
was introduced into England, 19 Stephen, 1154. — Stowe. 

CANONIZATION of pious men and martyrs as saints, was instituted in the Romish 
church by pope Leo III. in 800. — TcUlent^t Tablet, Saints have so aocumulatedy 
erery day in the calendar is now a saint's day. — Henaidt. 

CANTERBURY. The Durwemum of the Romans, and capital of Ethelbert, king 
of Kent, who reigned a.d. 568. Its early cathedral was erected during the Heptarchy, 
and was seTeral times burnt, and rebuilt. It was once famous for the shrine of 
Becket (see Beeket) and within it are interred Henry IV. and Edward the Black 
Prince. During the rebellion against Charles I. the usurper Cromwell made it a 
stable for his dragoons. The cathedral was built 1184. St. Martin's church here 
is said to have been the first erection for Christian worship in Britain ; but this 
is doubted. The riot at Boughton, near Canterbury, produced by a fanatic called 
Thom, who assumed the name of Sir WiUiam Courtenay, occurred May 31, 1838. 
See TlumUes. 

CANTERBURY, Archbishopric of. This see was settled by St. Austin, who 
preached the gospel in England a.d. 596, and converted Ethelbert, king of Kent. 
The king, animated with zeal for his new religion, bestowed great favours upon 
Austin, who fixed his residence in the capital of Ethelbert's dominions. The church 
was made a cathedral, and consecrated to Christ, although it was formerly called St. 
Thomas, from Thomas l^ Beeket, murdered at its altar, December 1171. The arch- 
bishop is primate and metropolitan of all England, and is the first peer in the realm, 
having precedency of all officers of state, and of all dukes not of the blood royal. 
Canterbury had formerly jurisdiction over Ireland, and the archbishop was styled a 
patriarch. This see hath yielded to the church of Rome, 18 saints and 9 cardinals ; 
and to the civil state of England, 12 lord chancellors and 4 lord treasurers. 
St. Austin was the first bishop, 596. The see was made superior to York, 1073. — 
See York, The revenue is valued in the king's books at ;^2816. lit, 9d, — Beatson, 

CANTHARIDES. A venomous kind of insects which, when dried and pulverised, are 
used principally to raise blisters. They were first introduced into medical praetice 
by Aietseus, a physician of Cappadoda, about 50 b.c. — Freind't Hittory dtf Physic, 

CANTON. The only city in China with which Europeans have been allowed up to 
the present time to trade. Merchants first arrived here for this purpose in 1517. 
Nearly every nation has a factory at Canton, but that of England surpasses all 
others in el^i:ance and extent. Various particulars relating to this city will be 
found under Uie article China. In 1822, a fire destroyed 15,000 houses at Canton ; 
and an inundation swept away 10,000 houses and more than 1000 persons 
in October 1833. 

CAOUTCHOUC, or Indian Rubber, is an elastic resinous substance that exudes by 
incision from two plants that grow in Cayenne, Quito, and the Brazils, called Haevia 
eaoutohouc and Siphonia elasticay and vulgarly called syringe trees. It was first 
brought to Europe from South America, about 1733. — See India Rubber, 

CAP. The Romans went for many ages, without regular covering for the head, and hence 
the heads of all the ancient statues appear bare. But at one period the cap was a 
symbol of liberty, and when the Romans gave it to their slaves it entitled them to 
freedom. The cap was sometimes used as a mark of infamy, and in Italy the Jews 
were distinguished by a yellow cap, and in France those who had been bankrupts 
were for ever after obliged to wear a green cap. The general use of caps and hats is 
referred to the year 1449 ; the first seen in these parts of the world being at the 
entry of Charles VII. into Rouen, from which time they took the place of chaperons 
or hoods. The velvet cap was called mortier ; the wool cap, bonnet. The clerical 
or university square cap was invented by Patrouillet. — See Capper. ^ 

CAPE BRETON, discovered by the English in 1584. It was taken by the French in 
1632, but was afterwards restored ; and again taken in 1745 ; and re-taken in 1748. 
It was finally possessed by the English, when the garrison and marines, consisting 
of 5600 men, were made prisoners of war, and eleven ships of the French navy were 
captured or destroyed, 1758. Ceded to England at the peace of 1763. 

CAPE COAST CASTLE, settled by the Portuguese, in 1610 : but it soon fell to the 
Dutch. It was demoUshed by admiral Holmes, in 1661. All the British settle- 

CAP C *06 3 C-AP 

mentSy factories, and shipping along the coast were destroyed b j the Dutch admiral, 
de Ruyter, in 1665. Tlids Cape was confirmed to the English bj the treatj of Breda, 
ia 1667. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE ; the geographical and commercial centre of the East Indies: 
it was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz, in 1486, and was originally called the " Ctpe 
of Tempests," and was also named the '* Lion of the Sea," and the ^ Head of Africa." 
The name was changed by John II., King of Portugal, who augured fsTOurably of 
future discoTeries from Diaz baring reached the extremity of Africa. The Cape was 
doubled, and the passage to India discovered by Vasco di Grama, July 9, 1497. 
Planted by the Dutch, 1651. Taken by the English, under admiral Elphinstoos 
and general Clarke, Sept. 16, 1795, and restored at the peace in 1802 ; again takes 
by sir Darid Baird and sir Home Popham, Jan. 8, 1806 ; and finally ceded to En^ 
laud in 1814. Emigrants began to arrive here frt>m Britain in Mareh, 1820. Tbe 
Caffrea have made several irruptions on the British settlements here ; and thejr 
committed dreadful ravages at Grahamstown, in Oct. 1834. 

CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS. These islands were known to the ancients under tbe 
name of Gorgades ; but were not visited by the modems till discovered by Antowift 
de Noli, a Genoese navigator in the serrice of Portugal, a.d. 1446. 

CAPE ST. VINCENT, Battles of. Admiral Rooke, with twenty ships of war, sod 
the Turkey fleet under his convoy, was attacked by admiral Tourville, with a force 
vastly superior to his own, off Cape St. Vincent, when twelve Engliali and Datdi 
men-of-war, and eighty merchantmen, were captured or destroyed by the French, 
June 16, 1693. Battle of Cape St. Vincent, one of the most glorious achievementi 
of the British navy. Sir John Jervis, being in command of the Mediterranean fleet 
of fifteen sail, gave battle to the Spanish fleet of twenty-seven ships of the line off 
this Cape, and signally defeated the enemy, nearly double in strength, taking four 
ships, and destroying several others, Feb. 14, 1797. For this rictory Sir John wu 
raised to the English peerage, by the titles of baron Jervis and earl St. Vincent, with 
a pension of 3000/. a year. 

CAPET, House of, the third race of the kings of France. Hugo Capet, count of 
Paris and Orleans, the first of this race (which was called from him Capevigians), was 
raised to the throne for his military valour, and public rirtues, a.d. 987. — HenauU. 

CAPITOL, the principal fortress of ancient Rome, in which a temple was built to 
Jupiter, thence called Jupiter CapitoUnui, The foundation laid by Tarquinins 
Priscus, 616 b.c. The Roman Consuls made large donations to this temple, and the 
emperor Augustus bestowed 2000 pounds weight of gold, of which precious metal 
the roof was composed, whilst its thresholds were of brass, and its interior was 
decorated with shields of solid silver. Destroyed by lightning, 188 B.o. ; by fire, 
A.D. 70. The Capitoline games instituted by Domitian, a.d. 86. 

CAPPADOCIA. This kingdom was founded by Phamaces, 744 b.c. The successors 
of Phamaces are almost wholly unknown, until about the time of Alexander the 
Great, after whose death Eumenes, by defeating Ariarathes II. became king of 

Phamaocs is declared king . b.c. 744 
His sucoesBors are unknown for nearly 
three centuries. 

Reign of Ariarathes 1 362 

Perdiocas takes Cappadocia, and Ariara- 
thes is crucified 389 

Defeat of the Parthians . . .217 

Irruption of the Trocmi . . . . 164 

Mithridates, sumamed Philopator, as- 
cends the throne . . . .168 

Orophemes dethrones Philopator . . 161 

Attalufl assists Philopator, and Oro- 
phemes dethroned .104 

Philopator Joins the Romans against Aria- 
tonicuB, and perishes in batUe . . 163 

Bis queen liaodioe, desirous of usurping 

CAPPER, or HATTER. A statute was passed that none should sell any hat above 2(M. 
nor cap above 2#. Scf., 5 Henry VII., 1489. Caps were first worn at the entry of 

the throne, poisons five of her own diil- 
dren, the sixth and only remaining <diild 
is saved, and the queen put to death . U3 
This young prince reigna as Ariarathes 

VIL 15S 

Oordius assassinates Ariarathes YIL . . 97 
Ariarathes YIU. assassinated . 96 

Cappadocia declared a free oountry hy 

the senate of Rome • . . 96 

The people elect a new king Ariobar- 

xanesL 94 

His son, Arioharxanes IL reigna . .66 
He is dethroned by Maro Antony . . 31 
Archelaus, the last king of C^padocta, 
dies, and bequeaths his kingdom to the 
Roman empire . • . aj». 17 

CAP C 1^ ] ^^^ 

Chjurles VII. into Ronen, 1449. A Uw was enacted that ererj person abore seren yean 
of a^ should wear on Sundays and holidays a cap of wool, knit, made, thickened, and 
dressed in England by some of the trade of cappers, under the forfeiture of three far- 
things for erery day's neglect, 1571. From this law the following persons were 
excepted : maids, ladies, and gentlewomen, and erery lord, knight, and gentleman, 
of twenty marks of land, and their heirs, and such as had borne office of worship, 
in any dty, town, or place, and the warden of the London companies. — See Cap, 
CAPRI. The Caprece of the Romans, and memorable as the residence of Tiberius, and 
for the debaucheries he committed in this once delightful retreat, during the seren 
last years of his life : it was embellished by him with a sumptuous palace, and most 
magnificent works. Capri was taken by sir Sidney Smith, April 22, 1806. 

CAPUCHIN FRIARS. A sort of Franciscans to whom this name was giren, from 
thmr wearing a great Capuchon, or cowl, which is an odd kind of cap, or hood, sewn 
to their habit, and hanging down upon their backs. The Capuchins were founded 
by Matthew Baschi, about a.d. 1525. Although the rigours of this order hare abated, 
still the brethren are remarkable for their extreme porerty and prirations. — Ashe, 

CAR. Its inrention is ascribed to Ericthonius of Athens, about 1486 b.c. The 
Corered cars (eurrtu arcuati) were in use among the Romans. Triumphal cars 
were introduccMl by Romulus, according to some ; and by Tarquin the Elder, accord- 
ing toothers. 

CABACCAS. One of the early Spanish disooreries, a.d. 1498. The prorince declared 
its independence of Spain, May 9, 1810. In 1812, it was risited by a riolent con- 
▼nlsion of nature ; thousands of human beings were lost ; rocks and mountains split, 
and rolled into ralleys ; the rirers were blackened, or their courses changed ; and 
many towns swallowed up, and totally destroyed. 

CARBONARI. A dangerous and powerful society in Italy, a substitute for freemasonry, 
which committed the most dreadful outrages, and spread terror in several states ; 
they were suppressed, howerer, by the Austrian goremment in Sept., 1820. 

CARBONIC ACID GAS. This is a product of fermentation, and being hearier than 
air, it lies orer all fermentire processes, puts oat a candle, and produces suffocation. 
Carbonate of soda is formed by passing a current of carbonic acid into a solution of 
soda ; and it becomes a hard solid mass. Newton considered flame a red-hot smoke 
but modem science regards it as the place where oxygen unites with hydrogen and 
carbon ; and the diminution of rolumes transfers an atomic excitement to the carbon 
which radiates or protrudes light, the fixation of the gases causing the heat as long 
as the hydrogen is erolred. 

CARDINALS. They are properly the council of the pope, and constitute the conclare 
or sacred college. At first they were only the principal priests, or incumbents of 
the parishes in Rome. On tMs footing they continued till the elerenth century. 
They did not acquire the exclusire power of electing the popes till a.d. 1160. They 
first wore the red hat to remind them that they ought to shed their blood, if required, 
for religion, and were declared princes of the church, by Innocent IV., 1243. Paul 
II. gare the scarlet habit, 1464. And Urban YIII. the title of Eminence in 1630 ; 
some say, in 1623. — Du Cange. 

CARDS. Their inrention is referred to the Romans ; but it is generally supposed thst 
they were inrented in France about the year 1390, to amuse Charles YI. during the 
interrals of a melancholy disorder, which in the end brought him to his grare. — 
MejUraif Hist, ds France, The unirersal adoption of an amusement which was in- 
rented for a fool, is no rery farourable specimen of wisdom. — Malkin, Cards are of 
Spanish, not of French origin. — Daines Barrington, Picquet and all the early 
games are French. Cards first taxed in England, 1736. 428,000 packs were 
stamped in 1776, and 986,000 in 1800. In 1825, the duty being then 2s, 6(/. per 
pack, less than 150,000 packs were stamped; but in 1827, the stamp duty was 
reduced to 1#., and 310,854 packs paid duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 
packs, in the year ending 5th Jan. 1840. — Pari, Reports, 

CARICATURES originated, it is said, with Bufalmaco, an Italian painter : he first 
put labels to the mouths of his figures with sentences, since followed by bad mas- 
ters, but more particularly in caricature engrarings, about 1330. — De Piles, A 
new and much improred style of caricatures has latterly set in ; and the productions 
in this way ot a derer but concealed artist, using the initials H. B., are political 
satires of considerable humour and merit. 

CAR C 108 ] CAR 

CARLISLE. The frontier town and key of England, wherein for many ages a strong 
garrison was kept. Just below this town the famoas Picts' wall began, which 
crofsed the whole island to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and here also ended the grett 
Roman highway. The great chnrch, called St. Mary's, is a venerable old pile, i 
great part of it was boUt by St David, king of Scotland, who held this county, toge- 
ther with Westmoreland and NorthnmberUnd, in vassalage from the crown of Eng- 
land ; it has also another church, called Cuthbert's. The castle, founded in lOdi, 
by William II., was made the prison of the unfDrtunate Mary queen of Scoti, in 
1568. Taken by the parliament forces in 1645, and by the pretender in 1745. 

CARLISLE, See of, erected by Henry I. in 1133, and made suflTragant to York. Hie 
cathedral had been founded a short time previously, by Walter, deputy in these 
parts for William Rufus. The church was almost ruined by Cromwell and his sol- 
diers, and has never recovered its former great beauty, although repaired after the 
Restoration. This see has given to the civil state one lord chancellor, and two lord 
treasurers : it is valued in the king's books at 530/. 4a. lid. per annutm. 

CARLO W. The castle here was erected by king John. It surrendered after a des- 
perate siege to Rory Oge O'Moore, in 1577. Again to the parliamentary forces, 
in 1650. Battle between the royal troops and the insurgents, the latter rooted, 
May 27, 1798. 

CARLSBAD, Conoress of, on the affairs of Europe : The popular spirit of emaoei- 
cation that prevailed in many of the states of Europe against despotic government, 
led to this congress, in which various resolutions were come to, denouncing the 
press, and Uberal opinions, and in which the great continental powers deoeed 
measures to repress the rage for limited monarchies and free institutions, Angosl 
1, 1819. 

CARMELITES, or White Friars, named from Mount Carmel, and one of the foor 
orders of mendicants, distinguished by austere rules, appeared in 1141. Their rigoor 
was moderated about 1540. They claim their descent in an uninterrupted sac- 
cession from Elijah, Elisha, &c. Mount Carmel has a monastery, and the valley of 
Sharon lies to the south of the mount, which is 2000 feet high, shaped like a flatted 
cone, with steep and barren sides : it is often referred to in Jewish histories. 

" See spicy clouda from lowly Sharon rise. 
And Carmel's flowery top i>erfumee tbo nkieB.*'—Popt. 

CARNATIC. This country of Southern Hindostan, and which extends along the 
whole coast of Coromandel, is now under the control of British power. Uyder 
Ali entered the Camatic with 80,000 troops, and was defeated by the British under 
sir Eyre Coote, July 1, and August 27, 1781 ; and decisively overthrown June 2, 

1782. The Carnatic was overrun by Tippoo, in 1790 See India. The British 

have assumed entire authority over the Carnatic since 1801. 

CARNATION. This beautiful flower in several of its varieties, together with the gilly- 
flower, the Provence rose, and a few others, were first planted in England by the 
Flemings, about 1567. — Stowe. See article Flowers. 

CARNEI AN GAMES. These games were observed in most of the Grecian cities, bat 
more particularly at Sparta, where they were instituted about 675 b.c. in honour of 
Apollo, sumamed Cameus. The festival lasted nine days, and was an imitation of 
the manner of living in camps among the ancients. 

CAROLINA, discovered by Sebastian Cabot, in 1500. A body of English, amounting 
to about 850 persons landed and settled here in i 667 ; and Carolina was granted to 
lord Berkeley and others a few years afterwards. — See United States. The -Caroline 
Islands were discovered by the Spaniards, in the reign of Charles II., 1686. 

CARP. The esteemed fresh water, or pond fish. In the palate of the carp is some- 
times found a stone of a triangular form. — Pardon. The carp was first brought to 
these countries about a.d. 1525. — Isaac Walton. 

CARPETS. They were in use, at least in some kind, as early as the days of Amos, 
about 800 B.C. — Amos ii. 8. Carpets were spread on the ground on which persons 
sat who dwelt in tents ; but when first used in houses, even in the East, we have 
no record. In the 1 2th century carpets were articles of luxury ; and in England, it 
is mentioned as an instance of Becket's splendid style of living, that his sumptuous 
apartments were every day in winter strewn with clean straw or hay ; about a.d. 
1 160. The manufacture of woollen carpets was introduced into France from Persia, 

CAR [^ 109 ] CAR 

in the reign of Henry IV., between 1589 and 1610. Some artisans who had quitted 
France in disgust came to England, and established the carpet manufacture, about 
1750. With us, as with most nations, Persian and Turkey carpets, especially the 
former, are most prized. Our famous Azminster, Wiltoty and Kidderminster manu- 
facture is the growth of the last hundred years. 

CARRIAGES. The invention of them is ascribed to Ericthonius of Athens, who pro- 
duced the first chariot about 1486 b.c. Carriages were known in France in the 
reign of Henry II. a.d. 1547 ; but they were of very rude constructiop, and rare. 
They seem to have been known in England in 1555 ; but not the art of making them. 
Close carriages of good workmanship began to be used by persons of the highest 
quality at the close of the sixteenth century. Henry IV. had one, but without 
straps or springs. Their construction was Tarious : they were first made in England 
in the reign of Elizabeth, and were then called whirlicotes. The duke of Bucking- 
ham, in 1619, drove six horses ; and the duke of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove 
eight. They were first let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at the Hotel Fiacre ; and hence 
their name. — See Coaches, 

CARRICKFER6US. The celebrated castle of this town is supposed to have been 
built by Hugh de Lacy, in 1178. The town surrendered to the duke of Schomberg, 
Aug. 28, 1689. William III. landed here, June 14, 1690, to reduce the adherents 
of James II. Memorable expedition of the French admiral Thurot, when the castle 
■orrendered to his force of 1000 men, 1760 — See Thurot* » Invasion of Ireland, 

CARRON IRON- WORKS. They are situated on the banks of the Carron, in Stir- 
lingahire, and form the largest foundry in existence, established in 1760. The works 
employ about 1600 men, and occupy above 100 acres of land in reservoirs, pools for 
water, and dams built about two miles above the works ; the streams, after turning 
18 large wheels, fall into the tide navigation, which conveys their castings into the 
aea. Here are made the pieces of ordnance called carronades, so named from this 
foundry — first made in 1776. — See Cannon, 

CARROTS. These among other edible roots were imported from Holland and Flan- 
ders, and it was not until the close of the reign of Henry VII 1. Were produced 
in England, about the year 1540. — See Gardening. 

CARTESIAN DOCTRINES. Their author was Ren^ des Cartes, the French philo- 
sopher, who promulgated them in 1647. He was an original thinker : his metaphy- 
sical principle *' I think, therefore I am/' is refuted by Mr. Locke ; and his physical 
principle, that "nothing exists but substance,*' is disproved by the Newtonian 

Shilosophy. His celebrated system abounds in great singularities and originalities ; 
ut a spirit of independent thought prevails throughout it, and has contributed to 
excite the same spirit in others. Des Cartes was the most distinguished philosopher 
of his time and country. — Dufresnoy, 

CARTHAGE, founded by Dido, or Elissa, sister of Pygmalion, king of Tyre, 869 b.c 
She fled from that tyrant, who had killed her husband, and took refuge in Africa. 
Carthage became so powerful as to dispute the empire of the world with Rome, 
which occasioned the Punic wars, and the total demolition of that city. Taken by 
Scipio, and burned to the ground, 146 b.c. when the flames raged during seventeen 
days, and many of the inhabitants perished in them, rather than survive the sub- 
jection of their country. The Roman senate ordered the walls to be razed, that no 
trace might remain of this once powerful republic. — Eusebius, 

Dido arrives in Africa, and builds Bjrraa. 

—Blair &c. 809 

Pint AUianoe of the Carthaginians with 

the Romans fi09 

The Carthaginians in Sicily are defeated 

by Oelo ; the elder Homilcar perishes. 

—Herodotus, L vii 480 

They send 300,000 men into Sicily . . 407 
Th« Siege of Syracuse . . . 396 

The Carthaginians land In Italy . . 379 
Their defeat by Timoleon . . . 340 

They are defeated by Agathocles, and 

immolate their children on the altar of 

Saturn, thereby to propitiate the goda . 310 
The first Punio war begins . . 864 

The Carthaginians defeated by the Ro- 
mans in a naval engagement . d.c. 260 
XantippuB defeats Rcgulus . . £55 

Regulus is crucified .... 255 
Asdrubol defeated by Metellus . . . 251 
Romans defeated before Lilybceum . . 250 
End of the first Punio war . . . 241 

War beeween the Carthaginians and 

African mercenaries . . . .241 
Hamilcar Barcas is sent into Spain ; he 
takes with him his son, the Csmous Han- 
nibal, at the age of nine years, having 
first made him swear an eternal enmity 

to the Romans 237 

Uamilcariskilledhi battle by the Vettoncs 227 




CARTHAGE. eorUinwtd, 

A«drubal is aaaaaaliuited B.C. S90 

Hannibal sabjects all Spain, as far as the 


The second Panic war begins 
First great Tictory of Hannibal 
Hannibal crosses the Alps, and enters 

Italy with 100,000 men 
Ckeat battle of Cannc (irJkick Me) . . 
Now Carthage taken by Pub. Scipio 
Asdrubal, brother of Hannibal, defeated 

and slain in Italy .... 





The Carthaginians expelled Spain i.c. M 
Boipio arrires in Africa, and lays siege to 

Utica m 

Hannibal recalled from Italy . .109 

Great battle of Zama {which gee) . . SOI 
An ignomlnioua peace ends the seeood 

Poniowar IN 

The third Panic war begins . . 1# 

Destmctionof Carthage, vhicb is borasd 

to the ground 141 

CARTHAGENA, or New Cakthaok, in Spain ; built by Afldrabal, tbe CarHupBtn 
general, 227 b.c. From here Hannibal set oat in his memorable mardi to iofsde 
Italy, crossing the Alps, 217 B.C. This city was taken by a British force nndersir 
John Leake, in 1706, bat it was retaken soon afterwards by the duke of BranswicL 
Carthagena, in Colombia, was taken by sir Francis Drake in 1 584. It wo pillsgnl 
by the French of £1,200,000, in 1697 ; and was bombarded by admiral Yenum in 
1740-1, but he was obliged, though he took the forts, to raise the si^ge. 

CARTHUSIANS. A religious order founded by Bruno of Cologne, who retired firosi 
the converse of the world, in 1084, to Chartreuse, in the mountains of Danphia^ 
Their rules were formed by Basil VII., general of the order, and were peculiarly dis- 
tinguished for their austerity. The monks could not leaye their cells, nor speak, 
without express leave ; and their clothing was two hair cloths, two cowls, two pair 
of hose, and a cloak, all coarse. The general takes the title of prior of the Chartrease, 
the principal monastery, from which the order is named.— ^u^^lt ; Mirai Origimt 
Carthus. A Carthusian monastery (among others in England) was founded ^sir 
William Manny, in the reign of Edward III., on the site of the Charter-house, 
London. The monks were treated with great cruelty when their oonTent and pos- 
sessions were seized by Henry VIII. See Charter-house. 

CARTHUSIAN POWDER. So called because it was first adminbtered by a Cartfaa- 
sian friar, father Simon, at Chartreuse, in France ; compounded about 1715. — See 

CARTOONS OF RAPHAEL. They were designed in the chambers of the Vaticao, 
under Julias II. and Leo X., about 1510 to 1515. The seven of them that are pfe- 
served were purchased in Flanders by Rubens for Charles I. of England, for Hampton- 
court palace, in 1629. These matchless works represent — 1, the Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes ; 2, the Charge to Peter ; 3, Peter and John healbog the Lame at the gate 
of the Temple ; 4, the Death of Ananias ; 5, Elymas, the Sorcerer, stmck with 
Blindness ; 6, the Sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, by the people of Lystra; 7, Plnl 
preaching at Athens. 

CARVING. We have scriptural authority Ibr its early introduction. See Exodus mi. 
The art of carving is first mentioned in profane history 772 b.c., and is referred to the 
Egyptians. It was first in wood, next in stone, and afterwards in marble and brass. 
Dipoenus and Scyllis were eminent carvers and sculptors, and opened a school of 
statuary, 568 b.c — Pliny, See article Sculptures, Carvers of meat, called by the 
Greeks deribitares, are mentioned by Homer. 

CASH-PAYMENTS. The Bank, by an order of council, stopped its payments in cash, 
Feb. 27, 1797 ; and the Bank-restriction bill passed immediately arterwards. Previ- 
ously to this measure, many private banks had been ruined by the demand upon them 
for gold, the country being considerably drained of the precious metals, which foand 
their way to France, and other states with whom we were at war. Notes of one and 
two pounds were issued March 7, 1797. Partial return to cash-payments, Sept. 22, 
1817, when notes, which had been issued previously to January 1, in that year, 
were paid in gold. The restriction was taken off soon afterwards, and cash-payments 

CASHEL ; formerly the metropolis of the Idngs of Monster. In the cathedral here wu 
deposited the Lia Fail, or fatal stone, on which they were crowned, and which is now 
used at the coronations of the English kings in Westminster abbey. — See Corcnaiitms. 

CASHEL, See or. Cormac, king and bbhop of Cashel, is reputed to be either ths 

CAS C l^O ^^"^ 

founder or the restorer of the cathedral ; and until his time, a.d. 901, there are but 
few traces of the bishops of this see. In 1152, bishop Donat O'Lanergan was invested 
with the pall. See PalHum, Cashel was valued in the king^s books, by an extent 
" retomed 29 Henry Till., at j^66. 13#. Ad, Irish money. By the Church Tempo- 
ralities Act, of 3 & 4 William IV. 1833, this see has ceased to be archiepiscopaL 

CASHMERE SHAWLS. The district from whence come these costly shawls is 
described as being *' the happy ralley, and a paradise in perpetual spring.'' The 
tme Cashmere shawls can be manufactured of no other wool than that of Thibet. 
They were first brought to England in 1666 ; but they are well imitated by the spin- 
ning at Bradford, and the looms of Huddersiield. Shawls for the omrahs, of the 
Thibetian wool, cost 150 rupees each, about the year 1650. — Bemier, 

CASTELLA, Battle or ; between the French army, commanded by marshal Snchet, 
and the allied British and Spanish forces under general Murray, who defeated the 
former with considerable loss, April 13, 1813. 

CASTEL NUOVO, Battle or. The Russians defeated by the French army, Sept. 29, 
1S06. Castel Nuoro has several times suffered under the dreadful visitation of earth- 
quakes : in the great earthquake which convulsed all Naples and Sicily, in 1783, this 
town was almost obliterated. It is recorded, that an inhabitant of Castel Nuovo, being 
on a hill at no great distance, looking back, saw no remains of the town, but only a 
black smoke : 4000 persons perished ; and in Sicily and Naples, more than 40,000. 

CASTIGLIONE, Battle op. One of the most brilliant victories of the French arms, 
under general Buonaparte, against the main army of Austrians, commanded by general 
Wurmser : the battle lasted five days successively, from the 2nd to the 6th July, 
1796. Buonaparte stated the enemy's loss in this obstinate conflict at 70 field-pieces, 
all his caissons, between 12 and 15,000 prisoners, and 6000 killed and wounded. 

CASTILE. The most powerful goremment of the Goths was established here about 
▲.D. 800. Ferdinand, count of Castile, assumed the title of king in 1020. Ferdinand 
of Arragon married Isabella of Castile, and nearly the whole of the Christian domi- 
nions in Spain were united in one monarchy, 1474. See Arragon and Spain. 

CASTILLON, Battle or, in Guienne ; between the armies of Henry VI. of England, 
and of Charles YII., who was sumamed the Victorious, of France. The English were 
signally defeated ; and this battle put a period to English dominion in France, Calais 
alone remaining to this country, 1453. 

CASTLEBAR, Battle or ; between a body of French troops which had landed at Kil- 
lala, assisted by an insurgent Irish force, and the king's troops : the latter, after a 
sharp contest, were obliged to retreat, Aug. 28, 1798 : this was the period of the 
Bsemorable rebellion. 

CASTLEFOLLARD. The fatal affray here between some peasantry attending a fair, 
and a body of police, when thirteen persons lost their lives, and numbers were 
wounded, May 23, 1831. The coroner's jury returned a verdict against the chief 
constable, Blake, and eightecA of his men ; but the grand jury ignored the bills. 

CASTLES. Anciently British castles were tall houses, strongly fortified, and built on 
the tops of hills, with gates and walls. The castle of the Anglo-Saxon was a tower- 
keep, either round or square, and ascended by a flight of steps in front There were 
eleven hundred castles buUt in England by the nobles, by permission of king Stephen, 
a.d. 1135, and 1164 : most of these were demolished by Henry II., who deprived the 
barons of such possessions, on his accession, in 1154. 

CATACOMBS ; the early depositories of the dead. The name first denoted the tombs 
of Saints Peter uid Paul at Rome, and afterwards the burial-places of all martyrs, 
lliey were numerous in Eg^t ; and Belzoni, in 1815 and 1818, explored many cata- 
combs both in that country and Thebes, built 3000 years sgo : among others, a chef- 
tTtnivre of andent sculpture, the temple of Psammaticus tiie Powerful, whose sarco- 
phagus, formed of the finest oriental alabaster, exquisitely sculptured, he brought to 
England. Many other nations had their catacombs ; there were some of great extent 
at lUMoe. The Parisian catacombs were projected a.d. 1777. The bodies found in 
catscomba, espeeiaUy those of Egypt, are called mummies. See Embalming, 

CATALANS. A society which chiefly consisted of disbsnded soldiers, who fixed in 
Grteee, and became a people of that country, about a.d. 1302. — TallerWi Chror^ 


CATANIA, or CATANEA. At &e fbol of Mont Etna. Fouded bj a eoboj froa 
CbaldSy 7^ b.c. Cen bad a tmple bare, in wbidi none bat wobbcu were per. 
Butted to a|»pear. Tbia aademt dty ia roBarfcable for tbe dreadful overtbrows to 
wbieb it baa been avbjected at Tariova tiaea fron ita Ticmity to Etna, wbicb hat 
diaebaifed, in aoaM of ita eraptiona, a atrean of biva famr mQea broad and ifty feet 
deep, adTaaciag at tbe rate of aeien milea in a day. f*^»«ny^ waa alaMWt totBDj 
orertbrown by an eraptkm of Etna, in 1669. By an tnrtbqnake wbi^ bappened ia 
169^ Catania wo nevly awaOowad ap, aad in a moaaent more tban 18^000 of tti 
inbabitanta were baried in tbe raina of tbe dty. An oartbqnake did great daniife, 
and a nnmber of peraona periabed bare, Feb. 22, 1817. 

CATAFHRYGIANS. A aect of bcrctica, ao ealled beeanae tbey wer« Pbryguat, vho 
followed tbe erron of Montanna. Tbey made vp tbe bread of tbe enebariat witbthe 
blood of iafimta, wbom tbey pricked to deatb witb needleay and tben looked apoa 
tbem as martyra. — Pardotu 

CATAPULTiE. Andent military enginea for tbrowing itonea of immenae weigbty diiti, 
and arrows; inrented by DkmysiaSv 399 n.c.^Jo$eph%u, Tbey were capable of 
tbrowing darts and jarelins of fbnr and fire yarda lengtbd — ^Par<lo«. 

CATEAU, Fkack or; eondaded between Henry II. of France, and Pbilip II. of Spiia; 
to wbicb Utter coantry, France ceded Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200 fbrts ia Italj 
and the Low Coontries, 1559. Battle of Catean* in wbicb the alliea, nnder tiia prioee 
of Coborg, defeated tbe French, whose loaa amounted to 5000 killed, and 5 pieces of 
cannon, March 28, 1794. 

CATECHISM. A short one waa pnblldi^ by tbe bishop of Winchester, aj>. 1551 
The catechism uied by Proteatants originally contained no more tban a repetitioa of 
the baptismal vow, the creed, and Lord's prayer; bat James I. ordered the Inshopo 
to enlarge it by adding an explication of tbe sacraments, 1612. It wo incressed 
sabseqaently by the doctrioal points of tbe established religion. 

CATHERINE. The order of knighthood instituted in Palestine, a.d. 1065. Tbe order 
of nons called Catherines wo founded in 1373. An order of ladiea of tbe highest 
rank, in Russia, wo founded by Catherine, empreo of Peter the Great, 1714. 

CATHOLIC MAJESTY. The title of Catholic wo first given by Pope Gregory IH. 
to Alphonsns I. of Spain, who wo thereupon sumamed the Catholic ; aj>. 739. The 
title of Catholic wo also given to Ferdinand Y. 1474. See Spain, 


CATILINE'S CONSPIRACY. Sergius L. Catiline, a Roman of noble family, baviag 
squandered away his fortune by his debancheriea and extravagance, and having been 
refused the consulship, he secretly meditated the ruin of his eountry, and ooi^iired 
with many of the most illustrious of the Romans, o dissolute o himself, to extir- 
pate the senate, plunder the treoury, and set Rome on fire. Tbb conspiracy was 
timely discovered by the consul Cicero, whom he had reaolved to murder ; and oa 
seeing five of his accomplices arrested, he retired to Gaul, where bis partiaans were 
aflsembling an army. Cicero punished the condemned oonspiratora at home, while 
Petreioi attacked Catiline's ill-disciplined forces, and routed them, and tbe conipi- 
rstor wo killed in the engagement, about the middle of December, 63 b.c. His 
chsrscter has been branded with the foulest infamy, and to the violence be offered 
to a vestal, he added the murder of his own brother ; and it is said that be and bis 
aisofjiatfs drauk human blood to render their oaths more firm and inviolabla. 

CATC), SUICIDE OF. Termed o the <<era destructive of the libertio of Rome." 
(*«to, the Roman pstriot and philosopher, considered freedom o that which alooe 
** sustains the name and dignity of man :" unable to survive the independence of 
his country, ha stabbed himself at Utica. By this roh act of suicide, independeatly 
of sll moral consideration!, Cato carried his patriotism to the highest degree oif 
polltioal nhreosv { for Cato, dead, could be of no use to his country ; but bad be 
proserveu his life, his counsels might have moderated Ciesar's ambition, and have 
given a different turn to public affairs. Feb. 5, 45 b.c — Montesquieu, 

C ATOHTRRBT CONSPIRACY. The mysterious plot of a gsng of low and desperate 
politiolansi whose object was tbe ososination of the minitterg of the crown, with 
a view to other sanguinary and indiscriminate outrages, and the overthrow of tbe 
gof trnnant t tbe oonspiratori were arrested February 23, 1820 ; and Tbistlewood 

CAT C ^*3 D CKD 

and his four principal atsociites, Brnntt Davidion, logs, and Tidd, after a trial com- 
menced on April 17th, which ended in their conriction, were ezecnted according to 
the then horrid manner of traitora, on May 1, following. 

CATTLE. The importation of horned-cattle from Ireland and Scotland, into England, 
was prohibited bj a law, 16 Charles II., 1663 ; bnt the export of cattle from Ireland 
BOW forms a vast and beneficial branch of the Irish trade with the sister country. 
From the inferior port of Waterford alone, the Talue of imported cattle and pro- 
▼iaions amounted, in 1841 , to nearly half a million iterling. By the act of the 5th 
■Dd 6th of Victoria, cap. 47, the importation of horned-cattle and other living 
animals was admitted into England from foreign coantries at a moderate doty per 
head, Tis., oxen at 10«., cows at 7#. 6</., cslves at 5#., sheep and lambs at \t, 6d, and 
1«. respectively, and swine at 2«. 6d, The Engliih markets hare, in conseqaence, 
been since largely supplied from France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and eren remoter 
coantries. July 9, 1842. — Statutes at large. 

CAUCASUS. A mountain of immense height, a continuation of the ridge of Mount 
Taurus, between the Euxine and Caspian seas, inhabited anciently by Tarious savage 
nations who lived upon the wild fruits of the earth. It was covered with snow in 
some parts, and in others was variegated with fruitful orchards and plantations : its 
people were at one time supposed to gather gold on the shores of their rivulets, but 
they afterwards lived without making use of money. Prometheus was tied on the 
top of Caucasus by Jupiter, and continually devoured by vultures, according to 
ancient authors, 1548 b.c. The passes near the mountain were called Caucasus 
PortsSf and .it is supposed that through them the Sarmatians, called Huns, made 
their way, when they invaded the prorinces of Rome, a.d. 447. — Strabo. Herodotus, 

CAULIFLOWER. Called the queen of vegetables, was first planted in these king. 
doms about the year 1603 ; it came to England from the isle of Cyprus, bnt was not 
raised in sufficient perfection and abundance so as to be sold at market until the 
reign of Charles II., about 1670. Sixty years ago, cauliflowers were a usual present 
fh>m England to Portugal ; but tiiey are now largely produced in the Portuguese 
gardens. See Gardening. 

CAUSTIC IN PAINTING. The branch of the art so called is a method of burning 
the colours into wood or ivory. Gausias, a painter of Sicyon, was the inventor of 
this process. He made a beautiful painting of his mistress Glycere, whom he re- 
presented as sitting on the ground, and making garlands with flowers ; and from this 
drenmstance the picture, which was bought literwards by Lucullus for two talents, 
received the name of Stephanoplooonf 335 b.c. — Piinii Hist. Nat, 

CAVALIERS. This appellation was given as a party name in England to those who 
espoosed the cause of the king during the unhappy war which brought Charles I. to 
the scaffold. They were so called in opposition to the Roundheads, or friends of the 
parliament, between 1642 and I6i9.^-Hume, 

CAVALRY. Of the ancient nations the Romans were the most celebrated for their 
csvalry, and for its discipline and efficiency. Attached to each of the Roman legions 
was a body of horse 300 strong, in ten turmce ; the commander was always a veteran, 
and chosen for his experience and valour. In the early ages, the Persians brought 
the greatest force of cavalry into the field : they had 10,(M)0 horse at the battle of 
Marathon, 490 b.c. ; and 10/)00 Persian horse were slain at the battie of Issus, 
333, B.C.— F/ti/arcA. 

CAVALRY, BRITISH. Horse soldiery were introduced eady into Britain. They 
were used by the Romans sgainst the natives, and were of large amount in the first 
wars in Wales^ — fFelch Hist. In the late continental war they reached to 31,000 
men. Our present cavalry force consists of regiments of various denominations : in 
1840 it was, rank and file, vix., household troops, 1209 ; dragoons, hussars, and 
lancers, 9,524; total, 10,733 ; of whom 7,265 were English, 870 Scotch, and 2.598 
Irish.— Par/. Bet. 

CAYENNE. First setUed by the French in 1625, but they left it in 1654. It was 
afterwards successively in the hands of the English, French, and Dutch. These 
last were expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne was taken by the British, Jan. 12, 
1809, bnt was restored to the French at the peace in 1814. In this setUement is 
produced the capsicum baceatumf or cayenne pepper, so esteemed in Europe. 

CEDAR TREE. The Red Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana) came from N. America, 
bflfore 1664. The Bermudas Cedar, from Bermudas, before 1683. The Cedar of 


CBL [ 114 ] 

Lebanon (Pimu CednUf) from the Lermnt, belbre 1683. Tlie Cedar of Got, (C«« 
presnu LusUaniea) wu brooght to Europe by the Poftngneee, aboot same poiol 
— See Cypress. 

CELERY. Is said to have been first introdaoed to the tables of the English by tk 
French marshal, the count Tallard, after his defeat at Blenheim by the dnke of Msd- 
borongh, and daring his captivity in England, in 1704. 

CELESTIAL GLOBE. A oelestisl sphere was broo^t to Greece from Egypt, 36B 
B.C. A planetarium was oonstmeted by Archimedes before 212 b.c. The oeleitiil 
globe was divided into constellations after the age of Perseus. The great oeksdil 
globe of Grottorp, planned after a design of Tycbo Bradie, and erected at the ezpeoie 
of the duke of Holstein, was eleven fleet in diameter ; and that at Pembroke-hall, 
Cambridge, erected by Dr. Long, is eighteen feet See Globet, 

CELESTINS. A religious order of monks, reformed firom the Bemardins by pspt 
Celestine V. in 1294. The order of nuns was instituted about the same period. 

CELIBACY, and the monastic life, preached by St. Anthony in Egypt, about a.d. 305. 
The early converts to this doctrine lived in caves and desolate plaices till regular mo- 
nasteries were founded. The doctrine was rcgected in the Council of Nice, a.d. 32S. 
Celibacy was enjoined bishops only in 692. The Romish clergy generaDy were oom- 
pelled to a vow of celibacy in 1073. Its observance was finally established by dis 
council of Plaoentia, held in 1095. Among the illustrious philosophers of antiqvtj, 
the following were unfriendly to matrimony : — Plato, Pythagoras, Epicurus^ BioB, 
Anazagoras, Heraclitus, Democritus, and Diogenes ; and the following among dis 
moderns : — ^Newton, Locke, Boyle, Gibbon, Hume, Adam Smith, Harvey, Leibiitiy 
Bayle, Hobbes, Hampden, sir F. Drake, eaii of Essex, Pitt, Michael Angdo, dis 
three Caracci's, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Haydn, Handel, Wolsey, Psscal, FendoOf 
Pope, Akenside, Goldsmith, Gray, Collins, Thomson, and Jeremy Bentham. 

CEMETERIES. The ancients had not the unwise custom of crowding all their dead 
in the midst of their towns and cities, within the narrow precincts of a plaoe repated 
sacred, much less of amassing them in the bosom of their fanes and temples. The 
burying-places of the Greeks and Romans were at a distance from their towns; sad 
the Jews had their sepulchres in gardens — John ziz. 41 ; and in fields, and among 
rocks and mountains — Matthew zzvii. 60. The present practice was introdaoed by 
the Romish clergy, who pretended that the dead enjoyed peculiar privileges bybeiog 
interred in consecrated ground. The burying-plaoes of the Turks are handsooie 
and agreeable, which is owing chiefly to the many fine plants that grow in tbesi, 
and which they carefully place over their dead. It is only within a very few years 
that public cemeteries have been formed in these countries, although the crowded 
state of our many church-yards, and the danger to health of burial-plaoes in the 
midst of dense populations, called for some similar institutionB to that of the eele- 
brsted Pire la Chaite at Paris. Six public cemeteries have beoi recently opened 
in London suburbs : — 

The Keiuall-greGn or general cemetery, 
coutaining 63 acres, established by act 
8 and 3 Williani IV . 1838 ; consecrated 
by the bishop of London Nov. 8, 18S8 

The South Metropolitan and Norwood ce- 
metery, containing 40 acres, instituted 
by act and 7 W. IV. 1836; consecrated 
by the bishop ofWinchester . Dec. 6, 1837 

The Highgate and Kentish-Town ceme- 
tery, formed by act 7 and 8 William 
IV., and containing 88 acres, was 
opened and consecrated by the bishop 
of London . May 80, 1839 

The inclosed area of each of these cemeteries is planted and laid out in walks sfter 
the manner of P^re la Chaise.* There are similar cemeteries in Manchester} liver^ 
pool, and other towns ; and in Ireland, at Cork, Dablin, &c 

* P^re La Chaise takes its name from a French Jesuit, who was a favourite of Lonls XIT., sad 
his confessor. lie died in 1709 ; and the site of his house and grounds at Paris is now occnpicd by 
this beautiful cemetery. It was a practice of high antiquity to plant herbs and flowws about tbs 
graves of the dead. The women in Egypt go weekly to pray and weep at the aepukhrea, and it ii 

The Abney Park cemeteiy, and 
turn, containing 80 acres, ia on the 
eastern side of London, at Btoka 
Newingt<m, and was fonnally opened 
by the lord mayor. WUj 80, Me 

The Westmingter cemetery, at EariV 
court, Kensington road, called also the 
West Ixmdon, consecrated . June U, ISM 

The Nonhead cemetery, oontaininf 
about 00 acres, conaecrated by the 
bishop of Winchester Julyn^lMt 

Bee CSotacoMte. 

CEN C ^*5 ] CEM 

CENSORS. Roman magistrates whose duty was to sunrey and rate, and correct the 
manners of the people ; their power was also extended over prirate families, and 
they restrained extraragance. The two first censors were appointed 443 b.c. The 
office was abolished by the emperors. 

CENSUS. In the Roman polity, a general estimate of every man's estate and personal 
effects, delirered to the government upon oath erery fire years : established by Ser- 
irins TnUitts, 566 B.C.— -Z^^o/ PoiUp of the Roman State, In England the census, 
formerly not periodical, is now taken at decennial periodsi of whidi the bst were the 
years 1811, 1821, and 1831 ; and the new cenios, 1841. See Population, 

CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. A new court esUblished for the trial of offences 
committed in the metropolis and parts adjoining ; it being expedient that such trials 
should be had before justices and judges of Oyer and Terminer. Statute 4 Will. lY. 
1834. By this act commissions issue to two of the judges of the higher courts, for 
the periodical delivery of the gaol of Newgate, and the tritl of offences of greater 
degree, committed in the county of Middlesex and certain parts of Essex, Kent, and 
Surrey ; the new district to be henceforth considered, for this purpose, as one county. 

CENTURION. The captain, head, or commander of a subdivision of a Roman legion 
which consisted of 100 men, and was called a centuria. He was distinguished by a 
branch of vine which he carried in his hand. By the Roman census, each hundred 
of the people was called a cen/urta, 566 b.c 

CENTURY. The method of computing by centuries was first generally observed in 
ecclesiastical history, and commenced from the time of our Redeemer's incarnation, 
▲.D. 1. It is a period that is particularly regarded by church historians.— Pardon. 

CERBERE, French Bnio or Wab. The capture of this vessel claims record as one 
of the most gaUant exploits of British seamen during the last war : — the Cerb^re 
mounted nine large guns, had a crew of eighty-seven men, and was lying at Port 
Loois. The harbour was entered in a ten-osred cutter manned with only eighteen 
men ; and directed by their gallant officer, lieutenant Paddon, they cut out and made 
good their prize, July 29, 1800. 

CEREMONIES, Mastbb of the. This office, instituted for the more honourable re- 
oeption of ambassadors and persons of quality at court, 1 James I. 1603. — Baker, 

CERES. This planet, which is only 160 miles in diameter, was discovered by M. 
Fiaxsi, astronomer royal at Palermo, on the Ist. of January, 1801. To the naked 
eye it is not visible, nor will glasses of a very high magnifying power show it with a 
distinctly defined cUameter. Pallas, discovered by Dr. Olbers, is still smaller. 

CESTUS. Among the ancients this was the maid's girdle, which the bridegroom un- 
tied when he led her as his bride into his house. It had the power of charming 
and oonciliating love.— JETomtfr. According to the poets, it was first worn by Yenus. 

CEYLON. The natives claim for this island the seat of paradise ; it was discovered 
by the Portuguese ad. 1505; but it was known to the Romans in the time of 
CUndias, a.d. 41. The capitid, Columbo, was taken by the Hollanders in 1603 ; 
and was recovered by the Portuguese in 1621. The Dutch again took it in 1656. 
A large portion of the country was taken by the British in 1782, but was restored 
tlie next year. The Dutch settlements were seized by the British ; Trincomalect 
Aug. 26, 1795, and Jaffnapatam, in Sept. same year. Ceylon was ceded to Great 
Britain by the peace of Amiens in 1802. The British troops were treacherously mas- 
sacred, or imprisoned by the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo, June 26, 1803. The 
complete sovereignty of the island was assumed by England in 1815. 

CH^RONSA, Battle of. The Athenians are defeated by the Boeotians, and Tol- 
midas, thdr general, is slain, 447 B.C. Battle of Chseronea, in which Greece lost its 
liberty to IliUip, 32,000 Macedonians defeating the confederate army of Thebans 
and Athenians of 30,000, Aug. 2, 338 b.c. Battle of Chseronea in which Ar- 

fhcn nflual to throw a tort of herb (our iweet-basil) upon the tombs ; which in Asia Minor, and 
Tnrlcej In Europe, are also adorned either with the leaves of the pahn-tree, boughs of myrtle, or 
fjpii— <■ planted at the head and feet Between some of the tombe is placed a chest of ornamented 
Btooe, filled with earth, in which are planted herbe and aromatic flowers. These are regularly culti- 
vated by females, who assemble in groups for that duty. At Aleppo, there grow many myrtloa, 
which tbej diligently propagate, because they are beautiful, and reinain long green, to put about 
tbdr graves.— IfafM ; Chandler: BuUer. 

CnA [ 116 ] CHA 

chelaas, lieutenant of Mithridates, ii defeated by Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadociansire 
slain, 86 b.o. 

CHAIN-BRIDGES. The largest and oldest chain-bridge in the world is said to be 
that at Kingtung, in China, where it forms a perfect road fitim the top of one mouh 
tain to the top of another. The honour of constructing the first chain-bridge on • 
grand scale belongs to Mr. Telford, who commenced the chiun-snspension-bridge over 
the strait between Anglesey and the coast of Wales, July 1818. — See Jkfenai Bridge. 

CHAIN-CABLES, PUMPS, and SHOT. Iron chain-cables were in use bj the 
Veneti, a people intimately connected with the Belgte of Britain in the time of 
Caesar, 55 b.c. These cables came into modem use, and generally in the royil 
navy of England, in 1812. Chain-shot, to destroy the rigging of an enemy's shipi, 
was invented by the Dutch admiral De Witt, in 1666. Chain 'pamps were first used 
on board the FiorOy British frigate, in 1787. 

CHAINS, Hanging in. To augment the ignominy of the scaflbld, in the cases of gmt 
malefactors and pirates. This punishment long disgraced the statute-book. By the 
25th George II. 1752, it was enacted that the jnd^ should direct the bodies of 
pirates and murderers to be dissected and anatomised ; and he might also direct 
that they be afterwards hung in chains. An act to abolish the custom of hangiog 
the bodies of criminals in chains, was passed 4 William IV. 1834. 

CHAISE oa CALASH. The invention of the chaise, which is described as a light 
and open vehicle, is ascribed to Augustus Caesar, about a.d. 7. Aurelins Victor 
mentions that the use of post-chaises was introduced by Trajan, about a.d. 100. 
The chariot was in use fifteen centuries before. See Chariot and Post-chaise*. 

CHALDEAN REGISTERS. Registers of celestial observations wer« commenced 2234 
B.C., and were brought down to the taking of Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C., being i 
period of 1903 years. These registers were sent by Callisthenes to Aristotle. Chal- 
dean Charactkrs: the bible was transcribed from the original Hebrew into thae 
characters, now called Hebrew, by Exra. 

CHAMBERLAtN. Formerly was so called a military officer, and aomedmet a prissti 
according to the place of which he was governor or head. — Pardon. The ehamb8^ 
lain is an officer of civic and other corporations. The city of London hath ita cban- 
berlain, and it obtained the title of Camera Regis some centuries since. — Skak^ 
speare. At the Chamberlain's office, Guildhall, a large number of valoable. recocdtof 
liondon were destroyed by fire, Feb. 7, 1786. See Lord Chamberlain. 

CHAMP DE MARS ; an open square space in front of the Military School at Psris, 
with artificial embankments raised on each side, extending nearly to the river Seine, 
with an area sufficient to contain a million of people. Here was held, on the 14th 
July, 1790, the famous ** fdd^ration,'* or solemnity of swearing fidelity to the ** pa- 
triot king'' and new constitution. In the evening great rejoicings followed the 
proceedings ; public balls were given by the municipality in the Champs Elys4es and 
elsewhere, and Paris was illuminated throughout. 1791, July 17, a great meeting 
of citizens and others held here, directed by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on 
the ''altar of the country'' — left standing since the above ceremony — ^praying for 
the enforced abdication of Louis XVI. Another new constitution sworn to here, 
under the eye of Buonaparte, May 1, 1815, a ceremony called the Champ de MaL 

CHAMPION OF ENGLAND. The championship was instituted at the coronation of 
Richard II. in 1377. At the coronations of English kings the champion still rides 
completely armed into Westminster-ball, and challenges any one that would deny 
their title to the crown. The championship is hereditary in the Dymocke fSsmily. 

CHANCELLORS, LORD HIGH, of ENGLAND. The Lord ChanceUor ranks after 
the princes of the Blood Royal as the first lay subject. Formerly, the office was 
conferred upon some dignified clergyman. Maurice, afterwards bishop of Londoo, 
was created chancellor in 1067. The first personage who was qualified by great 
legal education, and who decided causes upon his own judgment, was sir Thomas 
More, in 1530, before which time the office was more that of a high state functicBi- 
ary than the president of a court of justice. Sir Christopher Hatton, who was ap- 
pointed chancellor in 1587, was very ignorant, on which account the first reference 
was made to a master in 1588. In England, the great seal has been frequently put 
in commission ; but it was not until 1813 that the separate and co-existent office of 
yice ChanceUor was permanently held. See Keeper, Lord; and also Viee Chaneeliors. 






( From the time <i/ CardiruU Wolttp.) 
1516. Cardinal Wolsey. 
1530. Sir Thomas More (btheaded). 
isaa. Sir Thomaa Andley. 
1534. Thomas, blahcp of Ely. 
1545. Lord Wriothesley. 
1547. Lord St John. 
1547. Lord Rich. 
1551. Bishop of Ely again. 
1551. Sir Nich. Hare, Lord Keeper, 
155a Bishop of Winchester. 
1555. Archbishop of York. 
155a Sir Nicholas Baoon. 
1579. Sir Thomas Bromley. 
15^7. Sir Christopher Hatton. 
1592. Sir John Fackering. 
I5fi6. Sir Thomas Egerton. 
1616. Sir Francis Baoon, c^fia wards lord 

ie2& Sir Thomas Corentxy. 
I63a Sir John Finch. 
1640. Sir Edward Littieton, aflerwt,rd» lord 

1645. Sir Richard Lane. 
1648. In commission. 
1653. Sir Edward Ucrbert. 
1668. Sir Edward Hyde, afiermardt earl of 

1087. 8ir Orlando Bridgeman, L. K, 
1678. Earl of Shaftesbury. 
1673L Sir Heneage Finch, ti/Urwardt earl of 

16B9. Lord Guilford, L. K. 
16B5. ISHr George Jofteys, lord Jeffrej^ 
IWK In commiwrion. 

1692. Sir John Somers. t^fterwardt lord 
' Somers. 

1708. Sir Nathan Wright, L. K. 
17^)5. Lord Cowper, L. K. 
1710. In commission. 
17ia Lord Haroourt. 
1714. Lord Cowper again. 
1718. In commission. 
1718. Viscount Parker, q/terward* earl of 

1725. Sir Peter King, L. K. afterwarde lord 

1733. Lord Talbot. 
1737. Philip, lord Hardwioke. 
1751. Sir Robert Henley, a/terwarde lord 

Henley, and earl of Northingtoo. 
176& Charles Pratt, lord Camden. 
1770. Hon.Chs.Yorke^ Jan. 18; died next da^. 

1770. In commission. 

1771. Henry Bathurst, lord Apaley, succeeded 

as earl Bathurst 
1778. Lord Thurlow. 
1783. Lord Louj^borough and others 

(in eommiseion) . . Aprfl9 

178& Lord Thurlow again . . Deo. 23 

1792. In commission. 

1793. Lord Loughborough again. 

1801. Lord Eldon . April 14 

1806. Lord Erskine . Feb. 7 

1807. Lord Eldon again . March 25 
1827. Lord Lyndhurst . . April 20 
1830. Lord Brougham . Nor. 29 

1834. Lord Lyndhurst again . . Nov. 14 

1835. In commission. 

1836. Lord Cottenham . . Jan. 16 

1841. Lord Lyndhuxvt again Aug. 31 

CHAJ^CELLOR of IRELAND, LORD HIGH. The earliest nomination was by 
Richard I. a.d. 1186, when Stephen Ridel was elevated to this rank. The office of 
vioe-chancellor was known in Ireland, bat not as a distinct appointment, in the 
reign of Henry III., Geffrey TunriUe, archdeacon of Dublin, being so named, 1232. 

CHANCELLOR OP SCOTLAND. In the laws of Malcolm II. who reigned a.d. 
1004, this officer is thus mentioned : " The ChanceUar sal at al tymes assist the 
king In giving him coonsali mair secretly nor of the rest of the nobility. The 
ChanceUar sail be lodgit near nnto the kingis Grace, for keiping of his bodie, and 
the seill, and that he may be readie, baith day and nicht, at Uie kingis command." 
^~Sir Jamet Balfour, James, earl of Seafield, afterwards ¥lndlater, was the last 
knrd high Chancellor of Scotland, the office having been abolished in 1708. — Sooit. 

CHANCELLOR or the EXCHEQUER of ENGLAND. See article Ejtchequtr, 

CHANCERY, COURT of. Instituted as early as a.d. 605. Settled npon a better 
footing by William I., in 1067. — Stowe. This court had its origin in the desire to 
render justice complete, and to moderate the rigour of other courts that are bound 
to tho strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or against infants, notwith- 
standing their minority ; and to or against married women, notwithstanding their 
coverture ; and all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confidence, for which there 
is no redress at common Uw, are relievable here. — Blackskme, 

urwm c n or buitorb lodosd ik court at thb romofwitta DKcaivifiAL PBaroM. 



There are abont 10,000 accounts. By the last official returns the number of com- 
mittals for contempt was ninety-six persons in three years, of whom sixty -five had 
bc«n discbajged, and six had died in prison.-^ Far/. Retunu, 


Amount l0( 






. ditto 





1810 . 

Amotmt lodged 

. X26J12.000 


. ditto 

. 34,?0e,7H5 

1830 . 

ditto . 



. ditto 

. 39,772,746 

CHA C 118 ] CHA 

CHA.NTRY. A chapel endowed with rerenae for priests to sing mass for thesooli of 
the donors. — Shakapeare. First mentioned in the commencement of the seventh 
century, when Gregory the great estahlished schools of chanters. See ChtnaUmff, 

CHA.OS. A rude and shapeless mass of matter, and confused assemblage of inactiTe 
elements which, as the poets suppose, pre>existed the formation of the world, ani 
from which the universe was formed by the hand and power of a superior being. 
This doctrine was first advanced by Hesiod, from whom the succeeding poets bait 
copied it ; and it is probable that it was obscurely drawn from the account of Moses, 
by being copied from the annaU of Sanchoniathon, whose age is fixed antecedent to 
the siege of Troy, in 1193 b.c. See Geology. 

CHAPEL. There are free chapels, chapels of ease, the chapel royal, &e.— Cowdl 
The gentlemen pensioners, (formerly poor knights of Windsor, who were iostitntei 
by the direction of Henry Y III. in his testament , a.d. 1546-7) , were called knights of the 
chapel. The place of conference among printers is by them called a chapel, because the 
first work printed in England was executed in a chapel in Westminster-abbey. Pardrnt, 

CHAPLAIN. The clergyman who performs divine service in a chapel, or that k 
retained by a prince or nobleman. There are about seventy chaplains attached to 
the chapel royaL The personages invested with the privilege of retaining rhaplaii^ 
are the following, with the number that was originally allotted to each rank:^ 

Earl . .6 

Viflcount . . . 4 

Baron . .3 

Chancellor . . 3 

Knt of the Gtarter . 3 
Ducheea . . . S 
MarohionesB. . S 
Couateae . . . 9 

. .1 

Master of the RoDflt 
Almoner . t 

Chief Jasike . .1 

Archbishop . . 8 

Duke . . 6 

Bishop . 6 

Marquees. . . 5 

Besides these, the treasurer and comptroller of the king's house, the king's secretary, 
the clerk of the closet, the dean of the chapel, and the warden of the Cinque Portt| 
were each allowed chaplains. — StatuteSf Henry VIII, 

CHAPLETS. The strings of beads, used by the' Roman Catholics in redting the 
Lord's prayer, Ave Maria, and other orisons, is said to have been introduced into 
their church by Peter the Hermit, about a.d. 1094. Beads were in use, we sre 
told, by the Druids as well as Dervises and other religious of the East. The chajdet 
came into general use among the Catholics, about 1213. 

CHAPTER. Anciently the bishop and clergy lived together in the cathedral^ the latter 
to assist the former in performing holy offices and governing the church, until the 
reign of Henry VIII. The chapter is now an assembly of the clergy of a collegiate 
church or cathedral. — Cowel, The celebrated chapter-house of Westminster Abbey 
was built in 1250. By consent of the abbot, the commons of England held their 
parliaments there, 1377, and until 1547, when Edward YI. granted Uiem the chapd 
of St. Stephen. 

CHARING CROSS. So called from one of the crosses which Edward I. erected to 
the memory of his queen Eleanor, and Charing, the name of the village in which it 
was built. Some contend that it derived its name from being the resting-place of 
the chere reyne. It was yet a small village in 1353, and the cross remained tiU 
the civil wars in the reign of Charles I., when it was destroyed on the foolish pretence 
of being a monument of popish superstition. Built nearly as it appeared before the 
late improvements, and joined by streets to London about 1678. The new bmldings 
at Charing-cross were commenced in 1829 ; and the first stone of the hospital wu 
laid by the duke of Sussex, Sept. 15, 1831. 

CHARIOTS. The invention of chariots and the manner of hamessmg horses to draw 
them is ascribed to Erichthonius of Athens, 1486 b.c Chariot racing was one of 
the exercises of Greece. The chariot of the Ethiopian officer, mentioned in AcU'fvL 
27, 28, 31, was, it is supposed, something in the form of our modem chaise with 
four wheels. Ctesar relates that Cassibelanus, after dismissing all his other forces, 
retained no fewer than 4000 war chariote about his person. The chariots of the 
ancients were like our phaetons, and drawn by one horse. See CarriapeSf Cotteheiy fe. 

CHARITABLE BEQUESTS. Statute constituting a board for the recovery of chari- 
table bequests, and to enforce the due fulfilment by executors of testamentary 
writings in this particular, enacted 4 George III. 1764. The present board wu 
constructed by a new act, in 1800. Act constituting a board of commissioners in 
Ireland, they being chiefly prelates of the established church, 1825. The Romaa 
Catholic ChariUble Bequesta act passed 7 Victoria, 1844. 

CHA E>^9] CH^ 

CHARITIES AND CHARITY SCHOOLS. It has been jnsUj laid/ that notwith- 
•tanding the Tariety of lecta that are found in England, and direnity of religious 
sentiment, the conaequenoe of free discussion with respect to disputed doctrines, 
tiiere is no countrj on earth where there are more positire acts of religion. They 
do not indeed consist of rich shrines, or TOtire tablets consecrated to particular saints, 
bat of efficient charity applied to erery purpose of philanthropy. There are tens 
of thousands of charitable foundations in this great country ; and the charity com- 
misaion reported to parliament that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain 
•mounted to £1,500,000 annuaDy, in 1840.— Far/. Rep. Charity schools were 
iastitated in London to prerent the seduction of the in&nt poor into Roman Catholic 
seminaries, 3 James II. 1 687. — Rapin, 

CHARLEROI, Battlbb ov. Great battles were fought near this town in sereral 
wan; the principal were in 1690 and 1794. See Fleurus, And near here, at 
Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prussian line, making it fall back upon WaTres, just 
previous to the battle of Waterloo, June 16, 1815. 

CHARLESTON, Masbachusbtts. Burnt by the British forces under general Gage, 
January 17> 1775. The English fleet at Charleston repulsed with great loss, June 
28, 1776. Charieston taken by the British, May 7, 1779. Charleston, South 
Cvolina, eracuated by the British, April 14, 1783. 

CHARTERS of RIGHTS. The first charters of rights granted by the kings of England 
to their subjects, were by ESdward the Confessor, and by Henry I. a.d. 1 100. The 
flunous bulwark of English liberty, known as Magna Charta, or the great charter, 
was granted to the barons by king John, June 15, 1215. The rights and privileges 
gnnted by this charter were renewed and ratified by Henry III. in 1224, et seq. 
Sir Edward Coke says that eren in his days it had been confirmed abore thirty times. 
Charters to corporations were of firequent grant firom the reign of MTilUam I. See 
Magna Charta, * 

CHARTER-HOUSE. A corruption of the French word Chartreuse, the name of a 
cdebrated monastery of Carthusian monks, which formerly stood on this site, but 
which was suppressed by Henry VIII. at the period of the Reformation Mr. Tho- 
mas Satton, a man of immense wealth and unbounded liberality, purchased the vast 
premises of the duke of Norfolk, in May, 1611 ; and founded an hospital which he 
endowed with a large estate ; and hence this extensiTe charity bears also the name 
of Sutton's hospitaL 

CHARTER PARTY. The same species of deed or agreement as the ancient chirograph. 
A corenant between merchants and masters of ships relating to the ship and cargo. 
It was first used in EIngland in the reign of Henry III., about 1243. 

CHARTISTS. Large bodies of the working people, calling themselves Chartists, 
assembled in rarious parts of the country, armed with guns, pikes, and other weapons, 
and carrying torches and flags, and conducting themselves tumultuoasly, so that a 
proclamation was issued against them, Dec 12, 1838. Attack on Newport by the 
Chartists, who assembled from the neighbouring mines and collieries to the number 
of nearly 10,000, headed by John Frost, an ex-magistrate, Nov. 4, 1839. In 
this affray, the mayor of Newport and several persons acting with him against 
tibe rioters were wounded ; but a detachment of the 45th regiment having made a 
sortie, the Chartists fled, leaving about twenty dead and many wounded. Frost 
and others were brought to trial, Dec. 31, following; the trial lasted seven days, 
and ended in their conviction of high treason ; but their sentence was afterwards 
commuted to transportation. See Birmingham. 

CHARTS. Anaximander of Miletus was the inventor of geographical and celestial 
diarts, about 570 b.c. Modern sea charts were brought to England by Bartholomew 
Colondms, with a view to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, 
1489. Mercator's chart, in which the world is taken as a plane, was drawn 1556. 

CHARYBDIS, a dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily, opposite another whirlpool 
called Scylla, on the coast of Italy. It was very dangerous to sailors, and it proved 
&tal to part of the fleet of Ulysses. The exact situation of the Charybdis is not 
discovered by the modems, as no whirlpool sufficiently tremendous is now found to 
correspond to the description of the ancients. The words Incidii in ScyUam qui 
vuU viiare Charybdim, became a proverb, to show that in our eagerness to avoid an 
evil, we fall into a greater. 

CIIA C 1^ ] CHE 

CHASTITY. Tbe Rommn lawt justified homicide in defence of one's self or rdatiTes ; 
and oar Uws justify a woman for killing a man who would defile her ; and ahtubtnd 
or a fftther may take the life of him who attempts to violate his wife or daughter. 
In 1000 jears from the time of Noma, 710 b.c. to the reign of Theodosiui the 
Great, a.o. 394, hot eighteen Roman Testals had been guilty of incontinence. See 
Vestal*. There are many remarkable instances of chastity recorded. See Aerty 
Lueretia, &c. Ebba, the abbess of Coldingham, near Berwick, cut off her nose and 
lips, and persuaded the younger nuns to follow her example^ to render themidvei 
hideous, and so preTent the faistful attack of their nvishers, the Danes, a.d. 886^ 
SUnrt*s Ckrvm. 

CHATHAM DOCK. Commenced by queen Elisabeth. This is one of the priacipil 
stations of the royal navy ; and its dock-yard, containing immffnue magazinq, 
furnished with all sorts of naral stores, is deemed the first arsenal in the world. 
The Chatham Chesi for the relief of wounded and decayed seamen was originally 
established here by a Uw of Elizabeth in 1558. In 1667. on the 10th June, the Datch 
fleet, under the command of admiral De Ruyter, sailed up to this town and bunt 
tereral men of war ; but the entrance into the Medway is now defended by SheeniM 
and other Ibrts, and additional fortifications are made at Chatham. 

CHATILLON, Coxguss op. Held by the four great powers allied against Frssce, 
and at which Caulainoourt attended on the part of the emperor NapoIeoSf 
Feb. 5, 1814 ; but the negodation for peace, whidi was the object of the congreai, 
was broken off on March 19, following. 

CHAUMONT, Trkatt of. Entered into between Great Britain, Austria, Rindii 
and Prussia, and signed by these powers respectiTely, March 1, 1814. 

CHAUNTING. Chaunting the psalms was adopted by Ajnbrose firom the pagis 
ceremonies of the Romans, about a.d. 350. — Lmglet, Cbaunting in churches wai 
introduced into the Roman Catholic senrice in 602, by Gregory the Great, who 
established schools of chanters, and corrected the churdi song. — Dufretnoif. 

CHEATS. The conricted cheat punishable by pillory (since abolished), impriaon* 
ment, and fine, 1 Hawk. L.C. 188. A rigorous statute was enacted against cheati, 
33 Henry VIII. 1542. Peraons cheating at play, or winning at any time more 
than 10/., or any raluable thing, were deemed infiunous, and were to suffer punishment 
as in cases of perjury, 9 Aime, 1711. — Blaekttone*s Comm. 

CHEESE. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned the prooM 
of making cheese from the Romans (who brought many useful arts with them) about 
the Christian era. Cheese is made by almost all nations. Wilts, Gloucester, and 
Cheshire, make vast quantities ; the last alone, annually, about 31,000 tons. The 
Cheddar of Somerset, and Stilton of Huntingdon, are as much esteemed with ua as 
the cheese of Parma, and Gruycre of Switzerland. In 1840 we imported trom 
abroad for home use, a quantity exceeding 10,000 tons. 

CHELSEA COLLEGE. On the site of a college founded by James I. for theob- 
gical disputations, but converted by Charles II. to its present better purpose, is this 
magnificent asylum for wounded and auperannuated soldiers. Founded by Charles 
II., carried on by James II., and completed by William III., in 1690. But the 
projector of this great national institution was sir Stephen Fox, the grandfather of 
the late celebrated patriot. The architect was sir Christopher Wren, and the cost 
;^l 50,000. The physic garden of sir Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, was giren to the Apo- 
thecaries' company in 1721. The Chelsea water- works, a valuable establishment, 
was incorporated 1722. The first stone of the Military Asylum, Chelsea, was laid 
by Frederick, duke of York, June 19, 1801. 

CHELTENHAM. Now a great resort of our nobility and foshionable persons, as weUas 
cooTalescents. Its mineral spring, so celebrated for its salubrity, was discovered in 
1718. The King's-well here was sunk in 1778 ; and other wells were sunk by Mr. 
Thompson, in 1806. Magnesian salt was found in the waters in 1811. 

CHEMISTRY and DISTILLING. Introduced into Europe by the Spanish Moon, 
about A.D. 1150; they had learned them from the African Moors, and these from 
the Egyptians. In Egypt, they had, in very early ages, extracted salts from their 
bases, separated oils, and prepared vinegar and wine ; and embalming was s kind 
of chemical process. The Chinese also claim an early acquaintance witii chemistry ; 

CHK ^ 121 2 CHI 

but the Others of trat chemical philosophy were of oar own country : Bacon, Boyle, 
Hooke, Mayow, Newton, &c. The modem character of chemistry was formed under 
Beecher and Stahl, who perceired the connexion of the atmosphere and the gases, 
with the production of phenomena. Bergman and Scheele were ootemporary with 
PHestley in England, and Lavoisier in France ; then followed Thomson, Davy, and 
other distinguished men. 

CHERBOURG. Memorable engagement here between the English and French fleets ; 
the latter were defeated, and twenty-one of their ships of war were burnt, or other- 
wise destroyed, near Cape La Hogue, by admirals Rooke and Russell, May 19, 1692. 
The forts, arsenal, and shipping were destroyed by the British, who landed here in 
August 1758. The works were resumed on a stupendous scale, by Louis XVI. ; 
but their progress was interrupted by the revolution. The Breakwater was com- 
menced in 1783, and finally completed in 1813. 

CHERRIES. They were brought from Pontus, by LucuUus, to Rome, about 70 lo. 
Apricots from Epirus ; peaches from Persia ; the finest plums from Damascus and 
Armenia ; pears and figs from Greece and Egypt ; citrons from Media ; and pome- 
granates from Carthage, 114 b.c. The cherry-tree was first planted in Britain, it is 
■aid, about a.d. 100. Fine kinds were brought from Flanders, and planted in Kent, 
with Bik:h success, that an orehard of thirty-two acres produced in one year j^lOOO, 
A.D. 1540. — See Gardening. 

CHESAPEAKE, Battle of. At the mouth of the river of that name, between the Bri- 
tiah admiral Greaves, and the French admiral De Grasse, in the interest of the revolted 
states of America; the former was obliged to retire, 1781. The Chesapeake and 
Delaware were blockaded by a British fleet in 1812. The Chetapeake American 
frigate struck to the Shannon British frigate, commanded by captain Broke, after a 
severe action, June 2, 1813. 

CHESS, Game of. Invented^ according to some authorities, 680 b.c. ; and according 
to others, in the fifth century of our era. The learned Hyde and Sir William Jones 
concur in stating (as do most writers on the subject), that the origin of chess is to 
be traced to India. The automaton chess-player was exhibited in England in 1769. 

CHESTER Founded by the Romans, and one of the last places in England that was 
quitted by that people. It was the station of the twentieth Roman legion, called the 
Valeria Vietrue, The city wall was first built by Edeifleda, a.d. 908 ; and William I. 
rebuilt the Saxon castle in 1084. Chester was incorporated by Henry III. , and made 
a distinct county. It was nearly destroyed by an accidental fire in 1471. The fatal 
gunpowder explosion occurred Nov. 5, 1772. 

CHESTER, BiSHOPaic of. This see was anciently part of the diocese of Lichfield, 
one of whose bishops removing the seat hither in 1075, occasioned his successors to 
be styled bishops of Chester ; but it was not erected into a distinct bishopric until 
the general dissolution of monasteries. Henry VIII. in 1541, raised it to this dig- 
nity, and allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for the cathedraL This 
see is valued in the king's books at j€420 1#. M, per year. 

CHEVALIER D'EON. This extraordinary personage, who had been acting in a diplo- 
matic capacity in several countries, and who was for some time a minister plenipo- 
tentiary from France in London, was proved upon a trial had in the King's Bench, 
in an action to recover wagers as to his sex, to be a woman^ July 1, 1777. He 
snbeequently wore female attire for many years ; yet at his death, in London, in 
1810, it was manifest, by the dissection of his body, and other undoubted evidence, 
that be was of the male sex. — Biog, Diet, 

CHICHESTER. This city was built by Cissa, about a.d. 540. The cathedral was 
erected in 1115, and having been burnt with the city in 1186, was rebuilt by bishop 
Seffric in 1 187. The bishopric of Chichester originated in this way : Wilfrida, third 
archbishop of York, having been obliged to flee his country by Egfrid, king of 
Northnmberland, came and preached the gospel in this country, and built a church 
in the Isle of Selsey, about a.d. 673. In 681, Selsey became a bishopric, and so 
continued until Stigand, the twenty-third bishop, had it removed to Chichester, then 
called Cissan-Caester, from its builder, Cissa, a.d. 1071. This see has yielded to 
the church two saints ; and to the nation three lord chancellors. It is valued in the 
king's books at £677 U. Zd, per annum. 

CHI C 133 D CBI 

CHILDREN. Most of the ancient nations had the nnnatnral custom of ezposing thdr 
infants — the Egyptians on the banks of liTers, and the Greeks on highways — when 
they coold not support or educate them ; in such cases they were taken care of, and 
humanely protected by the state. The custom which long preriously existed of 
English parents selling their children to the Irish for slaves, was prohibited in the reign 
of Canute, about 1017. — Mat, Paris. At Darien, it was the practice when a widow 
died, to bury with her, in the same grave, such of her children as were unable, from 
their tender years, to take care of themselTCS. And in some parts of China, nipo^ 
stition has lent her hand to sanction the horrid deed of offering infants to the spirit 
of an adjoining rirer, first attaching a gourd to their necks to prevent their imme> 
diately drowning. 

CHILI. Discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conquerors of Pern, a.d. 1535. 
Almagro crossed the CoiSilleras, and the natives, regarding the Spaniards on thdr 
first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected for them gold and silver, amounting to 
290,000 ducats, a present which led to the subsequent cruelties and rapacity of the 
invaders. ChiU was subdued, but not wholly, in 1546. The Chilisians fought for 
liberty at various times, and with various success, until 1817, when, by the deciiife 
victory gained by San Martin, over the royal forces, Feb. 12, in that year, the pro- 
vince was released from its oppressors, and declared independent. 

C H ILTERN HUNDREDS. An estate of the crown on the chain of chalk hills that psa 
from east to west through the middle of Buckinghamshire, the stewardship whereof 
is a nominal office, conferred on members of parliament when they wish to vacate 
their seats, as, by accepting an office under the crown, a member becomes disquali- 
fied, unless he be again returned by his constituents : this custom has essted 
time immemorial. 

CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in use previous to the invention of chimneji, 
which were first introduced into these countries in a.d. 1200, when they were con- 
fined to the kitchen and lai^ hall. The family sat round a stove, the funnel of 
which passed through the ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys were general in domestic archi- 
tecture in 1310. The ancients made use of stoves, although Octavio Ferrari affirmi 
that chimneys were in use among them ; but this is disputed. Act to regulste the 
trade of chimney sweeping, 28 George III. 1789. Statute repealing this act, and 
regulating the trade, the apprenticeship of children, the construction of fines, pre- 
venting udling *' sweep ** in the streets, &c. 4 William IV., July, 1834. By the act 
5 Victoria, Aug. 1840, it is not lawful for master sweeps to take apprentices under 
sixteen years of age $ and from July 1, 1842, no individual under twenty-one is to 
ascend a chimney. 

CHINA. This empire is very ancient, and the Chinese assert that it existed many 
thousands of years before Noah's flood ; but it is allowed by some authorities to hsfs 
commenced about 2500 years before the birth of Christ. By others it is said to 
have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of the Bible, 2240 b.c. We 
are told that the Chinese knew the periods of the sun, moon, and planets, and were 
acute astronomers, in the reign of Yao, which is set down 2357 b.c. But dates 
cannot be relied upon until towards the close of the seventh century, b.c. when the 
history of China becomes more distinct. In the battle between Phraates and the 
Scythians 129 b.c, the Chinese aided the latter, and afterwards ravaged the countries 
on the coasts of the Caspian, which is their first appearance in history. — LengleU 

Religion of Tao-tse commeacod . ax. U 
Religion of the followers of Fo, com- 
menced about . . A.a 10 
Embaray from Rome . . . MS 
Nankin beoomce the capital . 410 
The atheistical philoeopher, Fai^-fihln, 

flourishes 4tf 

The Nestiirian Christians pennltted to 

preach their doctrines . SK 

They are proscribed, and extirpated . M5 
The itAt of the imperial government li 

transferred to Pekin * . . IflO 

Wonderful canal, called the Tn Ho, 

completed about .... 1400 
Europeans first arrive at Canton . . 1017 

The Chinese state their first cycle to have 
commenced . . . . bc. 2700 

The first of the 22 Chinese dynasties 
commenced 8S07 

In the history of China, the first dates 
which are fixed to his narrative^ by 
8e-ma-tsien, begin . . . . 651 
Confucius, the father of the Chinese phi- 
losophers, bom . . .Ml 
Stupendous wall of China completed .. Sll 
The dynasty of Uan ... 806 
Literature and the art of printing encou- 
raged S08 


C 122* ] 


UNA, MfiiuMMdL 

Xmm to gnntod as a MttkmaBt to the 

JmbU miarifoaarlaf H« HBt t^ th* pope 


TKTtarib wlio twtaWtoh tbo pnMnt 

rdgning houie 1644 

An oarthqaako thxoaghoiit Chimi IrariM 

aofVOOOpanonsatPeklBalQno . .100 
jMnit mlirtimriea cndcaTonr to orta- 

Uidi Chrtotiaiilty . .1609 

The Jaauita ara azpdled thxoo|^ their 

own miioandaot .... 17M 
Another scneral earthquake dettroya 
MNVOOO peraoaaatFddD,aad8(M)OOin 

a aahorb 1731 

In a aalute by one of our India ahlpa in 
China, a loaded gun waa InadTwrtcntly 
llred« which klUed a native ; the go. 
Tenunent demanded the gunner to he 
fiTen up; he waa aoon atraogledw— 
Bir Oto, SUnmion . July i, 1785 

Bart Maoartneyli embaaqr ; he leavea 

&igland . Sept. 96. 1789 

BearriTeo at Peidn ; hto reception by 

the emperor . Sept. 14* 1799 

Ha to ordered to depart from Pdcin, 

Oct. 7. 1793 
And arrirea in England 8ept6» 1794 

The affair of the Company^ ihlp Nej^- 

tunt, when a Chineae waa killed . 1807 
Bdiot againat Chriatianlty . . 1819 

Lord Amherafa emhaaqr; he leayea 
Bni^and Feb. 8, 1816 

[His lordahip failed in the objects of 
hto mjaaioin, haring reftiaed to make 
the proatration of the kau-tou, lest he 
dumld thereby oompromlae the nu^ea- 
ty of England.] 
Hie ezduaiTe righta of the Eaat-India 

Craapany cease . April 29, 1834 

FInt free-trade ahlps^ with tea, set sail 

for England . April 95, 1834 

Lord Napi0 arrirea at Maoao, to super- 
intend Britiah oommoroe . July 15, 1834 
Affair b et ween the natirea and two Bri- 
tiah ahipe of war; aereral Chineae 
killed .... Sept 5, 1834 
Lord Napier dlee, and to snooeeded hy 

Hr. DaTto Oct. 11, 1834 

Opium trade interdicted by the Chineee 

Not. 7, 1834 
flaisare of the Arg^U and her crew by 

the natirea Jan. 31, 1835 

A quantity of opium bomt at Canton hy 

the Chineee Feb. 93, 1835 

Gapt. ElUot beoomea chief British com- 

mlsatoner Dec 14, 1836 

Admiral air Frederick Maitland arrirea 
at Macao July 19, 1838 

[The erenta eonnected with this em- 
pire, relatirely to Great Britain, now 
Inoreaae in Importance.] 
Commissioner Lin iasnea an edict for 

the asianre of ophun . March 18, 1839 
Britiah and other resldenta forbidden to 

leare Canton . . March 19, 1830 

The factortoa aorronnded, andoutragea 
oonmltted . March 94, 1830 

Gapt. RUIot requires of British snbjecta 
their soneader to him of all opium, 
promiaing them, on the part of gorem- 
ment,thefnllTalueof It . March 9/, 1830 

Half of the opium to giren up, aa a con* 
traband articles to the Chineee antho- 
rltiea .... April 20, lav 

The remainder of the opium (90.283 
ohests) to surrendered May 91, 1830 

Oapt Elliot and the Britiah merehanta 
leare Canton . May 94, 1830 

The opium deetroyed during serend days 
by the Chineee June 3. 1838 

Allkir between the British and Ameri- 
can aaimen and the Chineae ; a natire 
killed .... July7> 1830 

Capt ElUot learaa Maoao for Hong- 
Kong .... Aug. S3. 1830 

The British boat BUUk Joke attacked by 
the natirea, and the crew, consisting 
of Lasoara. murdered Aug. 94, 1830 

The whole of the British merchants re- 
tire from Macao . Aug. 96. 1830 

AflUr at Kow-4ung between British 
boats and Chinese junks . Sept. 4, 1830 

Attack by 98 armed Jnnkaon the British 
frigates Volage and HifoHnth / sereral 
Junks blown up . . . Nor. 3, 1830 

The Britiah trade with China ceases, by 
an edict of the emperor, and the last 
aerrant of the company leares the 
country thto day Dec. 6. 1830 

Edict of the emperor interdicting all 
trade and intercourse with England 
for erer .... Jan. 5, 1840 

The HelUu ship attacked by a number 
of armed Junka . May 99. 1840 

Flre-mf ta floated in order to destroy the 
British fleet . June 9, 1840 

Blockade of Canton by a British fleet of 
15 sail and sereral war steamers, bar- 
ing 4,000 troope on board by orders 
from sir Gordon Bremer . June 28. 1840 

The BUmde, bearing a flag of truock to 
flredonatAmoy July 9, 1840 

Ting-hal, In the ialand of Chuaan, sur- 
renders to the British July 5^ 1840 

An eztensire blockade to eatabiiahed 
along the Chineee coast . July 10. 1840 

Seizure of Mr. Stanton, who to carried 
off to Canton . . Aug. 6, 1840 

Capt. Elliot, on board a Britiah ateam- 
ship, enters the Pei-ho rirer, near Pe- 
kin Aug. 11, 1840 

The ship Kite lost on a aand-bank, and 
the captain'a wife and part of the crew 
are captured hy the natirea, and cou' 
flned in cagea . . Sept 15^ 1840 

Seiaure of Capt Anatruther . Sept. 16, 1840 

Lin deprired of hto authority, and 
finally degraded; Keshin appointed 
Imperial commisaioner . Sept 16, 1840 

Capt BUiot dedarea a truce with the 

Chineae .... Nor. 6, 1840 
Britiah plenipotcntlariea aail horn C*hu- 

aan. and arrire off Maoao Nor. 90. 1840 
Admiral Elliot'a reaignatlon to an- 
nounced .... Nor. 29, 1840 
Mr. Stanton leleaaed . . Deo. 19, 1840 


[ 122**] 


CHINA, eontinued, 

Negotiailoiu oeaae^ owing to breaidiM of 
folth on the part of the diineee empe- 
ror ... . Jan. 6; 1841 

Chuen-pe and Tae-ooo-tow, end 173 gune 
(eome wnt to England), oaptured by 
the British . . Jan. 7, 1841 

Hong-Kong ceded by Kediin to Great 
Britain, and 6,000,000 doDars agreed to 
be paid within ten daye to the Britidi 
authoritiee . Jan. 80, 1841 

Formal poa§eerian of Hong-KoDg taken 
bytheBritieh . Jan. 88, 1841 

Imperial edict from Pddn njecting the 
eonditiona of the treaty made by Ke- 
shin .... Feb. 11, 1841 

Hostilitiee are in consequence resumed 
against the Chinese Feb. 23, 1841 

Chuaan evacuated Feb. 84, 1841 

Rewards proclaimed at Canton for the 
bodies of Englishmen, dead or alire ; 
50,0(N) dolUrs to be girsn for ring- 
leaders and chiefs . Feb. S5, 1841 

Boguo forts taken by sir Gordon Bre- 
mer; admiral Kwan killed, and 450 
guns captured Feb. 86, 1841 

The British squadron proceeds up the 
river of Canton . March 1, 1841 

Sir Hugh Gough takes the command of 
the army . March 2; 1841 

Hostilities again suspended March 3, 1841 

And again resumed . March 6, 1841 

Keahin degraded by the emperor, and 
arrested . . March 12, 1841 

Flotilla of boats destroyed, Canton 
threatened, the foreign factories sciacd, 
and 461 guns taken, by the British 
forces .... March 18, 1841 

Now comntissloners from Pekln arrive 
at Canton . April 14, 1841 

The first number of the Hong-Kong Oa- 
aeiU published . . May 1, 1841 

Capt. Elliot again prepares to attack 

Chinese attack the British ships with 
fircrafts . . May 21. 1841 

Operations against Canton May 24, 1841 

Heights behind Canton taken, and 04 
guns captured May2ff, 1841 

The city ransomed for 6,000,000 dollars, 
of which 5,ooi),000 are paid down, and 
hostilities cease . May 31, 1841 

BritiHh forces withdrawn June 1, 1841 

British trade reopened July 10, 1B41 

Arrival at Macao of sir Henry Pottin- 
ger, who, as plenipotentiary, pro- 
claims the objects of his mission ; 
capt. Elliot supOTScded . Aug. l(^ 1841 

Amoy taken, and 296 guns found and 
destroyed . Aug. 27. 1841 

The Bogue forts destroyed . Sept. 14, 1841 

The city of Tiog-hae taken, 136 guns 
captured, and the island of Chusan re- 
occupied by the British . Oct. 1. 1841 

Chin-hae token, with 157 guns ; many of 
them brass . . Oct. 10, 1841 

Ning-po taken . . . Oct. 13, 1841 

Tu-yaou. Tsze>kce, and Foong*hua car- 
ried by the Briti«h . . Dec 28, 1841 

Chinese force of 12,000 men attack 

May 17. 1841 

Ningpo and Chin-hM, and are repulsed 
with great leas . March la IMi 

8,000 Chinese are nmted with consider- 
able loss near Tsae-kee . March IJ», 1M2 

Cha-pon attacked, and its defences de- 
stroyed, 45 guna taken May 18. ISti 

The British squadron enter the great 
river Kiang . June 13. 1842 

Capture of Wooanng, and of 830 gnus 
and Btona . June 16, IM2 

The town of Shang-hae taken June 19, 18ti 

The British fleet advance farther up the 
river .... July & ISU 

The whole British armament anchor 
near the *< Golden Isle** . Jnly2u,ll4i 

City of Chin-Keang taken ; the Tartar 
general and many of the garrison eom- 
mit sofelda . July 21, 1«3 

The advanced British ships reach the 
dty of Nankin Aug. 4. IStt 

The whole fleet arrivasb and the disem- 
barkation oommenoes Aug. 9. ISti 

Keying arrives at 2Canldn, with ftdl 
powers from the emperor, with the 
sincere object of treating with tlis 
British for peace . Aug. 12, IStt 

First interview of the respective pleni- 
potentiaries on board H. M. SL Com- 
teaUu, held . . Aiig.2a,l8ti 

Sir Henry Pottinger, sir Hugh Gough, 
and sir WiUiam Parker, visit ths 
Chinese authorities on shore Aug. 24, 184> 

Treaty of peace signed before Nankia 
on board the Cornwallis by sir Ueniy 
Pottinger for En^and, and Keying 
Elopoo and Neu^Kien on the part of 
the Chhiess emperor . . Aug. 29, IMI 
ooNoinoffs or thb tbsatt. 

Lasting peace and friendship between 
the two empires. 

China to pay 21,000,000 of ^dUars, pert 
forthwith and the remainder within 
tliree years. 

The ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-cfaoo- 
foo, Ning-po, and Shang-hae to be 
thrown open to the British. 

Consuls to reside at theee cities. 

Tariffs of import and export to be esta. 

Hong-Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to 
her Britannic Majesty, and htf heLra 
and successors. 

Subjects of England, whether native or 
Indian, to be unconditionally released 
in China. 

Act of full amnesty, under the empe. 
ror's own seal and sign-manual to all 
Chinese to be published. 

Correspondence between the two govern- 
ments to bo conducted on terms of 
perfect equality. 

The British forces to withdraw fitnn 
Nankin, the Grand Canal, and Chin- 
hae, on the treaty receiving the em- 
peror's signature ; but 

The islands of Chusan and Ku-Iang-so 
to be held by the British until the 
money payments have been com- 
pleted, and other provisions fulfilled. 

CHI C 123 2 CHI 

CHINA, eonHnusd, 

The emperog rignfflw hit aaaant to tha . Appointment of Mr. Darii It gaaettad 

in England, in the room of sir Henry 
Pottinger, who hms signified his wbh 
to redgn .... Feb. 16, 1M4 


The following is • list of those who have 
reigned for the laet two centoriea: — 

Chwang-lei 1087 

Shun-che 1644 

iCang-he I(i69 

Yong-ohlng 16»3 

Keen-long 1736 

Kea-ding 1796 

Taou-kwang (present emperor) . 1821 

conditions .... Sept. 8^ 1842 

Grand seal of Kngland affixed to the 
treaty .... Dec. 31, 1842 

The ratifications signed by queen Vic- 
toria and the emperor respectirely, are 
formally exchanged . July28» 1843 

The commercial treaty between the two 
empires is annomiced as finally ad- 
Jostad ; and Canton opened by an im- 
perial edict to the British . July 27, 1843 

[The other ports, according to the stipu- 
lations, to be opened as soon as edicts 
from the emperor are receired.] 

The queen congratulates parliament on 
the termination of the war, and its 
aospioious oonsequencee Feb. 1, 1844 

The embaity of lord Macartnej haf thrown some light on the political circom- 
stancet of this empire : it appears that it is dirided into 15 proyioces, containing 4402 
waUed dtiea ; the population of the whole country is giTen at 333,000,000 ; its annual 
rerennei jf 66,000,000 ; and the army, including the Tartars, 1,000,000 of infantry, 
and 800,000 caralry ; the religion is Pagan, and the gOTcmment is absolute. Learn- 
ing, with the arts and sciences in general, are encouraged, and ethics are studied pro- 
foandly, and influence the manners of the people. Our new intercourse with China 
will soon correct our information and improTe our knowledge relative to it, and 
acquaint us with its moral economy and power, details highly essential to our com- 
merce, and now, for the first time, accessible to European nations. 

CHINA PORCELAIN. This manufacture is first mentioned in history in 1531 ; it 
was introduced into England so early as the sixteenth century. Porcelain was made 
at Dresden in 1706 ; fine ware in England, at Chelsea, in 1752 ; at Bow in 1758 ; 
in Tarious other parts of England, about 1760 ; and by the ingenious Josiah Wedg- 
wood, who much improved the British manufacture, in Staffordshire, 1762 et seq. 

CHINA ROSE, AND CHINESE APPLE. The rose, a delicate and beautiful flower, 
called the Rosa Jndieot was brought to these countries from China, and after vari- 
o«s failures, planted in England, with success, in 1786. The Chinese apple-tree, or 
P$fru$ tpectabilitj was brought to England about 1 780. Some few other plants 
were introduced from the same empire in successive years from this time. — See 
Plowersy FruUi, Gardening^ ^c. 

CHINESE ERAS. They are very numerous, fabulous, and mythological. Like the 
Chaldeans, they represent the world as having existed some hundreds of thousands 
of years ; and their annals and histories record events said to have occurred, and 
name phUosophers and heroes said to have lived, more than 27,000 years ago. By 
their odculation of time, which must, of course, differ essentially from ours, they 
date the commencement of their empire 41,000 years b.c. — Abbi Lenglet. 

CHINESE TARIFF. Arranged between sir Henry Pottinger and the high commis- 
sioners of the emperor, and proclaimed 27th July, 1843. The Ist condition relates 
to pilotage ; 2d, to custom-house officers; 3d, to masters of ships ; 4th, to com- 
mercial dealings between merchants of both nations ; 5tb, to tonnage duties ; Cth, 
to the duties on specified goods ; 7th, to the mode of examining cargoes ; 8th, to 
the species of money to be respectively interchanged ; 9th, to standard weights and 
measures; 10th, to the employment of boats and lighters ; 11th, to the tranship- 
ment of wares ; 12th, to sub-consular officers over seamen ; 13th, to disputes between 
British and Chinese subjects ; 14th, to British cruisers ; 15th, to consular security for 
British vessels. The tariff includes almost every species of goods sod merchandise. 

CHIPPAWA, Battlbs or. In the late American war, the British forces under general 
Riall were defeated by the Americans under general Browne, July 5, 1814. The 
Americans were defeated by the British, commanded by generals Drummond and 
Riall, but the latter was wounded in the action, and taken prisoner, July 25, following. 

CHIVALRY. Began in Europe about a.d. 912. From the twelfth to the fifteenth cen- 
tury it had a considerable influence in refining the manners of most of the nations 
of Europe. The knight swore to accomplish the duties of his profession, as the 
champion of Grod and the ladies. He devoted himself to speak the truth, to main- 
tain the right, to protect the distressed, to practise courtesy, to fulfil obligations, and 

OHI Q 124 ] CHR 

to Tindioate, in eTery periloni adrentiire, his honour and character. Chivalry, vfaidi 
owed its origin to the fendal system, expired with it. — Robertson ; Gibbon. 

CHIVALRY, Court or. It was commonly after the lie-direct had been given, that 
combats took place in the conrt of chivalry. By letters patent of James I. the eiri- 
marshal of England had ** the like jorisdiction in the court of chivalry, when the ofice 
of lord high constable was vacant, as this latter and the marshal did jointly ezerdse," 
1623. The following entries are found in the pipe-roll of 31 Henry I., the date d 
which has beoi txA by the labours of the record conunission : — '* Robert Fiti- 
Seward renders account of fifteen marks of silver, for the office and to{fe of Hogk 
Chivill. Paid into the exchequer four pounds. And he owes six pounds ;" p. &3. 
*' William de Hocton renders account of ten marks of gold that he may lune tin 
wife of Geojfrey de Faucre in marriage^ with her land, and may have her son ia 
custody until he is of age to become a knight ; he paid into the exdiequer ten maitf 
of gold, and is discharged.'' — Pari, ReporU, 

CHOCOLATE, first introduced into Europe from Mexico about a.d.1520. It is the 
flour of the cocoa-nut, and makes a wholesome beverage* much used in Spain. It 
was sold in the London coffee-houses soon after their establishment, 1650. — Teikr, 

CHOIR. The choir was separated from the nave of the church in the time of Con- 
stantine. The choral service was first used in England at Canterbury, a.d. 677. 
This service had been previously in use at Rome about 602. — See Chaunting. The 
Choragus was the superintendsjit of the ancient chorus. — WarburUm, 

CHOLERA MORBUS. This fatal disease, known in its more malignant form ss the 
Indian cholera, after having made great ravages in many countries of the oortfa, 
east, and south of Europe, and in the countries of Asia, where alone it had carried off 
more than 900,000 persons in its progress within two years, made its first appearance 
in England, at Sunderland, October 26, 1831. Prodamation, ordering all vwkU 
from Sunderland to London, to perform quarantine at the Nore, December 4, 1831. 
Cholera first appeared in Edinburgh, Feb. 6, 1832. First observed at Rotherhithe 
and Limehouse, London, February 13 ; and in Dublin, March 3, same year. The 
mortality was very great, but more so on the Continent ; the deatha by cholera ia 
Paris were 18,000 between March and August, 1832. Cholera again raged in Room, 
the Two Sicilies, Genoa, Berlin, &c. in July and August, 1837. 

CHORUSSES. Singing in this manner was invented at Athens. Sterichorus, whose 
real name was Tysias, received this appellative from his having been the first who 
taught the chorus to dance to the lyre, 556 b.c. — Quintil, Inst, Orat, Hypodicas, 
of Chalcidss carried off the prize for the best voice, 508 B.C. — Parian Marbles, 

CHRISM. CoDsecrated oil was used early in the ceremonies of the Roman and Chedc 
churches. Musk, saffron, cinoamon, roses, and frankincense are mentioned as used 
with the oil, in a.d. 1541. But it was ordained that chrism should consist of oil 
and balsam only ; the one representing the human nature of Christ, and the other 
his divine nature. — 1596. 

CHRIST. See Jxsus Christ. This name, so universally given to the Redeemer of 
the world, signifies, in Greek, The Anointed^ being the same with Messiah in the 
Hebrew, which the Jews called that Saviour and Deliverer whom they expected, and 
who was promised to them by all the prophets. This appellation is commonly pit 
to our Jbsus (signifying Saviour)^ the name of the great ol^ect of our frith, and 
divine author of our religion. St. Clement, the earliest father, according to St 
Epiphanius, fixes the birth of Christ on the 18th of November, in the 28th year of 
Augustus, i, e, two years before the Christian era as adopted in the sixth oentory. 
Cerinthus was the first Christian writer against the divinity of Christ, about a.d. 67. 
The divinitv of Christ was adopted at the council of Nice, in a.d. 325, by two 
hundred and ninety-nine bishops against eighteen. 

CH RISTS HOSPITAL. A noble institution which is indebted for iU establishment to 
the piety of Edward VI. 1552. A mathematical ward was founded by Charles IL» 
and the city of London and community of England have contributed to render it a 
neat, extensive, and richly endowed charity. Large portions of the edifice having 
nllen into decay, have been lately rebuilt ; in 1822 a new infirmary was completed, and 
in 1825 (April 28) the late duke of York hdd the first stone of the magnificent new bsU. 

CHRIST'S-THORN. This shrub came hither firom the south of Europe, before 1596. 
Supposed to be the plant firomwhich our Saviour's crown of thorns vrai composed. 

CHR [] 125 ] CHR 

CHRISTIAN. Thitnmmewu fint given to the belieTen and foUowen of Chrikt'h 
doctrines at Antioch, in Syria, AetM zi. 26^ in the year 38 , according to Butler ; 
in the year 40, according to Taeihu ; and according to other authorities in the year 
60. inie first Christians were diridal into episcopoi, presbyteroi, diaconoi, pistoi, 
ratarhnmffns, or leamerSy and eneiiganiens who were to be exorcised. 

CHRISTIAN ERA. The era which is nsed by almost all Christian nations ; it dates 
from January Ist, in the middle of the fourth year of the 194th Olympiad, in the 
753rd of the building of Rome, and 4714th of the Julian period. It was first 
introduced in the sixth century, but was not Tery generally employed for some 
eenturies after. We style the Christian era a.d. 1. It was first used in modem 
diionology in 516. 

CHRISTIAN KING ; Most Christian Kino ; Chrisiianistimu*. This title was 
given by pope Paul II. to Louis XI. of France in 1469 ; and never was a distinction 
more unworthily conferred. His tyranny and oppressions obliged his subjects to 
enter into a league against him ; and 4,000 persons were executed publicly or 
privately in his merciless reign. — Henault ; Fleury, 

CHRISTIANITY. Founded by the Sariour of the worid. The persecutions of the 
Christians commenced a.d. 64.~ See Persecutums. Christianity was first taught in 
Britain about this time; and it was propagated with some success in 156. — Bed€. 
Locins is said to have been the first Christian king of Britain, and in the world : he 
reigned in 179. But the era of Christianity in England commenced with the 
mission of St. Austin in 596, from which time it spread rapidly throughout the 
whole of Britain*. It was introduced into Ireland in the second century, but with 
more success after the arrival of St. Patrick in 432. It was received in Scotland 
in tlie reign of Donald I. about 201, when it was embraced by that king, his queen, 
and some of his nobility. 

Odnslantine th«Oreat made his solemn de- 
claratiim of the Christian religion, ajk 312 

Christianity was established in France 
mMler CluTis the Great . . 490 

la Helvetia, by Irish misrionaries . 643 

In Flanders in the serenth century. 

In Denmarlc, under Harold . . 887 

In Bohemia, under Borximl . 894 

In Russia, I^Swiatoslaf . . . MO 

In Poland, under MeiclslansL . 903 

In Hungary, under Geisa . . 994 

In Norway and Iceland, under Olaf L . 1000 

Christianity was propagated in various parts of Africa, as Guinea, Angola, and 
Congo, in the fifteenth century ; and in America and India it made some progress in 
the aizteenth, and now rapidly gains ground in all parts of the world. 

CHRISTMAS-DAY. A festival of the church, universally observed in commemoration 
of tlie nativity of our Sariour. It has been denominated Christ-ina««, from the 
uipellatiTe Christ haring been added to the name of Jesus to express that he was 
the Messiah, or The Anointed, It was first observed as a festival a.o. 98. Ordered 
to be held as a solemn feast, and Divine service to be performed on the 25th of 
December, by pope Telesphorus, about a.d. 137 f. In the eastern primitive church, 
Christmas and the Epiphany {tehich eee) were deemed but one and the same feast ; 
and to this day the church universally keeps a continued feast within those limits. 
The holly and misletoe used at Christmas are remains of the religious observances of 
the Druids, and so with many other like customs. 

* It Is Mid that Gregory the Great, shortly before his elevation to the papal chair, chanced one 
day to pass through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some children of great beauty who 
wen set up for sale, he enquired about their country, and finding they were English Pagans, he is 
said to have cried out, in the Latin language, '* If on Angli, ted AngeH,/orent, si ettent Christiani," 
that is, ** they would not be English, but angels, if they were Christians." From that time he was 
atrack with an ardent desire to conver t that unenlightened nation, and ordered a monk, named 
Aaatln. or Anguatin, and othera of the same fraternity, to undertake the mission to Britain in the 
ymr am^-OeldemitM, 

t Diodatlan, the Boman emperor, keeping his court at Nioomedia, being informed that the Chris- 
tlaM ware aaa«nbled on thia day In great multitudes to celebrate Christ's nativity, ordered the doora 
to be abut, and the diundi to be set on fire, and aix hundred perished in the burning pile. This was 
the eeaomsBoanMnt of the tenth peraecution, which laated ten years, a.d. 303. 

In Sweden, between 10th and 11th centuriea. 

In Prussia, by the Teutonic knights, 
when they were returning from the 
holy wars . ad. 1^ 

In Lithuania, where Paganism waa abo- 
lished, about 1.188 

In China, where it made some progma 
(but waa afterwards extirpated, and 
thousands of Chinese Christians were 
put to death) . * . . . 1575 

In Greece, where It was once more re- 
established 1688 


Creation of Adam . . . b.c. 4004 

DeluKO 2348 

Death of Abraham 1831 

Drownintr of Pharaoh .... 1491 

Death of Joshua 1443 

Death of Darid lOlA 

CHR C ^^^ 1 ^^^ 

CHRISTMAS ISLAND. So named bj Captun Cook, who landed hereon Christaa 
day, 1777. Captain Cook bad paieed Christmas day at Christmas Sonnd, 1774. 

CHRONICLES. The eariiest chronicles are those of the Chinese, Hindoos, Jeirs,ind 
perhaps those of the Irish. After the invention of writing, all well-informed natjooi 
appear to have kept chroniclers^ who were generally priests or astrologers, and wiio 
mingled popular legends with tfa«ir records. — Phiilipt. 

CHRONOLOGY. The Chinese pretend to the most ancient, bat upon no oertuB 
authority. The most authentic, to which all Europe gives credit, is the Jewish ; bat 
owing to the negligence of the Jews, they have creat^ abundance of diflicaltia is 
this science, and very little certainty can be arrived at as to the exact time of mnj 
memorable events. The earliest epoch is the creation of the world, 4004 i.c 
Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, was the first Christian chronologist, about a.d. 169. 
See the different eras through the volume. 

Division of the kingdom b e t wee n the 

Ten Tribea and Two .MJcfH 

DiJ9>er8ion of the Ten Tribea . 721 

Captivity of the Two . . . CK 

Return of the Two from Babylon . • 5K 
Death of Judaa Maccabeus . . 161 

United to the Roman Empire . 9 

CHUNAR, Treaty of. Concluded between the nabob of Oude and governor Hastio^ 
by which the nabob was relieved of all his debts to the East India Company, od 
condition of his seizing the property of the Begums, his mother and grandmotber, 
and delivering it up to the English : this treaty also enabled the nabob to take 
possession of the lands of FyzooUa Khan, a RohiUa chief, who had escaped from • 
recent massacre, and had settled at Rampoor, under guarantee of the English. Os 
this occasion the Nabob made a present to Mr. Hastings of :£100,000, September 
19, 1781. See Hastings, Warren, Trial of . 

CHURCH. It is said that a church was built for Christian worship in the firtk 
century ; and some will have it that one was built in England, a.d. 60. See Gist' 
tonbury. In the small island of Whitehom, Scotland, are the remains of an anciat 
church, which was the first place of Christian worship, it is believed, in that cooatry, 
and supposed to have been built before the cathedral at Whitehom, in WigtonshirCf 
where Nenian was bishop in the fourth century. The Christians originally presched 
in woods, and in caves, by candle-light, whence the practice of candle-light in diurchcs. 
Most of the early churches were of wood. The first church of stone was bult is 
London, in 1087. The first Irish church of stone was built at Bangor, in the county 
of Down, by Malachy, archbishop of Armagh, who was prelate in 1134. — Goriae^t 
Ireland, Church towers were originally parochial fortresses. Church-yards wcR 
permitted in cities in 742. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, (the present). Commenced with the ReformatioD, sad 
was formally established in the reign of Henry VIII. 1534. This church oonsiiti 
of two archbishops and twenty-four bishops, exclusively of that of Sodor and Ifsn ; 
and the other dignitaries are chancellors, deans (of cathedrals and collegiate churchei)i 
archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor canons, and priest vicars ; these, and tlie 
incumbents of rectories, vicarages, and chapelries, make the number of paSef 
ments of the established church, according to the last official returns, 12,327. T^ 
number of churches for Protestant worship in England was 11,742 in 1818; sad 
the commissioners for building and promoting the building of aidditional churchei, 
report the number of new churches to be 258 up to 1841. The new act for building 
and enlarging churches was passed 9 George IV. 1828. The Church-building 
Amendment act was passed 2 Victoria, August 1838. 

CHURCH OF IRELAND. Called, in connexion with that of EngUnd, the United 
Church of England and Ireland. Previously to the Church Temporalities Act of 
William IV. in 1833, there were four archbishoprics and eighteen bishoprics is 
Ireland, of whirh several have since ceased ; that act providing for the union of sees, 
and for the abolition of certain sees, accordingly as the present possessors of tbcm 
die. There are 1,G59 places of Protestant worship, 2,109 Catholic chapels, 452 
Presbyterian, and 4 1 4 other houses of prayer. See Benefices ; Bishops. 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. Presbyterianism is the reUgion of Scotland. Its diftin- 
guishing tenets seem to have been first embodied in the formulary of faith attributed 

CHU [ 127 ] CIR 

to John Knox, and compiled by that reformer in 1560. It was approved by the 
parliament and ratified in 1567 ; was finally settled by an act of the Scottish senate in 
1696, and was afterwards secured by the treaty of union with England in 1707. 
Preriously to the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland in 1688, there existed two 
archbiahoprici and twelve bishoprics, which were then dissolved ; but there are now 
•ix bishops. The Church of Scotland is regulated by four courts— the General As- 
nemhlj, the Synod, the Presbytery, and Kirk Session. — See PrtMbyUrtaut, 

CHURCH MUSIC. Was introduced into the Christian church by Gregory the Great, in 
A.o. 602. Choir service was first introduced in England, at Canterbury, in 677. 
Church organs were in general use in the tenth century. Church music was first 
performed in English in 1559. See Choir ; Chaunting. 

CHURCH- WARDENS. Officers of the parish church, appointed by the first canon 
of the synod of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish were also appointed by 
the same body, and they continue now nearly as then constituted. — JohnsorCa Canont. 

CHURCHING or WOMEN. It originated in the Jewish rite of purification, a. d. 
214. Churching is the act of returning thanks in the church for any signal deliver- 
ance, and particularly after the delivery of women. — Wheatley. It was a Jewish 
law that a woman should keep within her house forty days after her lying iut if she 
had a son, and eighty if she had a daughter, at the expiration whereof she was to go 
to the temple, and ofier a lamb with a young pigeon or turtle, and in case of poverty, 
two pigeons or turtles. — See Purification, 

CIDER. Anciently this beverage, when first made in England, was called wine, about 
A.D. 1284. When the eari of Manchester was ambassador in France, he is said to 
have frequently passed off cider upon the nobility of that country for a delicious 
wine. It was made subject to the excise regulations of sale in 1763, etaeq, A 
powerful spirit is drawn from cider by distillation. — Butler, 

CIMBRI. The war of the Cimbri, 113 B.C. They defeat the consul Marcus Silanus, 
109 B.C. They defeat the Romans under Manlius, on the banks of the Rhine, 
where 80,000 Romans are slain, 105 b.c. The Teutones are defeated by Marius in 
two battles at Aquc Sextiie (Aix) in Gaul, 200,000 are killed, and 70,000 made 
prisoners, 102 b.c. The Cimbri are defeated by Marius and Catullus as they were 
again endeavouring to enter Italy ; 120,000 are killed, and 60,000 taken prisoners, 
101 B.C. Their name afterwards sunk in that of the Teutones or Saxons. 

CINCINNATI SOCIETY. A society established in America soon after the peace of 
1783 ; it arose among the army, and was advancing rapidly, but owing to the 
jealousy which it produced on the part of the people, who had just accomplished their 
freedom, and who dreaded the influence of an army, the officers gave up the society. 

CINNAMON TRADE. The cinnamon tree is a species of laurel, and a native of 
Ceylon: the trade was commenced by the Dutch in 1506 ; but cinnamon had been 
known in the time of Augustus Csesar, and even long before. It is mentioned 
among the perfumes of the sanctuary, Exodus xxx. 23. It was found in the American 
forests, by Don Ulloa, in 1736. The true tree of Ceylon was cultivated in Jamaica 
and Dominica by transplantation in 1788. 

CINQUE PORTS. They were originally five— Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, 
and Sandwich ; Winchelsea and Rye have since been added. Their jurisdiction 
was vested in barons, called wardens, for the better security of the English coast, 
tiieae ports being the nearest points to France, and considered the keys of the 
kingdom; instituted by William I. in 1078. — Bapin, They are governed by a 
paitienlar policy, and are under a lord warden ; the duke of Wellington being lord 
warden m 1841. 

CINTRA, CONTENTION of. The memorable and disgraceful convention concluded 
between the British army, under sir Hew Dalrymple, and the French under marshal 
Junot ; by this compact the defeated French army and its chief were allowed to 
evacuate Portugal in British ships, carrying with them all their ill-gotten spoil ; 
signed the day after the battle of Vimeira, Aug. 22, 1808. A court of inquiry was 
held at Chelsea, Nov. 17, same year, and the result was a formal declaration by the 
king strongly condemning the terms of the convention. 

CIRCASSIA. The Circassians are descended from the Alanians. They continued 
unsobdoed, even by the arms of the celebrated Timur ; but in the sixteenth century 

K 2 

CIR [ 12S 2 CIR 

the greater part of them acknowledged the authority of the Csar, Ivan II. of 
About A. D. 1745, the princes of Great and Little Kabarda took oaths of fealty totlut 
power. One branch of their traffic is the sale of their daughters, Aimed throogihoiit the 
world for their beauty, and whom they sell for the use of the seraglios of Turkey 
and Persia : the merchants who come from Constantinople to purchase these girls 
are generally Jews. — Klaproth't Travels in the Caucasus and Georgia. 

CIRCE, British Frioatk, of thirty-two guns, while in chase of a French priTtteer 
off the coast of Holland, where the latter had sought refuge, was totally lost, and all 
on board perished, owing to a heavy gale of wind, Not. 16, 1803. 

CIRCENSIAN GAMES. These were combaU in the Roman circus, in honour of 
Consus, the god of covncUs, instituted by Erander, and established at Rome 732 b.c. 
by Romulus, at the rape of the Sabines. They were in imitation of the Olynpiu 
games among the Greeks, and by way of eminence were called the great games, bat 
Tarquin called them the Circensian ; their celebration continued five days, beginsiBf 
on the 15th Sept. — VirgH, 

CIRCUITS IN ENGLAND. They were divided into three, and three justices wen 
appointed to each, 22 Henry II. 1176. They were afterwards divided into feir, 
with five justices to each division, 1180. — Rapin, The number and arrangemeot of 
circuits have been frequently altered. — Camden. They are held twice a year is 
each county for the readier distribution of justice, the judges being oommissional 
each time by the king ; and this is called going the circuit — BlacksUms, 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY. The first m England, on a public plan, was opened bf 
Samuel Fancourt, a dissenting minister of Salisbury, about 1740. He had little 
encouragement in the undertaking, which in the end fidled. — Fergusons Biog, 

CIRCULATION or thb BLOOD, and the motion of the heart in animals, eos- 
firmed experimentally by William Harvey, the celebrated English physician and 
anatomist, between 1619 and 1628. See article Blood. By this discovery ths 
medical and surgical art became greatly improved, to the benefit of mankind/— 
Freind's Hist, of Physio. 

CIRCUMCISION. A rite instituted 1897 B.C. It was the seal of the covenant nadt 
by God with Abraham. ^-JM«pAtt«. Even to the present day many of the Torki 
and Persians circumcise, although not regarding it as essential to salvation ; bat is 
some eastern and AMcan nations it is rendered necessary by a peculiar conformatioe, 
and is used without any reference to a religious ntt.^-^BeU. The festival of the 
Circumcision was originally called the Octave of Christmas. Hie first mention fbosd 
of it is in A.D. 487. It was instituted by the church to commemorate the oeremosy 
under the Jewish law to which Christ submitted on the eighth day of his nativity; 
it was introduced into the Liturgy in 1550. 

CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the greatest and most daring of human enterprisei 
was the circumnavigation of the earth at the period when it was first attempted, a.o. 
1519 *. The following are the most renowned of this illustrious class of men ; 
voyages were undertaken at the dates affixed to their names. See Navigators 

Magellan, a Portugueae, the first who 

entered the Pacific ocean . A.a IA19 
Groalva, a Spanish navisator . 1M7 

Avalradi, a Spaniard . 1637 

Mendana, a Spaniard .1567 

Sir Francis Drake, first English . .1577 
Cavendish, his first voyage . .1586 

Le Maire, a Dutchman . . . 1615 

Quiros, a Spaniard .... 1625 

Ta«man.Datoh 1642 

Cowley, BriUsh 1683 

Dampier, an Englishman . . 1689 

Several voyages have been since undertaken, and, among other nations by the Rnssisnii 

The early navigators, equally illustrious, are named elsewhere. 

-^^~ ~ 

* The first ship that sailed round the earth, and hence determined its being gtohular, «ti 
Magellan's, or Magolhaen's ; he was a native of Portugal, in the service of Spain, and by keepint • 
westerly course he returned to the same place he had set out from in 1519. The voyage wai 
oonipleted in three years and twenty-nine days ; but Magellan was killed on hia homfeward ; 
at the PUilippinos, in i^X.-^ButUr. 

Cooke, an Engllshnuua • sjo. 17M 

Clipperton, British . . . .1711 

Roggewein, Dutch 17^1 

Anson (aftw wards Lord) .174* 

Byron (grandfather of Lord Byron) . . 17M 

Wallis, British 170 

Carteret, an Englishman . . 170 

Cook, the iUuatrious captain . 170 

On the death of Captain Co<^ hk last 

voyage was continued by King • • ITj* 
Bougainville, French .... 177i 
PorUocke, British 170 

CIR Q 129 2 ^^^ 

CIRCUS. There were eight (eone ny ten), bmldmgs of this kind at Rome ; the 
largest of them was cdlcd the CircuM Maximug^ which was built by the eldei 
TaLrqain, 605 B.C. ; it was of an oval figure ; its length was three stadia and a half« 
or more than three English fnrlongs, and its breadth 960 Roman feet. This circot 
was enlarged by Cssar so as to seat 150,000 persons, and was re-boilt by Augustus. 
All the emperors Tied in beautifying it, and Julius Cksst introduced in it large 
canals of water, which on a sudden ooold be covered with an infinite number of 
Teasels, and represent a sea-fight. — Pliny. 

CISALPINE REPUBLIC. Founded by the French in June 1797. It was acknow- 
ledged by the emperor of Germany to be independent, by the treaty of Campo Pormio 
{which tee), Oct. 17, following. Received a new constitution in Sept 1798. It 
merged into the kingdom of luly in March, 1805 ; Napoleon was crowned king in 
May following, and was represented by his Tioeroy, Eugene Beauhamois. See Italp, 

CISTERCIANS. An order founded by Robert, a Benedictin, in the elcTcnth century. 
They became so powerful that they gOTemed almost all Europe in spiritual and 
te mp oral concerns. They obserTcd a continual silence, abstained from flesh, lay on 
straw, wore neither shoes nor shirts, and were most austere. — De Vitri. 

CITIES. The word dip has been in use in England only since the Conquest, at which 
time CTcn London was called Londonburgh, as the capital of Scotland is still called 
Edinburgh. The English cities were Tery inconsiderable in the twelfth century. 
Cities were first incorporated a.d. 1079. The institution of cities has aided much in 
introdncing regular gOTemments, police, manners, and arts. — Robertson. 

CITIZEN. It was not lawful to scourge a citizen of Rome. — Livy. In England a 
citisen is a person who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade therein. — 
Camden. Various privileges have been conferred on citizens as freemen in several 
reigns, and powers granted to them. The wives of citizens of London (not being 
aldninen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) were obliged to wear minever caps, 
being white woollen knit three-comered, with the peaks projecting three or four 
inches beyond their foreheads ; aldermen's wives made them of velvet, 1 Elizabeth, 
1558. — Stowe. The title of dtisen, only* was allowed in France at the period of the 
revolntion, 1792, eiseq. 

CIUDAD RODRIGO. This strong fortress of Spain was iuTested by the French 
June 11, 1810; and it surrendered to them July 10, following. It remained in 
their possession until it was gallantly stormed by the British, commanded by lord 
Welfii^ton, Jan. 19, 1812. Lord Wellington had made a previous attack upon 
Qndad Rodrigo (Sept. 25, 181 1 ), which ended in his orderly retreat from the position. 

CIVIL LAW. Several codes come under this denomination of laws. A body of 
Roman laws, founded upon the laws of nature and of nations, was first collected by 
Alfrenns Varus, the Civilian, who flourished about 66 b.c. ; and a digest of them 
was made by Servius Sulpicins, the Civilian, 53 b.c The Gregorian laws were 
compiled a.d. 290 ; the Theodosian in 435 ; and the Justinian, 529-534. Many of 
the former laws having grown out of use, the emperor Justinian ordered a revision 
of them, which was called the Justinian code, and this code constitutes a large part 
of the present civil law. Civil law was restored in Italy, Germany, &c. 1 127. — 
Blair, Civil law was introduced into England by Theobald, a Norman abbot, who 
was afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, in 1138. It is now used in the spiritual 
courts only, and in maritime affairs. — See Doelore* Commons, and Laws. 

CIVIL LIST. This comprehends the revenue awarded to the kings of England, partly 
in lien of their ancient hereditary income. The entire revenue of Elizabeth was not 
more than 600,000/. and that of Charles I. was but 800,000/. After the Revolution 
a dvfl list revenue was settled on the new king and queen of 700,000/., the parliament 
taking into its own handa the support of the forces, both maritime and military. 
The civil list of George II. was increased to 800,000/. ; and that of George III. in the 
&5th year of his reign, was 1,030,000/. By the act 1 WillUm IV. 1831, the civil 
list of that sovereign was fixed at 510,000t By the act of 1 Victoria. Dec 1837, 
the civil list of the queen was fixed at 385,000/. ; and Prince Albert obtained an 
ezdusiTe sum from parliament of 30,000/. per ann. 4 Victoria, 1840. 

CLANSHIPS. These were tribes of the same race, and commonly of the same name, 
and originated in firadal times. — See Fettdal Laws. They may be said to haTe 
viien in Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm II., about 1008. Clanships and other 




remaini of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scotland (where clans were t&kes 
to be the tenants of one lord), and the liberty of the English was granted to eliotmen. 
20 George II., 1746. — Rujfnead, The following is a cnrions and rare list of &U the 
known dans of Scotland, with the badge of distinction anciently worn by escb. 





Buchanan . 

. . Birob. 

M'Kay . 

. Bull-rush. 


. . Oak. 


. . Deer-graaa 

Campbell . 



St. John's wort 


. . Alder. 

M'Lachlan . 

', Mountain-ash. 

Colquhoon . 

. . Uaael. 


. Blackberry heath. 


. . Common Sallow. 


. Red ^\liorUe.berrica 


. Holly. 

M'Nab . 

. Rose Biackberrie& 

Farquharson . 

. . Purple Foxglove^ 


• . Sea-wara. 


. Poplar. 


. Variegated Box-v^xxL 


. Broom. 


. . Blackthorn. 




. Fir-club Moes. 

Oordon . 

.. Iry. 

. . Eaglea' feathen. 


. . . Laurel. 


. Aah. 


. . Cranberry heath. 


. . Juniper. 

Oun . 

. Roaewort 

OgUrie . 

. . Hawthorn. 

Lamont . 

. . Crab-apple trea 


. . Great Maple. 

M'Allister . 

. Fire-leaved heath. 

Robertson . 

. Fern, or Breduma 


. . BeU heath. 


. . Briar-roee. 

M'Donell . 

. Mountain heath. 

Ross . 

. Bear-berriea. 


.. Cypreae. 

Sinclair . 

. CIoTer. 

M'Farlane . 

. Cloud-berry btiah. 


. Thistte. 


. . Pine. 


. . Cat'a-taa grasa 

M'lntosh . 

. Box-wood. 

The chief of each respectiye clan was, and is, entitled to wear two eagles* feathen ia 
his bonnet, in addition to the distinguishing badge of his dan. — Chamben, 

CLARE, England. This town, in Snflfolk, is famous for the great men who kirs 
borne the title of earl and dake of it Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, is iiid 
to have seated here a monastery of the order of Friars Heremites, the first of thii 
kind of mendicants who came to England, 1248.— rann^r. Lionel, third son of 
Edward III. becoming possessed of £e honour of Clare, by marriage, was crested 
duke of Clarence. The title has ever since bdonged to a branch of the royal fiunily. 

CLARE, Ireland. The first town in Ireland that elected a Roman Catholic mesabcr 
of parliament for 140 years. This it did previously to the passing of the Ronaa 
Catholic relief bill, in 1829, and in despite of then existing laws of the realm.— *Ses 
Roman Catholics, The memorable dection for the coonty of Clare was held at Ennii, 
the county town, and terminated in the return of Mr. Daniel O'Connell, the tint 
Roman Catholic representative since the Revolution, July, 5, 1828. 

CLARE, Nuns of St. A sisterhood founded in Italy about a.d. 1212. This order 
settled in England, in the Minories without Aldgate, London, about 1293. Blaaebe, 
queen of Navarre, wife of Edmund, earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I. fooaded 
the abbey for those nuns on the the east side of the street leading from the Tower 
to Aldgate ; they were cdled Minorisses (hence Minories) ; and the order oontinaid 
till the suppression, when the site was granted to the bishopric of Bath and WelJif 
31 Henry Vlll. 1539.— Tanner. 

CLAREMONT. The residence of the late princess Charlotte, (daughter of the prince 
regent, afterwards George lY.), and the scene of her death, Nov. 6, 1817. The 
house was originally built by Sir John Vsnbrugh, and was the residence of, suceet- 
sively, the earl of Clare, afterwards duke of Newcastle, of lord Clive, lord GaUowajt 
and the earl of l^rconnel ; it was purchased of Mr. Ellis by government for d!i,000(. 
for the prince and princess of Saxe-Coburg ; and the former, now king of Belgiais, 
assigned it to prince Albert in 1840. 

CLARENCIEUX. The second king at arms here with us, so called, because Ibrmerlj 
he belonged to the duke of Clarence ; his office was instituted to marshsJ and dispois 
of the funerals of all the lower nobiliff, as baronets, knights, esquires, and gentkinsB 
on the south side of Trent, from whence he is also called sur-roy or south-roy. 

CLARENDON, Statutes of. These were statutes enacted in a parliament held at 
Clarendon, the object of which was to retrench the then enonnoui power of tbs 
dergy. They are rendered memorable as being the ground of Beckefs quarrel 

CLA [ 130* ] CLE 

with Henry II. A number of regnUtioni were drawn np under the title of the 
statatei or conttitutioni of Clarendon^ and were voted without oppoaition, a.d. 1 164. 
— Wamer^t Eeel, Hitt, The enactment! were lixteen in nomber, Tia : — 

L That all suits concerning adrowaons 
should be determined in civil courts. 

IL That the clergy accused of any crime 
Aould be tried by dril Judges. 

TLL That no person of any rank whaterer 
should be permitted to leave the realm with- 
out the royal licence. 

IV. That laics should not be accused in 
spiritual courts except by legal and reputable 
iwomotersand witnesses. 

y . That no chief tenant of the crown should 
be excommunicated, or his lands put under 

belonging to that rank. 

X. That the churches belonging to the 
king's see should not be granted in perpetuity 
against his will. 

XL That excommunicated persons should 
not be bound to give security for continuing 
in their abode. 

XIL That no inhabitant in demesneahould 
be excommunicated for non-appearance in a 
spiritual court 

XIII. That If any tenant in eapiU should 
refuse submission to spiritual courts, the case 

interdict. should be referred to the king. 

YL That the rerennes of vacant sees should XIV. That the clergy should no longer 

pretend to the right of enforcing debts con- 
tracted by oath or promise. 

XV. That causes between laymen and ec- 
clesiastics should be determined by a Jury. 

XVL That appeals should be ultimately 
carried to the king, and no further without 
his consent. 

bdong to the king. 

VII. That goods forfeited to the crown 
should not be protected in churches. 

Yin. That the sons of villains should not 
be ordained clerks without the consent of 
their lord. 

IX. That bishops should be regarded as 
barons^ and be subjected to the burthens 

Theae stringent ttatntes were enacted to prevent the chief aboses which at that time 
prevailed in ecclesiastical affairs, and pnt a stop to church usurpations which, gradually 
stealing on, threatened the destruction of the civil and royal power. — Ilume, 

CLARION. This instrument originated with the Moors, in Spain, about a.d. 800 ; it 
vras at first a trumpet, serving as a treble to trumpets sounding tenor and bass. — 
Athe. Its tube is narrower, and its tone shriller than the common trumpet. — Pardon. 

CLASSIS. The name was first given by Tnllius Servius in making divisions of the 
Roman people. The first of six classes were called datsiciy by way of eminence, 
and hence authors of the first rank came to be called classics, 578 e.g. 

CLEMENTINES. Apocryphal pieces, fable and error, attributed to a primitive father, 
Clemens Romanns, a cotemporary of St Paul ; some say he succeeded Peter as bishop 
of Rome. He died a.d. 102.— iV'iceron. Also the dec ratals of pope Clement V., 
who died 1314, published by his successor. — Bowyer, Also Augustine monks, each 
of whom having been a superior nine jears, then merged into a common monk. 

CLEMENTINES akd URBANISTS. Parties by whom Europe was distracted for 
aeveral years. The Urbanists were the adherents of pope Urban VI., the others 
thoee of Robert, son of the Count of Geneva, who took the title of Clement Vll. 
All the kingdoms of Christendom according to their various interests and inolina- 
tkma were divided between these two pontiffs ; the court of France, Castile, Scot- 
land, &C. adhering to Clement, and Rome, Italy, and England declaring for XJrban. 
This contention was consequent upon the death of Gregory XI. 1378. — Hume, 

CLERGY. In the first century the clergy were distinguished by the title of presbyters 
or bishops. The bishops in the second century assumed higher functions, and the 
presbjters represented the inferior priests of the Levites : this distinction was still 
further promoted in the third century ; and, under Constantine, the clergy attained 
the recognition and protection of the secular power. 

CLERGY or England. They increased rapidly in number early in the seventh cen- 
tury, and at length controlled the king and kingdom. Drunkenness was forbidden 
nmong the clergy by a law, so earlj as 747 a.d. Ihe fint fruits of the then clergy 
were assigned by parliament to the king, 1534. The clergy were excluded from 
parliament in 1536. The conference between the Protestant and Dissenting clergy 
was held in 1604. See Conference. Two thousand resigned their benefices in the 
cJinreh of England, rather than subscribe their assent to the book of common prayer, 
indnding the thirty-nine articles of religion, as enjoined by the Act of Uniformity, 
1661-2. The Irish Protestantclergj were restored to their benefices,from which they bad 
. been expellad, owing to the state of the kingdom under James II., 1689. The Clergy 
Incapacitation aet paaaed, 1801. See Church of England, 

CLE P 131 ] CLO 

CLERGY, Benefit op. Prknlepium Clerieale. The priTilege arow in the piou re- 
gard paid by Christian princes to the ehurch in its in£uit state, and consisted o^- 
1st, an exemption of places consecrated to religions duties from criminal arrcsti, 
which was the foundation of sanctuaries ; 2nd, exemption of the persons of clergj* 
men from criminal process before the secular judge, in particular cases, which wu 
the original meaning of the prinUegium clerieale. In the course of time, howerer, 
the benefit of clergy extended to every one who could read, for such was the igno- 
rance of those periods, that thi$ was thought a great proof of learning ; and it wy 
enacted, that from the scarcity of cleigy in the realm of England, there should be • 
prerogative allowed to the clergy, that if any man who could read were to be con- 
demned to death, the bishop of the diocese might, if he would, claim him as a derk, 
and dispose of him in some places of the clergy as he might deem meet ; but if the 
bishop would not demand him, or if the prisoner could not read, then he was to be 
put to death, 3 Edward I. 1274. Benefit of clergy was abolished b? itatate 
8 George IV. 1827. 

England 1670, and' incorporated 1678. William Asiheton, an eminent theologiol 
writer was the first proposer of a plan to provide for the families of deceased dergy. 
— WatCs Life of Assheton. The festival of the *< Sons of the Clngy " is held 
annually at St Paul's cathedraL 

CLERK. The clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges being chosen after 
the Norman custom from the sacred order ; and the officers being clergy : this gife 
them that denomination, which they keep to this day. — Blacktlone'e Comm. 

CLERKENWELL. The gaol here is the common gaol for Middlesex ; a house of on^ 
rection was built in 1616, Bridewell being found insufficient ; the present edifice wu 
erected in 1820. At Clerkenwell-close formerly stood the house of Oliver Crom- 
well, where some suppose the death-warrant of Charles I. was signed, January 1649. 

CLIO. The initials, CLIO, forming the name of the muse of history, reudeied 
famous from the most admired papers of Addison, in the Specialar, having bees 
marked by one or other of them, in the beginning of the 18th century.— Ci^Afr. 

CLOCK. That called the clepsydra, or water-clock, was introduced at Rome 158 b.c. 
by Scipio Nasica. Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesibius, about 140 
B.C. Said to have been found by Caesar on invading Britain, 55 b.c. The only dock 
supposed to be then in the world was sent by pope Paul I. to Pepin, king of France, 
A.D. 760. Pacificus, archdeacon of Verona, invented one in the ninth century. Ori- 
ginally the wheels were three feet in diameter. The earliest complete clock of which 
there is any certain record, was made by a Saracen mechanic, in the 13th century. 

The Bcapement, ascribed to Qerbcrt a.d. lUUO 
A clock constructed by Richard, abbot 

ofSt.Alban'8, about . . .1326 

A striking clock in Westminster . .1368 
A perfect one made at Paris, by Vick . 1370 
The first portable one made . . .1530 
In England no clock went accurately 

before that set up at llompton-court 

(maker's hiitials. N. O.) . . . 1540 

Ilichard Harris (who erected a clock in 

the church of St Paul's, Covont-Gar> 

deal and tho younger Qalileo con- 
structed tlio pendulum . a.o. 1611 

Christian Iluygcns contested this diseo* 
very, and made his pendulum ck)ck 
some time previously to • . . ICU 

Fromantil, a Dutchman, Improved the 
pendulum, about .... MW 

Repeating clocks and watches invented 
by Barlow, about . . . . ICTf 

Tho dead beat, and horlsontal eacapo* 
monts, by Graham, about • . l^M 

The subsequent improvements were the spiral balance spring suggested, and the 
duplex scapement invented by Dr. Hooke ; pivot holes jewelled by Facio ; the de- 
tached scapement invented by Mudge, and improved by Berthoud, Arnold, Earn* 
fihaw and others. Clocks, and watches taxed, 1797 ; tax repealed 1798. 
CiiOGHER, Bishopric of. Founded by St Macartin, an caurly disciple of St Pa- 
trick : he fixed the see at Clogher, where he also built an abbey " in the street be- 
fore the royal seat of the kings of ErgaL'' Clogher takes its name from a golden 
stone, from which, in times of paganism, the deril used to pronounce jog^Uog 
answers, like the oracles of Apollo PgthiuSy as is said in the register of Clogher.— 
Sir Jamee Ware. Eleven saints have held this see : the first was St. Macartin, who 
died in a.d. 506. In 1041, the cathedral was built anew, and dedicated to its 
founder. Clogher is to merge on the death of its present prelate into the archiepif- 
copal see of Armagh, by act 3 and 4 Will. IV. 1834. 

CLO C 132 ] COA 

CLONFERT, Sbb op. St. Brenduk foonded an abbey §$ Clonfert in 558 ; hia life la 
extant in jingling monkiab metre in tbe Cottonian library at Westminster. In his 
time, the cathedral, ftimoas in ancient days for its seven altars, was erected ; and 
Co]|pui makes St. Brendan the founder of it, and tbe first bishop ; bat in the Ulster 
annals, under the year 571, the death of the first prelate of this see is thus remarked : 
" Moena^ bishop of Clonfert-Brenain, went to rest." Cloofert, in Irish, signifies a 
wonderful den or retiremeot. Three saints have been bishops of Clonfert. The see 
merged, in 1839, into that of KiUaloe.— See Bishops. 

CLONTARF, Battle of. One of proud record in the annals of Ireland, fought be- 
tween the Irish and Danes, the former headed by Bryan Boiroimhe, monarch of 
Irdand, who signally defeated the invaders after a long and bloody engagement. 
The monarch was wounded (and soon afterwards died), and his son Murchud fell, 
with many of the nobility ; but 11,000 of the Danes perished in the battle ; fought 
OB Good-Friday, 1039. 

CLOSTBRSEVEK, Coittkntion op. Entered into between the duke of Cumberland. 
third ton of George II., and the duke of Richelieu, commander of the French 
armies. By the stipulations of this humiliating tre«tv 38,000 Hanoverians laid 
down their arms and were dispersed, signed Sept. 10, 1757. The duke immediately 
afterwards resigned all hii military commands.— GoA/«iiit/A. 

CLOTH. Both woollen and linen cloth were known in very early times. Coarse 
wollens were introduced into England a.d. 1 191 ; and seventy families of cloth- 
workers from the Netherlands settled in England by Edward II I. 's invitation, and 
tiie art of weaving was thereby introduced, 1331. — Ryfner*s Fasdera, Woollens 
were first made at Kendal, in 1390. Medleys were manufactured, 1614. Our fine 
broad cloths were yet sent to Holland to be dyed, 1654. Dyed and dressed in Eng- 
land, by one Brewer, from the Low Countries, 1667. The manufacture was dis« 
eonraged in Ireland, and that of linen countenanced, at the request of both houses 
of parliament, 1698.— See Woollen Cloth. 

CLOYIS, Family op. Kings of France. The real founder of the French monarchy 
was Clovis I., who commenced his reign a.d. 481, and was a warlike prince. He 
ezpeUed the Romans, embraced the Christian religion, and published the Salique 
law. On his being first told of the sufferings of Christ, he exclaimed, " O, had I 
been there with my valiant Gauls, how I would have avenged him ! ** Clovis united 
bis conquests from the Romans, Germans, and Goths, as provinces to the then 
scanty dominions of France ; remove^ the seat of government from Soissons to 
Fans, and made this the capital of his new kingdom ; he died in 511. — Henault. 

CLOTNB, Sbb op. Founded in the sixth century by St. Coleman. In 1431, this hi- 
shopric was united to that of Cork, and so continued for 200 years. It is not taxed 
in the king's books ; but in a manuscript in Marsh's library, it is mentioned as hav- 
ing been valued, anno 33 Eliz. at 10/. lOs. sterling ; and in another manuscript in 
the college library, at 16/. sterling. This bishopric became united with that of Cork 
and Ross by the act 3 and 4 William IV., 1834. 

CLUNY, Abbkt op. Formerly one of the most magnificent and spacious religious 
institutions in the world. It was founded by Benedictins, under the abbot Bern, 
about A.D. 910. and was sustained afterwards by the munificence of William, duke 
of Berry and Aqnitaine ; but its greatness has now passed away. In England were 
numerous foundations for Cluniac monks, among the earliest monastic institations. 

CLYDE CANAL. The navigation of the Forth and Clyde canal was commenced 
nnder the celebrated Mr. Smeaton, July 10, 1768; and was opened July 28, 1790. 
This great work forms a communication between the eastern and western seas on 
the ocwsts of Scotland. 

COACH. The- coach is of French invention. Under Francis I., who was a cotem* 
porary with our Henry VIII., there were but two in Paris, one of which belonged to 
the queen, and the other to Diana, the natural daughter of Henry II. There were 
bat three in Paris in 1550 ; and Henry IV. had one, but without straps or springs. 
The first courtier who set up this equipage was John de Laval de Bois- Dauphin, 
who could not travel otherwise on account of his enormous bulk. Previously to the 
use of coaches, the kings of France travelled on horseback, the princesses were car- 
ried in litters, and ladies rode behind their squires. The first coach seen in England 

COA L 133 ] COC 

was in the reign of Marj, about 1553. — PrietUe^t I^eeL They were introdocd 
much earlier. — Andrews* Hist. Great Brit. They were introduced by Fitz-Alkn, 
earl of Anindel, in 15B0. — Stowe. And in aome years afterwards the art of making 
them. — Anderson** Hist, of Commerce, A bill was brought into parliament to pre- 
vent the effeminacy of men riding in coaches, 43 Elix. 1601.'*' — Carte. The coach- 
tax commenced in 1747. — See Carriages, Hackney Coaches, Maii Coaches, &c 

COALITIONS. The great coalitions against France since the period of the French 
revolution, have been six in number ; and they generally arose out of the subfidinng 
by England of the great powers of the Continent. They were entered into as foliowi : 

Ist. The king of PraMia inoes his ma- 
nifesto . JmieS6, 179S 

2nd. By Great Britain, Oennany, Ruaaia, 
Naples, Portugal, and Turkey, 
signed . . . .June 82, 1799 

3rd. By Great Britain, Russia, Austria. 

and Naples Aug. 6, 1805 

COALITION MINISTRY. This designation was given to the celebrated ministry oT 
Mr. Fox and Lord North, and which was rendered memorable as an extraordiniry 
union in political life on account of the strong personal dislike which had alwaji 
been displayed by these personages, each towards the other. The ministry wu 
formed April 5, 1783, and dissolved December 19, same year. — See Admnutreiiau, 

COALS. It is contended, with much seeming truth, that coals, although tiiey are not 
mentioned by the Romans in their notices of Britain, were yet in use by the andeat 
Britons. — Brandt, They were first discovered at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1234, 
some say earlier ; and others in 1239. Sea-coal was prohibited from being used is 
and near London, as being ** prejudicial to human health ;'' and even smiths 
were obliged to bum wood, 1273. — Stotoe, Coals were first made an article of 
trade from Newcastie to London, 4 Richard II. 1381...i?^er's Fesdera, Not> 
withstandng the many previous complaints against coal as a public nuisance, it wu 
at length generally burned in London in 1400 ; but coals were not in common oscii 
England until the reign of Charles 1., 1625. 


4th. By Groat Britain, Russia, Pmiflis, 

and Baxony . Oct 6, 18M 

6th. By England and Austria, . April 6. ia» 
6th. By Russia and Prussia ; the tiesty 

ratified at Kalisch . Mareli]7, UU 
Bee TVesties. 


. 160.000 ohald. 


1700 . 

. . 317,000 dittow 



. 610,000 dltta 


1830 . . 1,588,360 dtthL 
1835 . . 2,299^16 tOBS. 

1840 . . 2,638,866 ditta 

. 814,000 cfaald. 
. . 980,378 ditto. 
. 1,171.178 ditto. 

The coal-fields of Durham and Northumberland are 723 square miles in extent ; 
those of Newcastle, Sunderland, Whitehaven and other pLsces, are also of vast msg- 
nitude ; and there are ezhaustless beds of coal in Yorkshire. The coal in South 
Wales alone, would, at the present rate of consumption, supply all England for 2OO0 
years. — Bakeweil, It is supposed that there are now about 25,000,000 of torn 
consumed annually in Great Britain. — Phillips, Scotland teema with the richeit 
mines of coal, and besides her vast collieries, there must be vast fields unexplored.— 
Pennant, Fine coal is found in Kilkenny, Ireland. The first ship laden with Irish 
coal arrived in Dublin from Newry, in 1742. — Bums. 

COAL-TRADE. King John granted a charter to Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; and Henry 
III. granted his roysd licence to that town, ** to dig coal in the common soil withott 
the walls for use and sale, to its own profit," in 1239 ; and again in 1272 ; thisii 
the first official notice that we have of coal in England. — Hume. 

COBALT. A marcasite fossil, was found among the veins of ores, or in the fissures of 
stone, at an early date in the mines of Corwall, where the workmen call it mundic— 
Hill, It was distinguished in its present character as a metal by Brandt, in 1733 ; 
and subsequently by others. 

COCCEIANS. A sect founded by John Cocceius of Bremen ; they held, amongst other 
singular opinions, that of a visible reign of Christ in this world, after a general eoa- 
version of the Jews and all other people of the Christian faith, 16G5. 

COCHINEAL. The properties of this insect became known to the Spaniards soon after 

♦ In the bGginninff of the year 1619, the earl of Northumherland, who had hecn impriaoned frer 
since the Gunpowder Plot, obtained his liberation. Hearing that Buckingham was dxmwn aboat 
with six horses in his coach (being the first that was so), the earl put on eight to Us, sad iA thit 
manner passed from the Tower through the city.— itopin. 

COC [ 134 ] COP 

their conquest of Mexico, in 1518. Cochineal was not known in Italy in 1548, 
although the art of dyeing then flourished there. — See Dyeing. The annual import of 
this artide into England had reached 260,000 lbs. weight in 1830. 

COCK-FIGHTING. Practised by the early barbarous naHons, and by Greece. It was 
instituted at Rome after a victory OTcr the Persians, 476 b.c. : and was introduced 
by the Romans into England. William Fits-Stephen, in the reign of Henry 11., 
describes cock-fighting as the sport of schooLboys on Shrove Tuesday. Cock-fight- 
ing was prohibited, 39 Edward III., 1365 ; and again by Henry VIII. and Crom- 
welL Part of the site of Drury-lane theatre was a cock-pit in the reign of James I. ; 
and the cock-pit at Mliitehall was erected for this cruel sport by Charles II. Till 
within these few years there was a Cook-pit Royai, in St James's-park ; but as the 
ground belonged to Christ's Hospital, that body would not renew the lease for a 
building deroted to cruelty*. But this practice is happily now discouraged by the 
law. — See article Cruelly to Animals. 

COCK-LANE GHOST. A famous imposition practised upon the credulous multitude 
by William Parsons, his wife, and daughter. The contrivance was that of a female 
ventriloquist, and all who heard her believed she was a ghost : the deception, which 
arose in a malignant conspiracy, was carried on for some time at the house, No. 33, 
Cock-lane, London : but it was at length detected, and the parents were condemned 
to the pillory and imprisonment, July 10, 1762. 

COCOA. Unknown in these realms until the discovery of America, about 1500. The 
ooeoa-tree supplies the Indians with almost whatever they stand in need of, as bread, 
water, wine, vinegar, brandy, milk, oil, honey, sugar, needles, clothes, thread, cups, 
spoons, basins, baskets, paper, masts for ships, sails, cordage, nails, covering for 
their houses, &Cw — Ray. 

CODES OF LAWS. The laws of Phoroneus were instituted 1807 b.c. ; those of Ly- 
cnrgus, 884 b.c. ; of Draco, 623 B.C. ; of Solon, 587 b.c. Alfrenus Varus, the 
civilian, first collected the Roman laws about 66 b.c ; and Servius Sulpicius, the 
civilian, embodied them about 53 b.c. The Gregorian and Hermoginian codes were 
published a.d. 290 ; the Theodosian code in 435 ; the celebrated code of the 
emperor Justinian, in 529 — a digest from this last was made in 533. — Blair. Alfred's 
code of laws is the foundation of the common law of England, 887. — See Laws. 

CODICILS TO WILLS. C. Trebatius Testa, the civilian of Rome, was the first who 
introduced the use of this supplementary instrument to wills, about 31 b.c. 

CCEUR DB LION, OR THE Lion.hbabted. The surname given to Richard Plantagenet 
I. of England, on account of his dauntless courage, about a.d. 1192. This surname 
was also conferred on Louis VIII. of France, who signalised himself in the crusades 
and in his wars against England, about 1223. This latter prince had also the appel- 
lation of the Lion given him. 

COFFEE. It grows in Arabia, Persia, the Indies, and America. Its use as a beverage 
is traced to the Persiansf. It came into great repute in Arabia Felix about a.d. 
1454 ; and passed thence into Egypt and Syria, and thence, in 1511, to Constanti- 
nople, where coffee-houses were opened in 1554. M. Thevenot, the traveller, was the 
first who brought it into France, to which country he returned after an absence 
of seven years, in 1662. — Chambers. Coffee was brought into England by Mr. 
Nathaniel Canopus, a Cretan, who made it his common beverage at Baliol college, 
Oxford, in 1641. — Anderson. 

COFFEE-HOUSES. The first in England was kept by a Jew named Jacobs, in Oxford, 
1650. In that year, Mr. Edwards, an English Turkey merchant, brought home 
with him a Greek servant named Pasquet, who kept the first house for making coflfee 
in London, which he opened in George-yard, Lombard-street, in 1652. Pasquet 

* Mr. Ardemlf, a gentleman of large fortune, and great hospitality, and who was almost unrivalled 
in the splendour of his equipages, had a favourite cook, upon which he had won many profitable 
BiatchesL The last wager he laid upon this cock he lost ; which so enraged hbn, that in a fit of 
passion he thrust the bird into the fire. A delirious fever was the result of his rage and inebriety, 
which in three days put an end to his life. He died at Tottenham, near London, April 4, \7fS>.—ButUr. 

t Some ascribe the discovery of coffee as a beverage to the prior of a monastery who, being informed 
by a goat-herd that his catUe sometimes browsed upon the tree, and that they would then wake at 
night, and sport and bound upon the hills, became curious to prove its virtues. He accordingly tried 
it on nis monks to pravent their sleeping at matins, and he found that it checked their slumbers. 

COP Q 135 ] COI 

afterwards went to Holland, and opened the tint bonse in that eonntrj. — Andtrmm, 
The Rainbow coffee- hooae, near Temple-bar, was represented as a nmaanee to the 
neighboarhood, 1657. Coffee-booses were suppressed by proclansation, 26 Chaiin 
II., 1675. The proclamation was afterwards sospended on the petition df the tradert 
in tea and coffee. 
COFFEE.TREES. These trees were conreyed from Mocha to Holland in 1616 ; and 
were carried to the West Indies in the year 1726. First caltiTSted at Surinam bj tbe 
Dutch about 1718. The culture was encouraged in the plantations about 17^2. 

COFFINS. Tbe Athenian heroes were buried in coffins of the cedar-tree ; owing to iti 
aromatic and incorruptible qualities. — Thuepdidu, Coffins of marble and itoae 
were used by the Romans. Alexander is said to have been buried in one of goM; 
and glass coffins haTe been found in England. — Gimgh, The earliest record of 
wooden coffins amongst us, is that of the burial of king Arthur, who was buried in 
an entire trunk of oak, hollowed, a.d. 542. — Auer. The patent coffins wen 
iuTcnted in 1796. 

COIF. Tbe sergeant's coif was originally an iron skull-cap, worn by knights under 
their helmets. The coif was introduced before 1259, and was used to hide the too- 
sure of such renegado clergymen as chose to remain as adrocates in the secahr 
courts, notwithstanding their prohibition by canon. — Blackstong, 

COIN. Homer speaks of brass money as existing 1184 B.C. The inrentionof coinii 
ascribed to the Lydians, who cherished commerce, and whose money was of goUaad 
silver. Both were coined by Phidon tyrant of Argos, 869 B.C. Money was coined 
at Rome under Senrius Tullius, about 578 b.c. llie moat ancient known coins in 
Macedonian, of the fifth century b.c. ; but others are believed to be more andeat 
Brass money only was in use at Rome prenously to 269 b.c. (when Fabius Fictor 
coined silver), a sign that little correspondence was then held with the East, when 
gold and silver were in use long before. Gold was coined 206 b.c. Iron monef 
was used in Sparta, and iron and tin in Britain. — Dufrttnoff. Julius Cesar wai 
the first who obtained the express permission of the senate to place hu portrait on 
the coins, and the example was soon followed. In the earlier and more simple days 
of Rome, the likeness of no living personage appeared upon their money; tbe 
heads were those of their deities, or of those who had received divine honours. 

COIN OF ENGLAND. Hie first coinage in England was under the Romans at Cam«' 
lodunum, or Colchester. English coin was of different shapes, as square, obloag, 
and round, until the middle ages, when round coin only was used. Groats were the 
largest silver currency until after a.d. 1351. Coin was made sterling in 1216, befon 
which time rents were mostly paid in kind, and money was found only in the eoflcn 
of the barons. — Stowe, 

The first gold coins on certain record. 

struck, 42 Henry III. . a.d. 1257 
Gold florin first struck, Ed. m. (CsMden) 1337 
First struck (Ashe) .... 1344 
Old sovereigns first minted . . 1494 
Bbillings first coined (Ur. KeUp) . . 1503 
Crowns and half crowns coined . . 1553 
Irish shilling struck .... 1500 
MiUed shilling of Elizaheth . . . 1569 
First large copper coinage, putting an 
end to the circulation of private leaden 
pieces, Ac 1620 

Modem milling introduced . a.n. 1631 
Halfpence and farthings coined . 1C0 

By the government, S3 Char. U. . . ICS 
Guineas first coined, 25 Char. n. . .1^ 

Double guineas IC73 

Fire guineas le^i 

Half guineas len 

Quarter guineas coined, 3 GeOb L . 1716 
Seren shilling pieces coined . . 1797 
Two-penny copper pieces . . 17W 
Sovereigns, new coinage .1116 
Halffsrthings 1843 

Gold coin was introduced in six shilling pieces by Edward III. and nobles followed, 
at six shillings and eigbtpence, and hence the lawyer's fee ; afterwarda there were 
half and quarter nobles. Edward IV. coined angels with a figure of Bfichael and 
the dragon, the original of George and the dragon. Henry VIII. coined soTcreigos 
and half-soTereigns of the modem Tslue. Guineas were of the same size ; but bdiog 
made of superior gold from sovereigns, guineas passed for more. See Guineoi. 
English and Irish money were assimilated Jan. 1, 1826. — See CokL 


Elizabeth . 

• £5,832,000 

Jamee II. . 

. £3.740.000 

George III. and regcn^, 

James I. . 

. . 2.500,000 

William m. . 

. 10.51 l.!KK) 

gold . .jtf74.S01386 

Charles L . 

. 10,500,000 

Anne . 

. 2.091,626 

George ir. . . 41JBS.8I5 


. . 1.000,000 

George I. . 

. sji&jaso 

William IV. . lojmfia 

Charles II. . 

. 7.524,100 

George II. . 

. 11,966,576 

Victoria . , . * * • 

OOI [ 136 ] COL 

The coin of the realm was aboat twelve milBons in 1711. — Davenant. It was esti- 
mated at sixteen millions in 1762. — Anderson. It was supposed to be twenty mil- 
lions in 1786. — Chalmers. It amounted to thirty-seven miliions in 1800. — Phillips. 
The gold is twenty-eight millions, and the rest of the metallic cnrrency is thirteen 
millions, while the paper largely sapplies the place of coin, 1830. — Duke of WeU 
HngUm, Prime Minister, in the House of Lords, In 1841, it may be calculated as 
reaching forty-five millions. — See Gold, 

COINING. Tikis operation was originally performed by the metal being placed between 
two steel dies, struck by a hammer. In 1553, a mill was invented by Antonie Bru- 
cber, and introduced into England, 1562. An engine for coining was invented by 
Balander in 1617. The great improvements of the art were effected by Boulton and 
Watt, at Soho, 1 788, and subsequently. The art was rendered perfect by the creation 
of the present costly machinery at the Mint, London, commenced in 1811. 

COLCHESTER. Supposed by some authors to be the birth-place of Constantine the 
Great, and famous in history as a Roman station : it obtained its first charter in 
1198. Memorable siege of Colchester in the civil war, when its sixteen churches and 
all its buildings sustained great damage ; the siege continued for ten weeks, 1648. 
The baize manufacture was established here, 1660. — Anderson. 

COLD. The extremes of heat and cold are found to produce the same perceptions on 
the skin, and when mercury is frozen at forty degrees below zero, the sensation is 
the same as touching red-hot iron. During the hard frost in 1 740, a palace of ice 
was built at St. Petersburg, after an elegant model, and in the just proportions of 
Angnstan architecture. — Gr^g. Perhaps the coldest day ever known in London was 
Dec 25, 1796, when the thermometer was 16* below zero. Quicksilver was frozen 
hard at Moscow, Jan. 13, 1810.— See FrosU, Ice. 

COLD INGHAM, Ksxm Berwick. The name of this town rendered famous by the 
heroism oi its nuns, who, on the attack of the Danes, in order to preserve themselves 
inviolate, cut off their noses and lips, thereby becoming objects of horror to the 
lustful invaders. The Danes, in revenge, burnt the whole sisterhood, with the abbess, 
Ebbsy in their monastery, a.d. 886. — Stowe. 

COLDSTREAM GUARDS. General Monk, before marching from Scotland into 
England to restore Charles II., raised in the town of Coldstream that regiment of 
royal guards, which is still distinguished by this honourable name, a.d. 1660. 

COLLISiEUM. The edifice of this name at Rome was built by Vespasian, in the place 
where the basin of Nero's gilded house had previously been, a.d. 72. The splendid 
Colliscum of London, and one of its most worthy objects of admiration, is built near 
the Regent's-park, and was completed in 1827-8. 

COLLAR. Generally a gold enamelled chain with cyphers and other devices, having the 
badge of some order suspended at the bottom. The collar of the order of the Garter 
consists of S. S., with roses enamelled red, within a garter enamelled blue, a.d. 
1349-50. The fashion of wearing the collar of S. S. in honour of St. Simplicins 
began about 1407. One was given to the mayor of Dublin, Robert Deey, by Charles 
II., 1660. A second was presented as a royal donation to the chief magistrate of 
Dublin, the former one havmg been lost, 1697. — Annals qf Dublin. 

COLLATION. A light repast of fruits on fast days, in lieu of more substantial food i 
anciently, even bread was not allowed in the collations in Lent, nor anything except 
a few comfits, and dried herbs and fruits, until a.d. \b\Z.— Lobineau. 

COLLECTS. These are prayers in the Roman Mass, and also in the English Liturgy. 
The first were appointed by pope Gelasius, a.d. 493. The king of England, coming 
into Normandy, appointed a collect for the relief of the Holy Land, 1 166.— AajMii. 
The coUeeti in our book of common prayer were Introduced into it in 1548. 

COLLEGES. University education preceded the erection of colleges, which were 
munificent foundations to relieve the students from the expense of living at lodging- 
houses and at inns. Collegiate or academic degrees are said to have been first con- 
ferred at the Univernty of Paris, a.d. 1140 ; but some authorities say, not before 
1215. In England, it is contended that the date is much higher, and some hold 
that Bede obtained a degree formally at Cambridge, and John de Beverley at Oxford, 
and that they were the first doctora of those universities. — See Cambridge, Osfordyicc. 




COLLEGES, eonimued, 

Cheshmit CoOege, foaofded . 

Doctor*! Commoot, cfrfl Imw 

Dnrham Unirenlty 

EdinboTKh Unircnity . 

Eton College .... 

Ghugow VoireaUj 

Gresham Collega 

Harrow .... 

Hayleybory. or Eaat India CoUcge 

Highburjr Ckdlege 

Highgate .... 

King** College Aberdeen 

King'* C!ollege, London 

Mareschal College, Aberdeen 

Haynooth College . 

HiUtary College, Saadhnnt 


• « 



Naval CoDcge. FiortaB¥Mith 

FliTiriciana, Dublin . 

W» j»«.«*w, Edinbor^ 

St. Andrew*, Scotland 


8km College, rebounded . 

Suigeuus, L ondon 
180n i Ditto re-incorpnrated 
1896 . SorgeoBS, Dublin 
1564 I Sorgeons, Edinbnri^ <new) 
14M j Trinity College^ Dublin 
1929 ■ University, London 



See these Coilegee tereraUif. 

Aj>. ITS 
. 1318 






. 18U 



COLOGNE. A member of the Haiueatic league, 1260. The Jews were ezpelkd firm 
here in 1485, and the Protestants in 1618, and it has since fallen into min. Cologit 
was taken by the French, under Joardan, Oct. 6, 1794. In the cathedral areshinni 
the heads of the three Magi ; and in the church of St. Ursula is the tomb of thit 
saint, and bones belonging to the 11,000 Tirgins said to have been put to deatk 
along with her. 

COLOMBIA. A new republic of the western world, formed of states which hare Utdj 
declared their independence of the crown of Spain ; but its seTcral chiefs hsTe bees 
contending one against another, and each state has been a prej to dnl war, and de 
stability of the onion is far from assured. 

New Grenada, founded by ColnmbosAJ). 1497 

. 1496 

Venexucla diacorered . . . . 
The Caraccas formed into a kingdom, 

under a captain-general . . 

The history of thcte prorincee, under 

the tyranny and oppression of the 

Spaniards, presents but one oontinnoua 

scene of rapine and blood. 


Battle of Garabobo, the lU^yaUsts wholly 

overthrown . . June 24, UR 

Bolirar is named Dictator by the Con- 

greas of Peru . . Feb. 10. UM 

Alliance between,Colombia and Mexico 

formed June 30, UM 

Alliance with Guatamala . March Itt 

Congress at Lima names Bolirar Pre- 
sident of the republic . Aug. 189 
Bolivar's return to Bogota . . Nov. ISS 
He aasumM the dictatorship . Nov. 23, \Vt 
Padilla's insurrection April 9, IM 
Conspiracy of Santander against the life 

of BoUvar Sept 25, Ifll 

Bolivar resigns his office of president of 

the republic . . . April 11, 1f9 
Hedies .... Decl7, 18» 

Santander dies . . May 26, 11M0 

Confederation of Tenexuela . . . 1810 
Independence formally declared . .1811 
Defeat of General Miranda . . . 1812 
Bolivar defeated by Bovee . . 1816 

Bolivar defeats Morillo in the battle of 

Sombrero . . . Feb. 1818 

Union of the States of Grenada and Ve- 

nojsucla . . . Dec 17, 1819 

COLOMBO. Built A.D. 1638, by the Portuguese, who were expelled by the Dutch, 
in lf)GG ; and the latter surrendered it to the British, Feb. 15, 1796. The Britiih 
troops were murdered here in cold blood by the adigaar of Candy, June 6, 1803. 
See Ceylon. 

COLON. This point was known to the ancients, but was not expressed as it is is 
modem times. The colon and period were adopted and explained by Thrasymachus 
about 373 H.c.'—Suidas. It was known to Aristotle. Our punctuation appears to 
have been introduced with the art of printing. The colon and semicolon were both 
first used in British literature, in the sixteenth century. 

COLONIES OF GREAT BRITAIN. In the following table will be found enumerated 
the several colonies belonging to the British empire, together with the date at whieh 
each colony was captured, ceded, or settled. The white and the free-coloured popu- 
lation, as far as it has been ascertained, amounts to about 2,500,000, and the slavei 
at the period of their emancipation, were 770,280. The number of convicts in New 
South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, is 33,573 ; the aborigines of the latter pitos 
have not been ascertained. The act for the abolition of slavery throughout the Bri- 
tish colonies, and for compensation to the owners of slaves (^0,000,000 sterling) 
was passed 3 and 4 William IV. 1833. By the provisions of this ttmtnte 2i 
the sUves throughout the British colonies were emincipated on August 1, 1834. 





Colanp, or PotsessUnu 
African Forts 

AngnillA . * . . 

Bahama Itlaads . 

Bengal • . • • 
Berbice .... 
Bermudas .... 

r.»^nnA^ Lower . 

Ganada. Upper 
Cape Breton 
Gape Gout Castle • 
Cape of Oood liope 
Ceylon .... 
Bemerara, and Easequlbo 
Dominica . . . . 
Gambia .... 
Gibraltar .... 


Honduras • 

Jamaica • 

JIadras . 




Neris . 

K«« Brunswick . 


New South Wales 

Nora Scotia . 

Prince Edward's Island 

Prince of Wales' Island 


St. Christopher's . 

St. Helena . 


8t Vincent 

Swan River . 

Tobago . . 

Tortola . 

Trinidad . 

Tan Diemen's Land 

Settlement . 
See India. 
Capitulation . 
See India. 
Capitulation . 
Settlement, in . 
By cession 
Capitulation . 
Ceded by France 
Settlement, in . 
Capitulation . 
Ceded by France 
By treaty, in 
Capitulati(m . 
See India. 
Capitulation . 
Settlement, in 
Settlement, in . 
Settlement, in 
Settlement, about 
Settlement, in 
Settlement, in . 
Capitulated, in 
Settlement in . 
Settlement, in 
Settlement, in . 
Capitulated, in 
Ceded by France 
Settlement, in . 
Ceded by France 
Settlement, in . 
Capitulation . 

menC, 4-«. 

WhiU Population. 

. 1006 


. . 1(>38 


l&SK €t teq. 


. . 16U5 


Sept. 1803 


18(19, €t teq. 


. Sept 1709 


. Sept 1761) 


. 1M4 


. . 1672 

no return. 

. Jan. 1806 


. Sept 1795 


. Sept. 18a3 


. . 1763 


. 1631 


. Aug. 1704 


. Sept 1800 


. . 1763 


. 1670 


. . 1(WW 

no census tak&i. 

. Sept 1800 


. Dec. 1810 


. . 1632 


. 1628 


. . 1629 


. 1300 


. . 1787 


. 1622 


. . 1745 


. 1786 

no return. 

. . 1787 


. 1623 


. . IfiOO 

no return. 

June, 1803 


. . 1763 


. 1829 


. . 1763 


. 1666 


. Feb. 1797 


. 1809 


Settlement in 

COLOSSUS or RHODES. A brass stotae of Apollo, seventy cubits high, erected at 
the port of Rhodes in honour of the sun, and esteemed one of the wonders of the 
worid. Boilt by Chares of Liodus, 290 B.C. It was thrown down by an earthquake 
224 B.C.; and was finally destroyed by the Saracens on their taking Rhodes in a.d. 
672. The figure stood upon two moles, a leg being extended on each side of the 
luurboar, so that a vessel in full sail could enter between. A winding staircase ran 
to the top, from which could be discerned the shores of Syria, and the ships that 
■ailed on the coast of Egypt This statue had lain in ruins for nearly nine centuries, 
and had never been repaired ; but now the Saracens pulled it to pieces, and sold the 
metal, weighing 720,000 lbs. to a Jew, who is said to have loaded 900 camels in 
transporting it to Alexandria. — Du Frttnoy. 

COMBAT, SINGLE, in England. It commenced with the Lombards a.d. 659. — 
Baronius, This method of trial was introduced into England and was allowed in 
accusations of treason, if neither the accuser nor the accused could produce evidence 
of the chaiige, or of innocence, 9 WiUiam II. 1096. The first battle by single 
combat was that fought before the king and the peers between Geoffry Baynard and 
William earl of £u, who was accused by Baynard of high treason ; and Baynard 
having conquered, Eu was deemed convicted. The last combat proposed was 
between lord Reay and David Ramsay, in 1631, but the king prevented it. — See 
article Hiifh Constabie. 

COM C 139 D ^^^ 

COMBAT, SINGLE, in Ireland. The ttme method of trUl had alio eiktttoe it 
Ireland. A trial was apfwioted between the prior of Kilmainham and die eui of 
Ormond, the former hayiiK impeached the latter of high treason ; hat the qoami 
hating been taken up by the king, was decided without fighting, 1446. RemuUbk 
combat in Dublin castle, before the lords jostioes and council, between Coaaor 
Mac-Cormac O'Connor and Teig Mac-Gilpatrick O'Connor ; in which the fonw 
had his head cut off, and presented to the lords jostices, 1553. 

COMEDY. Thalia is the mate of comedy and lyric poetry. Sosarion and Dokm vof 
the inTcntors of theatrical exhibitions, 562 b.c. They performed the lint conedy 
at Athens, on a waggon or moveable stage, on fonr wheels, for which thej mn 
rewarded with a basket of figs and a cask of wine. — ArundeUan Marbles. Aristo- 
phanes was called the prince of ancient comedy, 434 B.C., and Menanderthatofnev, 
320 B.C. Of Plautos, 20 comedies are extant; he fioarished 220 b.c Statins GBciliii 
wrote apwards of 30 comedies ; he flourished at Rome 180 B.c. The oomediei of 
Lselius and Terence were first acted 154 b.c The first regular comedy wu pe^ 
formed in England about a.d. 1551. It was said of Sheridan, that he wrote 
the best comedy (the School for Scandal) ^ the best opera (the Duetuta), and the 
best afterpiece (the Critic), in the English language. — See Drama. 

COMETS. The first thst was discorered and described accurately, was by Nioephonii. 
At the birth of the great Mithridates two large comete appeared, which were leea 
for seventy-two days together, and whose splendour eclipsed that of the mid-day 
sun, and occupied forty-five degrees, or the fourth part of the heavens, 135 B.C.— 
Justin, A remarkable one was seen in England, 10 Edward III. 1337. — Sttmt, 
These phenomena were first rationally explained by Tycho Brache, about 1577. A 
comet, which terrified the people from ite near approach to the earth, was visible from 
Nov. 3, 1679, to March 9, 1680. The orbito of cometo were proved to be eUipiei, 
by Newton, 1704. A most brilliant comet appeared in 1769, which passed wittus 
two millions of miles of the earth. One still more brilliant appeared in Sept, Oct, 
and Nov., 1811, visible all the autumn to the naked eye. Another brilliant ooniet 
appeared in 1823. — See the three next articles. 

COMET, BIELA'S. This comet has been an object of fear to many on acooant of tbe 
nearness with which it has approached, not the earth, but a point of the earth'i 
path : it was first discovered by M. Biela, an Austrian officer, Feb. 28, 1826. It ii 
one of the three comete whose re-appearance was predicted, ite revolution beiiif 
performed in six years and thirty-eight weeks. Ite second appearance was in 1832, 
when the time of ite perihelion passage was Nov. 27. Ite third appearance was of 
course in 1839. 

COMET, ENCKE'S. First discovered by M. Pons, Nov. 26, 1818, but justly named 
by astronomers after professor Encke, from his success in detecting ite ori>it, motioBi, 
and perturbations ; it is, like the preceding, one of the three comete which have 
appeared according to prediction, and ite revolutions are made in 3 years and 15 weeki> 

COMET, HALLEY'S. This is the great and celebrated comet of the greatest astro- 
nomer of England. — Lalande, Doctor Halley first proved that many of the 
appearances of comete were but the periodical returns of the same bodies, and be 
demonstrated that the comet of 1682 was the same with the comet of 1456, of 1531, 
and 1G07, deducing this fact from a minute observation of the first mentioned comet, 
and being struck by ite wonderful resemblance to the comete described as havinf 
appeared in those years : Halley, therefore, first fixed the identity of comete, and 
first predicted their periodical returns — Vinet's Astronomy. The revolutioo of 
Halley*s comet is performed in about seventy-six years : it appeared in 1759, and 
came to ite perihelion on March 13 ; and ite last appearance was in 1835. 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. This rank in the British army has been very freqaently 
vacant, and sometimes for several years consecutively. When the duke of Wellington 
resigned the office, on becoming minister, in 1828, his grace's successor, lord Hill, 
assumed the rank of commander of the forces, or general commanding-in-chief. 

CApTAms OBNsaAU coMMAKoaas or caiBP. 

Duke of Marlborough .... 170S 

Duke of Ormond 1718 

I>uko of Marlborough again . . 1714 

Duke of Cumberland . . 1745 

Lord Ligonler . Oct 90. 1737 
Marquis of Granby . Aug. 13, 17V 
He resigned tn . . 17M 
Vacant ♦♦ 

COM [ l-*® ] C'OM 

Duke of York again . . May 39, 1811 
Duke of Welllnffton . Jan. 28, 1837 


on rum stafp/ 
Lord nm . . '. Feb. 25, 1828 

BiBiANDEIUIN-CHIEP, continued 

l afl k t j. Lord Ambant . March 19, 1778 
FMd Manlial the Honourable Henry 

Boymoar Oonwaj • . March 99, 1789 
Taeant * * 

Bla IWqral H%fanMi Fredarick, Duke of 

Turk .... Feb 11, 1795; oomfAitDBa-iK-cuisp. 

8irD*TldDaiidM. • Maroh IS, 1809 ; Duke of WeUlnfton again . Dee. 28, 1849 

If MERGE. Floariahed in Arabia, Egypt, and among the Phoenicians in the earliest 
■get. In later times it was spread over Earope by a confederacy of maritime cities 
A.D. 1241. — See Hanse Townt, The discoveries of Colambas and the enterprises 
of the Dutch and Portognese, enlarged the sphere of commerce, and led other nations, 
paiticiilarly England, to engage extenaiTely in its pursuit. — See the vcariout ariiclet 
commecUd with ihi* subject. 

IIHERCIAL TREATIES. The first treaty of commerce made by England with 
any foreign nation, was entered into with the Flemings, 1 Edward I. 1272. The 
second was with Portugal and Spain, 2 Edward II. 1308. — Anderson, See Treaties. 

MMON COUNCIL of LONDON. Its formation commenced about 1208. The 
diarter of Henry I. mentions the fotk-motSt this being a Saxon appellation, and 
whidi may furly be rendered the court or assembly of the people. The general 
place of meeting of the folk-mote was in the open air at St. Paul s Cross, in St Paul's 
cfanrohyard. It was not discontinued till after Henry III. 's reign; when certain 
leprcaentatiTes were chosen out of each ward, who, being added to the lord mayor 
■ad aldermen, constituted the Court of Common Council. At first only two were 
ratnmed for each ward ; but it being afterwards considered that the number was 
iaaiifficient, it was enlarged in 1347, and since. This council soon became the parent 
of otiier similar institutions throughout the realm. 

MMON LAW OF ENGLAND. Custom, to which length of time has given the force 
of law, or rules generally received and held as law, called les nan scriptoi in con- 
tradistinction to the written law. Common law derives its origin from Alfred's body 
of laws (which was lost), a.d. 890. — See Ctutom. Laws. 

MMON PLEAS, Court of. This court in ancient times was kept in the king's 
own palace, distinct from that of the King's Bench. But on the confirmation of 
Magna Charta by king John, in 1215, it was fixed at Westminster, where it still 
continues. In it are debated all controversies, in matters civil, between subject and 
rabjeety according to law. Here real actions are pleadable, and fines and recoveries 
snffered, and in no other court but this ; it may also grant prohibitions, as the court 
of King's Bench doth : and in personal and mixed actions it has a concurrent 
Jurisdiction with that court ; but no cognizance of pleas of the crown. — Btack- 
Mione. In Ensland no barrister under the degree of a sergeant can plead in this 
co«rt ; but in Ireland it is open to the profession at large. Barristers, nowever, arc 
•t liberty to move, or shew cause against rules, for new trial. 

MMON PRAYER. Published in the English language by the authority of par. 
Ijament in 1548. The Common Prayer was voted out of doors, by parliament, and 
the Directory (which see'ff set up in its room in 1644. A proclamation was issued 
against ity 1&47. — See Directory. 

MMONS, House of. The great representative assembly of the people of Great 
Britain, and third branch of the Imperial legislature, originated with Simon de 
Montfort, earl of Leicester, who ordered returns to be made of two knights from 
every shire, and deputies from certain boroughs to meet the barons and clergy who 
were his friends, with a view thereby to strengthen his own power in opposition to 
that of his sovereign Henry III. This was the first confirmed outb'ne of a house of 
commons ; and the first commons were summoned to meet the king in parliament 
42 and 43 Henry III. 1258. — Goldsmith. Stotee* According to other authorities, 
the first parliament formally convened was the one summoned 49 Henry III. Jan. 
23, 1265 ; and writs of the latter date are the earliest extant. Some historians date 
the first regularly constituted parliament from the 22d of Edward I. 1294. The 
first record^ speaker, duly chosen, was Petre de Montfort in 1260; he was killed 
at the battle of Evesham in 1265. The city of London first sent members to 




parliament in the reign of Henry III., while Weftminster was not repreieoted ia 
that assembly until the latter end of Henry YIII.*! life, or rather in the first Home 
of Commons of Edward VI. The following is the constitution of the Hoaae of 
Commons since the passing of the Reform BUls {which see) in 1832 : — 

. 144 I BngUah and Wdah 

. . 4 I B mii'H .' County momben 

. 983--471 Cities and boroaghs 

. 15 
. . 14 

EirousH^— Comity membera 


Cities and boroogfas 
WaiaH.— Coonty members 

Citiaa and botoagfas 

EngUah and Webh 


laiSH. — Coonty memben . 
Unlrenity . 
Citiea and bowwjgha . 

. 560 



Total {set Parttawtemt) 


COMMONWEALTH of ENGLAND. This was the interregnum between the decol- 
lation of Charles I. and the restoration of Charles II. The form of the goremment 
was changed to a republic on the execution of Charles I. Jan. 30, 1649. Ofirer 
Cromwell was made Protector, Dec. 12, 1653. Richard Cromwell was made Pro- 
tector Sept. 4, 1658. Monarehy was restored in the person of Charies II., who 
returned to London May 29, 1660.— See England. 

COMMONWEALTH of ROME. See Ron. The greatest and most renowned 
republic in the world. It dates from 509 b.c, when the gOTemment of kiogi 
ceased with the eipulsion of Tarquinius Superbns, the serenth mud last king of 
Rome, and the election of oonsnls. After this re? olution Rome ndTaneed by impid 
strides towards uniTersal domhiioo. The whole of Italy receired her laws. Sicily, 
Sardinia, Spain, Carthage, Africa, Greece, Asia, Syria, Egypt, Gaol, Britain, and 
even a part of Germany, were suooiBsslTely subdued by her arms : so that in the ife 
of J alios Cesar this republie had the Euphrates, Mount Taurus, and Arsaenia, for 
boundaries in the east; Ethiopia, in the south; the Danube, in the north; and ths 
Atlantic Ocean, in the west. The republie existed under oonsuls and other msgiS' 
trstes until the battle of Actium, firom which we commonly date the eoaamenceMit 
of the Roman empire, 31 b.c. 

COMMUNION. It originated fan the Lord's Supper, and was practised early ia the 
primitiTc church. Communicating under the form of bread alone, is said to hate had 
its rise in the West, under pope Urban II. 1096. The fourth Lateran coaidl 
decreed that every belierer shall reoei?e the communion at least at Easter, 1215. 
The communion serfioe, as now obsenred in the church of England, was iasti- 
toted by the authority of council. 2d. Edward YI. 1548.— ITimm. 

COMPANIES. Among the earliest commerdal companies in England may be nsiari 
the Steel-yard society, established a.d. 1232. Tlie second company was the mer- 
chants of St Thomas k Becket, in 1248 — Siowe. The third was the Merdsst 
Adventurers, incorporated by EUsabeth, 1564. The following are the city compaiDta 
of London, hi the order of precedence, with the dates of their institution or ines^ 
poration by charter or by act of parliament Of these there are ninety-one ; the 
first twelve are the chief, and are styled " the Honourable : "-— 


40. Blackamltha a. 

B. 1877 

1. Mercers . a^. 1393 

22. Armomers and Bra> 

41. Joinefs . 


2. Orooera . 

. 1345 


. 1463 

42. WeaTCfs 

. iiei 

3. Drapers 

. 1430 

23. Girdlen . 

. 1448 

43. Woolmea 

.• ♦ 

4. Fiahmongeni . 

. 1384 

24. Bntohen 

. 1604 

44. SoriTenera . 


6. QoldBmithfl. 

. 1327 

25. Saddlers. 

. 1280 

45. Fruiterers 

. 1604 

& Skinners. 

. 1327 

26. Carpenters . 

. . 1344 

46. Plasterers . 


7. Merchant Tailors 

. 1466 

27. Cordwainera . 

. 1410 

47. SUtlonera 


a Ilaberdaahers . 

. 1447 

28. Paper Stainers 

. . 1580 

48. Embroiderera 


0. Saltera 

. 1558 

29. Corriera . 

. 1605 

49. Upholders • 


10. Ironmongers . 

. 1464 

. . 1677 

60. MnaJHana . 


11. Vintners 

. 1437 

31. Plumbers 

. 1611 

51. Turners . 

. I60t 

19. Clothworken . 

. 1482 

32. Inn-holders 

. . 1515 

52. Basket-makcra . 

.♦ ♦ 

13. Dyera. 

. 1469 

33. Founders 

. 1614 

53. Glasiers . 


. 1438 

34. Poulterers . 

. . 1503 

54. Homers 


1ft. Leather-MUan 

. 1442 

35. Cooks 

. 1481 

55. Farriers . 


le. Pawterara 

. 1474 

36. Coopers 

. . 1501 

56. Pariora 

.♦ • 

17. Barber Suxfeona . 

. 1308 

37. Tilers and Brioklay- 

57. Lorimera 


18. Cutlers . 

. 1417 

en • . • 

. 15GB 

58. Apothecariea 


10. nakeri 

. 1307 

88. Bowyen 

. . 1620 

50. Shipwrights . 

. 1610 

8(1. Wax-cbandlara 

. 1484 

3a Fletohers 

. 1536 

60. Spectaole-makars 



COMPANIES, eonimued. 



61. Clook-makcn 


63. ComlMiuUten 

64. Felt-maken 

65. Fmnework-knittov 1664 

66. Silk-thfowtten . . 16S9 

67. Bilk HMO , * * 

68. Pib-iiuikaa. . . 1636 
69l Needl^-makcn . 1656 

70. Qftpdencn . . . 1616 

71. Boap-makcn . • 163B 

8S. Bowstring 

A.D. lfi23 

inak«n * * 

83. C^rd.nuken 

84. Fan-makers 

85. Wood-mong«rs 

86. Btarch-makers. 

87. Fishermen . 

88. Parish clerks . 
88. Carmen 

90. Porters . 

91. Watermen . 


* * 


* « 


.^..n. 1639 79- Tlnplato'WorkenA.D. 1670 

1556 73. Wheel wrigh to. . 1670 

1650 74. DisdUers . . . * ♦ 

1604 75. Hatbend-makers . 16S8 

78. Patten-makers . 1670 

77. Glass-sel en . 1664 

78. Tobaooo-pipe makers 1663 

79. Coach and Harness 
makers. . . 1677 

80. Gmmiakers . 1638 

81. Gold and sUTerwire- 

COMPANIESy BUBBLE. Rainons specaUtionf coming nnder this name have been 
formed, commonly by designing peraoni. Law's Bubble, in 1720-1, was perhaps the 
most extraordinary of its kind, and the South Sea Babble, in the same year, was 
sctrcely less memorable for its min of thoosands of families. Many companies were 
established in these conntries in 1824 and 1825, and most of them turned out to b^ 
tmbbles ; and owing to the rage for taking shares in each scheme as it was projected, 
immense losses were incurred by individuals, and the families of thousands of specu- 
lators were totally mined. — See Law's Bubble, and Bankrupts, 

COMPASS, Ths MARINER'S. It is said to ha?e been known to the Chinese, 1 115 
■•c. ; but this seems to be a mistake. They had a machine which self-moved, pointed 
towards the south, and safely guided traTeUers by land or water ; and some authors 
bave mistaken it for the mariner's compass, the invention of which is by some 
Mcribed to Marcos Paulas, a Venetian, a.d. 1260 ; while others, with more seeming 
Jofltioey assign it to Flavio Gioja, of Pasitano, a navigator of Naples. Until his time 
the needle was laid upon a couple of pieces of straw, or small split sticks, in a vessel 
of water ; Gioja introduced the saspension of the needle as we have it now, 1302. 
Ita variation was discovered by Columbus, in 1492. The compass-box and hanging 
eompass used by navigators were invented by William Barlowe, an English ditine 
end natural philosopher, in 1608. — Biog. Diet, The measuring compass was 
invented by Jost Byng, of Hesse, in 1602. 

CONCEPTION or thb YIRGIN. This is a feast in the Romish church in honour 
of die Viigin Mary having been conceived and bom immaculate, or without original 
■In. The festhraliras appointed to be held on the 8th of Dec. by the church, in 
1389«— Cgncbftionists, an order of nuns, established 1488. 

CONCERT. The first public subscription concert was performed at Oxford, in 1665, 
when it was attended by a great number of personages of rank and talent from every 
part of England. The first concert of a like kind performed in London was in 1678. 
Concerts afterwards became fashionable and frequent. 

C0NCH0L06Y. This branch of natural history is mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny, 
md was a favourite with the most intellectual and illustrious men. It was first reduced 
to a system by John Daniel Major of Kiel, who published his classification of the Tes- 
iaeea in 1675. Lister's system was published in 1685 ; and that of Largius in 1722. 

CONCLAVE FOR TBI ELECTION of POPES. The conclave U a range of small 
oeOa in the hall of the Vatican, or palace of the pope at Rome, where the cardinals 
nsually hold their meetings to elect a pope. The word is also used for the assembly, 
or meeting of the cardinals shut up for the election of a pope. The conclave had its rise 
in A.D. 1271. Clement IV. being dead at Viterbo in 1268, the cardinals were nearly 
three years unable to sgree in the choice of a successor, and were on the point of breaking 
np, when the magistrates, by the advice of St. Bonaventure, then at Viterbo, shut 
the gates of their city, and locked up the cardinals in the pontifical palace till they 
agreed. Hence the present custom of shutting up the cardinals while they elect a pope. 

CONCORDANCE to thk BIBIjiE. An index or alphabetical catalogue of all the 
words in the Bible, and also a dironological account of all the transactions of that 
■amd volume. Tlie first concordance to the Bible was made under the direction of 
Hugo de St. Charo, who employed as many as 500 monks upon it, ad. 1247. — 
Abbi Lenglet, 

CONCORDAT. The name given to an instrument of agreement between a prince and 
the pope, nsoally concerning benefices. The celebrated concordat between Napoleon 

cox C * *3 D ^^^ 

Pn.^nap«rte and Pivs VII., vherebj the then French coma! was made, in effect, the 
head of the Gallifcan church, as all ecclesiastics vere to have their appointmenti from 
him, was n^^aitd at Pluis, July 15, 1801. Another concordat between Buooapaite 
«ud the same pontiff was signed at Fontainbleaa, Jan. 25, 1813. 

CONCUBINES. They are mentioned as having been allowed to the priests, a.d. 1132. 
Cujas observes, that although concubinage was beneath marriage, both as to dignitj 
and civil effects, yet concubine was a reputable title, very different from that oif 
mistress among us. This kind of union, whidi is formed by giving the left hand 
instead of the rifihi^ and called half.imarriape, is still in use in some ptrti o( 
Germany. — See CaneubimeSf and HarMs, 

CONDUITS. Those of the Romans were of stone. Two remarkable conduits exiitei 
eariy in Cheapside, London. That called the Great Conduit was the first dstem of 
lead erected in the city, and was built a.o. 1285. At the procession of Anna Bolera 
it ran with white and claret wine all tha afternoon, Jane 1, 1533.— ^/oim. 

CONFEDER.\TION at PARIS. Upwards of 600,000 dtixens formed this memonb.« 
confederation, held on the anniversary of the taking of the Bastile, at which een- 
mony the king, the national assembly, the army, and the people, solemnly swore to 
maintain the new constitution, July 14, 1790.-— See Champ de Mars, BattiU. 

CONFEDERATION of ths RHINE, or League of the Germanic States, formed under 
the auspices of Napoleon Buonaparte. By this celebrated league, the minor Gcrmia 
princes collectively engaged to raise 258,000 troops to serve in case of war, and 
they esUblished a diet at Frankfort, July 12, 1806.— See Germanic Co^federmtiuL 

CONFERENCE. The celebrated religious oonfeienoe held at Hampton Court pakoe, 
between the prelates of the church of England and the dissenting ministers, in order 
to effect a general union, at the instance of the king, 2 James I. 1604. This eoa> 
ference led to a new translation of the Bible, which was executed in 1607-11, snd ii 
that now in general use in England and the United States ; and during the meetin| 
some alterations in the church liturgy were agreed upon, but this not satisfying the 
dissenters, nothing more was done. A conference of the bishops and presbyterisi 
ministers with the same view was held, in 1661. 

CONFESSION. Auricular confession in the Romish church was first institated abost 
A.D. 1204, and was regularly enjoined in 1215. It is made to a priest, in order to 
obtain absolution for the sins or faults acknowledged by the penitent, who perforBf 
a penance enjoined by the priest ; and if this be done with a contrite heart, the of 
thus absolved are supposed to be absolved in heaven. At the reformation, the prsc- 
tice was at first left wholly indifferent, by the council ; but this was the preliide ts 
its entire abolition in the church of EngUnd. — Burnet, 

CONFIRMATION. One of the oldest rites of the Christian ehorch ; it was nssd lif 
Peter and Paul ; and was general, according to some church uthorities, in aj>. 190. 
It is the public profession of the Christian religion by an adolt person, who wsi 
baptised in infancy. It is still retained in the church of England ; but to make iC 
the more solemn, it has been advanced into a sacrament by the choreh of Rome. 

CON FLANS, Tbbatt of. Between Louis XI. of France, and the dukes of Bourbair 
Brittany, and Burgundy ; by one of the provisions of this treaty, Normandy wsi 
ceded to the duke de Berri, 1465. This treaty was confirmed by that of PerooMf 
with other stipulations, in 1468. 

CONGELATION. Ice was produced in summer by means of chemical mixtures, hf 
Mr. Walker, in 1783. The congelation of quicksilver was effected without snow or 
ice, in 1787. A mixture of four ounces of nitrate of ammonia, four ounces of sub- 
carbonate of soda, and four ounces of water, in a tin pail, have been found to product 
ice in three hours. — See Cold ; Jce ; &c. 

CONGE D*ELIR£. The licence of the king, as head of the church, to chapters, snd 
other bodies, to elect dignitaries, particularly bishops. After the interdict of the 
pope upon England had been removed in 1214, king John had an arrangement with 
the clergy for the election of bishops. Bishops were elected by the king's Cengt 
d'Elire, 26 Henry VIII., 1535. 

CONGRESS. An assembly of princes or ministers, or meeting for the settlement of the 
affairs of nations, or of a people. Several congresses were held during the late oob- 
tinental wars ; but the following were the most remariuble congresses of Europt :— 

cow C 1^ D CON 

CONGRESS, continued, 

CaagrtmoiSoiaaoDM . Jane 14, I7S8 

CongreM of Antwerp . • Aprils, 1793 

Congraiof Redstadt . Deo. 9, 1797 

GoogreMofChatiUon . . Feb. ft, 1814 

GoDgrcaiofTicniia . Nor. 3, 1814 

Congres of Garlsbed Aug. 1.1819 

Coagres of Troppaa . Oct SO, 1820 

Coagres of Laybeoh, May 6, Ifttl 

Coagres of Verona . Aug. Sft, 1489 

See AUianca, Convtntiont, S/c, 

The fint general oonpesf of the United States of America, preparatory to their 
declaration of independence, was held Sept. 5, 1774, when strong resolutions were 
passed, also a petition to the king, and an addros to the people of ^agland. The first 
federal American congress» nnder the constitntiony was held at New York, George 
Washington, president, in March, 1789. 

CONGREYE ROCKETS. InTcnted by general sir William CongreTC, in 1803. 
They were nsed with great effect in the attack upon Boulogne, in Oct 1806, when 
they set a part of the town on fire, which burned for two days ; they were employed in 
Tarioos operations in the late war with much success, discharged by a corps called 

CONIC SECTIONS. Their most remarkable properties were probably known to the 
Greeks four or five centuries before the Christian era. The study of them was cul- 
tirated in the time of Flato, 390 b.c. The earliest treatise was written by AriBtseus, 
about 380 b.c. Apollonius's eight books were written about 240 b.c. The para- 
bola was applied to projeetiles by Galileo; the ellipse to the orbit of planets, by Kepler. 

CONJURATION AMD WITCHCRAFT. They were declared to be felony by various 
statutes, and the most absurd and wicked laws were in force against them in these 
countries in former times. — See article Witchoraft. Conjuration was felony by sta- 
tute 1 James I., 1603. This law was repealed 9 Greorge II., 1736 ; but pretensions 
to such skill was then made punishable as a misdemeanour. — Statutes. 

CONNOR, Bishopric of ; in Ireland. This see was united to that of Down, a.d. 
1442. The first prelate was .£ngus Macnisius, who died a.d. 507. The united see 
«f Down and Connor is to have that of Dromore united to it, on the death of the 
present bishop of the latter, by act 3 and 4 William IV., 1833. 

CONQUEST, The. The memorable era in British history, when William duke of 
Normandy overcame Harold II., at the battle of Hastings, and obtained the crown 
which had been most unfairly bequeathed to him by Edward the Confessor (for 
Edgar was the rightful heir) Oct. 14, 1066. William has been erroneously styled 
the Conqueror, fbr he succeeded to the crown of England by compact. He killed 
Hanrfd, who was himself an usurper, and defeated his army, but a large portion of 
the kingdom afterwards held out against him, and he, unlike a conqueror, took an 
oath to obserre the laws and customs of the realm, in order to induce the submission 
of the people. Formerly our judges were accustomed to reprehend any gentleman 
at t he bar who casually gare him the title of William the Conqueror, instead of 

CONSCIENCE, COURTS OF, or of REQUESTS. First constituted by a statute 
of Henry YII. in 1493, and re-organised by stotute 9 Henry VIII. 1517. These 
courts ha?e been improTed and amended by yarious acts ; their jurisdiction in Lon- 
don reaches to 5il, and to 40«. in other towns. The practice is by 8ummons> and if 
the party do not appear, the commissioners hare power to apprehend and commit. 

CONSCRIPT FATHERS. Patrea eontcripti was the designation given to the Romsn 
ienators, and nsed in speaking of them, in the eras of the republic and the Cssars : 
becaase their names were written in the registers of the senate. 

CONSECRATION. That of churches was instituted in the second century, the 
temple of worship being dedicated with pious solemnity to God and a patron saint. 
The consecration of churches, places of burial, &c., is admitted in the reformed reli- 
gion. The consecration of bishops was ordained in the latter church in 1549. — Stowe. 

CONSERVATORS of thk PUBLIC LIBERTIES. Officers chosen in England to 
inspect the treasury, and correct abuses in administration, 28 Henry III. 1244. — 
Rapm, The oonsenrators of the peace were officers appointed to see the king's 
peace kept. A political party under the name of ConserratiTes, whose leading 
principle is the oonservadon of our great and ancient national institutions, has 
sprung up in England sin(^ the discouragement of Orange lodges and societies, 
which latter ha^e been suppressed by rarious late enactments. 




CONSISTORY COURT. Anciently the Consistory wu joined with the HnndRd 
court, and its original, as divided therefrom^ is found in a law of William I. quoted 
by lord Coke, 1079. The chief and most ancient Consistory coort of the kingdom 
belongs to the see of Canterbury, and is called the Court of Arches, which tee. 

corded conspiracies, real or supposed, the following are the most remarkable. They 
are extracted from Camden, Temple, Hume, and other authorities of note :— 





Of the Norman Baroos, against William 

tho Conqueror . Jlx>. 

Against WilUam IL 1068, and 
Against Henry II. I7 his queen and 


Insurrection of Foulk de Brent against 

king Henry lEL .... 
Against the same Ung, for canoelUng 

Mixgna Charta 

Of Edward H.'s q[oeea, when the king 

fell a aaorifloe 1317 

Of the duke of Exeter against the life of 

Henry IT. discorered hj the d r oppin g 

of a paper accidoitally . . . 1400 

Of tho earl of Cambridge and others 

against Henry V 1415 

Of Richard, duke of Glouoester, against 

his nephews, Edward and Toirk,whom 

he caused to he murdered . 1483 

Of the earl of Suffolk and others, against 

Henry VU. . . • . . 1M6 
Insurrection of the London apprentices^ 

7 Henry YHI 1516 

Of Doctor Story and others against qoeen 

ElijEabcth . . . . 

Of Anthony Babington and others, agst. 

Elisabeth. (See Babington.) . . . 
Of Lopos, a Jew, and others 
Of Patrick York, an Irish fencing>mas- 

tcr, hired by the Spaniards to kill the 


Of Walpole, a Jesuit and squire . 
Tyrone's insurrection in Ireland . . 
Against James L hj the marohimteas 

Vcmeuil,hismlstres%andotherp«nons 1004 
The Gunpowder plot (lehieh see) . . 1606 
Tyrone's conspiracy to surprise the 

oastlo ef I>ublin . . • . . I6O7 








Of Sinderoomb and dtbien, to 

ate Olirer Cromwell 
Insnrrectkm of the Puritans 
Insur rec tk m of the flflh monareby^MB 

against Charles U. 
Of Blood and his aasocfcitee. who sdsed 

the duke of Ormond, wounded him, 

and would hare hanged him ; and who 

afterwards stole the crown 
The pretended conqiiraoy of the Frendi, 

Spanish, and Englldi Jesuits to asae- 

sinate Ch. IL rerealed by the infamooi 

Titus Oates, Dr. Tongue, and others 
The Meal-tub plot {which $ee) 
The Rye-4iouse plot to sassssliislii the 

Ung on his way to Newmarket (See 

Jtlft house plot) Itn 

Of lord Preston, the Ushop of Ely, and 

othen, to restore James IL ,\W 

Of GranTille, a French cheraMcr. to 

murder Ui^ William in Flanders . IW 
Of the earl of Aylesbury, called the As- 

assrinition plot {whidt see) .MM 

Of Simon Fraaer, lord Lorat, agatnet 

dneenAnne. BooBAeUiotu . .tm 
Of the marquess Guisoard .1710 

Of James Sheppard, an enthnslast, to 

SBSisstnate George L . . . 1711 

Of counsellor Layer and others, to taring 

in the Pretender . 17B 

Of Odanel Deqiaid and others, to Ofsr- 

tum the gorenunent . . Mtt 

Of Robert Bmmett in Dublin, when 

lord Knwarden was killed, . July SS. 1S08 
Of Moreau, Pichegm, and Georges, 

against Buonaparte Feb. 15, UM 

Of ThisUewood, to assassinate the Ung'e 

ministera (See Cato-etreeL) . IW 

CONSTABLES of HUNDREDS and FRANCHISES. Institnted in the reign of 
Edward I. 1285. These officers are now caOed high constables thronghoat tiie reals. 
There are three kinds of constables, high, petty, and special : the high constable*! 
jnrisdiction extends to tlie whole hundred ; the petty constable's to the parish or 
liberty For which he is chosen ; and the special constable is appointed for particalsr 
occasions and emergencies. 

CONSTABULARY FORCE. That of London hai been regnlated at Tmrions periods. 
— See article Police. Mr. Peel's act, organising a new and more efficient force, 10 
George IV. 1829. The Constabulary of Ireland act passed in 1823, when thif 
species of force was embodied throughout that country. Sereral subsequent acta weie 
consolidated by the statute 6 William lY. 1836. The London Police Improve- 
ment act passed 3 Victoria, 1839. The Counties and District Constabokiy act far 
England, passed 3 Victoria, Ang. 1839. 

CONSTANCE, Council of. The celebrated council of divines (1) which ooodesBned 
the pioQS martjrrs John Huss and Jerome of Prague, to be bamt alire, a sentence 
execated upon the first on July 6, 1415, and on the other, on May 30, following. 
Huss had complied with a summons from the council of Constance to defend hii 
opinions before the clergy of all nations in that city, and though the emperor Sigit- 
mund had given him a safe-conduct, he was cast into prison. Jerome of Prague 
hastened to Constance to defend him, but was himself loaded with chains, and in 

CON [ 146 ] CON 

the end thftred the fate of his friend. This icandalons nolation of public faith, and 
the cruelty and treachery which attended the punishment of these unhappy disciples 
of Wickliffe, our great reformer, prove the melancholy truth, that toleration is not 
the virtue of priests in any form of ecclesiastical government. — Hume. 

CONSTANTINA. The former capital of Numidia. It has become known to Euro- 
peans but very recently, they bdng strangers to it until the French occupation of 
Algiers. Here was fought a great battle between the French and Arabs, Oct. 13, 
1837, when the former carried the town by assault, bat the French general, Damre- 
mont, was kiUed. Achmet Bey retired with 12,000 men as the victors entered 

CONSTANTINOPLE. So called from Constantine the Great, who removed the seat 
of the Eastern Empire here, a.d. 328. Taken by the western crusaders, who put the 
emperor Mourzouile to death, first tearing out his eyes, 1204. Retaken by Michael 
Palieologus, thus restoring the old Greek line, 1261. Conquered by Mahomet II. 
who slew Constantine Palseologus, the last Christian emperor, and 60,000 of his peo- 
ple, 1453. The dty, taken by assault, had held out for fifty-eight days. The un- 
Ibrtnnate emperor, on seeing the Turks enter by the breaches, threw himself into 
the midst of the enemy, and was cut to pieces ; Uie children of the imperial house 
were massacred by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gratify the lust of the 
conqueror. This put an end to the Eastern Empire, which had sabsisted for 1125 
years, and was the foundation of the present empire of Turkey in Europe. — See 
Btutem Empire^ and Turkeif» 

CONSTANTINOPLE, Emx of. This era has the creation placed 5508 years b.c. It 
vras used by the Russians until the time of Peter the Great, and is still used in the 
Greek church. The civil year begins September 1 , and the ecclesiastical year to- 
wards the end of March ; the day is not exactly determined. To reduce it to our era, 
subtract 5508 years from January to August, and 5509 from September to the end. 

CONSTELLATIONS. Those of Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades, and MaxMaroth, 
are mentioned by Job, about 1520 b.c. Homer and Hesiod notice constellations ; 
bat though some mode of grouping the visible stars had obtained in very early ages, 
our first direct knowledge was derived from Claud. Ptolemsus, about a.d. 140. 

CONSTITUTION or ENGLAND. See Magna Charta, It comprehends the whole body 
of laws by which the British people are governed, and to which it is presumptively 
held that every individual has assented. — Lord Somen, This assemblage of laws is 
distinguished from the term government, in this respect — ^that the constitution is 
the rvde by which the sovereign ought to govern at all times ; and government is 
that by which he does govern at any particular time. — Lord Bolingbroke. The king 
of England is not seated on a solitary eminence of power ; on the contrary, he sees 
his 0quab in the co-existing branches of the legislature, and he recognises his supe- 
rior in the law. — Sheridan. 

CONSTITUTION, Ambbican Ship. This vessel, carrying 54 heavy guns, engaged 
the British frigate Guerriere, of 46 guns of smaller calibre ; and in thirty minutes 
tiie latter was reduced to a sinking state, and having lost 100 men in killed and 
wounded, surrendered to the enemy, who lost but 7 men killed, and 7 wounded ; 
August 20, 1812. 

CONSULS. These officers were appointed at Rome, 509 b.c They possessed regal 
authority for the space of a year : Lucius Junius Brutus, and Lucius Tarqoinins 
Collatinus, the latter the injured hnsbuid of Lucretia, were the first consuls. A 
consular government was established in France November 9, 1799, when Buona- 
parte, Cambactfr^, and Lebrun, were made consuls ; and subsequently Buonaparte 
vras made first consul for life. May 6, 1802. Commercial agents were first distin- 

r'ahed by the name of consuls in Italy, in 1485. A British consul was appointed 
Portugal in 1633. 

CONTRACTORS with GOVERNMENT disqualified from sitting in parliament, 1 782. 

CONTRIBUTIONS, VoLrNTAUY. In the two last wars voluntary contributions to a 
vast amount were several times made by the British people in aid of the govern- 
ment. The most remarkable of these acts of patriotism was that in 1798, when, to 
support the war against France, the contributions amounted to two millions and a 
half sterling. Several men of wealth, among others sir Robert Peel, of Bury, Lan- 
eashire, sabaeribed each 10,000/. ; and 200,000/. were transmitted from India in 1799. 

CON f 147 ] COO 

CONVENTICLES. These were privite aisemblies for religious worship, and wen 
particularly applied to those who differed in form and doctrine from the established 
church, fiut the term was first applied in England to the schools of Wickliffe. 
ConTenticles, which were yctj numerous at the time, were prohibited 12 Charlei 
II., 1661. 

CONVENTION PARLIAMENT. There were two memorable parliaments whidi 
were especially distinguished by this name; being parliaments which assembled 
without the king's writ upon extraordinary occasions. The first of these was held 
in March 1660. roting the restoration of Charles II., and afterwards enacting maoj 
salutary statutes. They second was held in 168R, and, by a majority of two imcHf 
declared for a new sovereign, in William III. (and Mary) in preference to a revest 
which was proposed. 

CONVENTIONS. See AUiances, Treaiiet, &c. The foUowing are the priodpil 
treaties entered into between Great Britain and foreign powers, under the title of 
conventionSf and by foreign powers with each other. They are more fully described 
in their respective places through the rolume :— 

Of Paris, with the allies . 
Of Aiz-UrChapelle . Oct 9l Iffll 

Of Austria with England; the latter 
agrees to accept 3.500,0001., as a ooen- 
position for claims on Austria,amount- 
ing to 30,000,0001. sterling . UM 

Of Bngland with Russia. . Feb^ tt, 18» 
Of England and United States Nor. SS. US 
Of Spain, for aaiiatying the daimB of 

BritiBh merchants . Jane SS, US 

Of the Viceroy of Egypt and Sir Ed ward 
Codrington, for restoring the Gredc 
oaptires, &c . Aug: 6. US 

Of France with Brasil . . Aug. 14, IM 
Ccmveotion between Holland and Bel- 

Of aosteraeren . . Sept 10, 1757 
Of Armed Neutrality . . July 9, 1780 
Of PihiiU . . July SO, 1791 

Of Paris (French National) instituted 

Sept. 17, 1799 
Of Cintra {which tfe) . Aug. 30, 18Ue 

Of Dcrlin .... Nov. ff, 1806 
Of Pcterswalden . July 8, 1813 

Of Paris .... April S3, 1814 
Of the Dutch with England, Aug. 13, 1814 
Of Vienna : Saxony placed nnder the 

control of Prussia Sept. S8, 1814 

Of Zurich, signed . May 80,1816 

Of Capua, with Murat May SO, 181A 

Of St. Cloud, between Daronst, and 

Wellington, and Ulucher . July 6, 1815 | gium, signed in London . April 19, lO 

CONVE>fTS. They were first founded, according to some authorities, in a.d. 270. 
The first in England was erected at Folkstone, by Eadbald, in 630.— Caindm. Tbe 
first in Scotland was at Coldingham, when Ethdreda took the veil, in 670. Tliey 
were founded earlier than this last date in Ireland. Conrents were suppressed is 
England in various reigns, particularly in that of Henry VIII., and comparatirdy 
few now exist in Great Britain. More than 3000 have been suppressed in Europe 
within tbe last few years. The emperor of Russia abolished 187 couTents of monki, 
by an ukase dated July 31, 1832. The king of Prussia followed his example, and 
secularised all the conTents in the duchy of Posen. Don Pedro put down 300 con- 
Tents in Portugal in 1834, and Spain has lately abolished 1800 conTents. 

CONVICTS. The first arriTal of transported convicts at Botany Bay, was in 1788. 
On the 20th of January in that year, gOTemor Philip, the first gOTemor, with about 
800 convicts under sentence of transportation, took possession of this settlement, 
but he subsequently remoTcd to Sydney, denominated, from lord Sydney, Sfdnef 
Cove, Convicts are now sent to Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk Island, &c. ; snd 
many thousands of them are transferred to Penitentiaries, and set to labour in tbt 
hulks in several ports of the realm. — See New South W<Uet and Transportation^. 

CONVOCATION of ths CLERGY. The first summoned to meet by writ of tiie 
king, was 23 Edward I., 1295. The power of the convocation was limited bys 
statute of Henry VIII., in whose reign the convocation was re-oiganised. The cleigy 
relinquished the power of taxing themselves in 1665. The two houses of convoca- 
tion were deprived of various privileges in 1716. The meetings of the clergy in 
convocation are now infrequent, and merely formaL 

CONVOLVULUS. The Canary Convolvulus (Convolvulus Canariensis) came to Eng* 
land from the Canary Isles, 1690. The many -flowered Convolvulus, in 1779. 

COOK'S VOYAGES. The illustrious captain Cook sailed from England in the En- 
deavour, on his first voyage, July 30, 1768;* and returned home after having 

♦ A memorial wss presented to the Ung by the Royal Society in 1768, sotting forth the adrantagcs 
which would be derived to science if an accurate observation of the then approaching transit of 

coo [ 148 ] COP 

drcnmnavigated the globe, aniTiog at Spitfaead, July 13, 1771. Sir Joseph Banks, 
afterwards the iUustrions president of the Royal Society, accompanied captain Cook 
in this voyage. Captain Cook again sailed to explore the southern hemisphere, 
July 1772, and returned in July 1775. In his third expedition this great navigator 
was killed by the savages of O-why-hee, at 8 o'clock on the morning of Feb. 14, 
1779. His ships, the Retoluiion and Discovery^ arrived home at SheemesSf Sept. 
22, 1780. 

COOPERAGE. This art must be coeval with the dawn of history, and seems to have 
been early known in every country. The coopers of London were incorporated in 1501. 

COPENHAGEN. Distinguished as a royal residence, a.d. 1443. in 1728, more 
tfaui seventy of its streets and 3785 houses were burnt, its famous palace, valued 
at four millions sterling, was wholly burnt, Feb. 1794, when 100 persons lost their 
lives. In a fire which lasted forty-eight hours, the arsenal, admiralty, and fifty streets 
were destroyed, 1795. Copenhagen was bombarded by the English under lord Nel- 
son and admiral Parker; and in their engagement with the Danish fleet, of twenty- 
three ships of the line, eighteen were taken or destroyed by the British, April 2, 
1801. Again, after a bombardment of three days, the city and the Danish fleet sur- 
rendered to admiral Gambler and lord Cathcart, Sept. 7, 1807. The capture con- 
sisted of eighteen sail of the line, fifteen frigates, six brigs, and twenty.five gun- 
boats, and immense naval stores. — See Denmark. 

COPERNICAN SYSTEM. The system of the worid wherein the sun is supposed to 
be in the centre, and immoveable, and the earth and the rest of the planets to move 
round it in elliptical orbits. The heavens and stars are here imagined to be at rest, 
and the diurnal motion, which they seem to have from east to west, is imputed to 
the earth's motion from west to east This system was published at Thorn, a.d. 
1530 ; and may in many points be regarded as that of Pythagoras revived. — Gassendiu, 

COPPER. It is one of the six primitive metals ; its discovery is said to have pre- 
aeded that of iron. We read in the Scriptures of two vessels of fine copper, pre- 
douB as gold. — Emra viii. 27. The great divisibility of this metal almost exceeds 
belief; a grain of it dissolved in alkali, as pearl ashes, soda, &c., will give a sensible 
colour to more than 500,000 times its weight in water ; and when copper is in a 
state of Aision, if the least drop of water touch the melted ore, it will fiy about like 
shot from a gun. — Boyle. The mine of Fahlun, in Sweden, is the most surprising 
artificial excavation in the world. In England, copper-mines were discovered in 
1561, and copper now forms an immense branch of British trade: there are up- 
wards of fifty mines in Cornwall, where mining has been increasing since the reign 
of William III. 

COPPER-MONEY. The Romans, prior to the reign of Servius TuUius, used rude 
pieces of copper for money. — See Cwn, In England, copper- money is of extensive 
coinage. That proposed by sir Robert Cotton was brought into use in 1 609. Cop- 
per was extensively coined in 16C5. It was again coined by the crown, 23 Charles 
II., 1672. Private traders had made them preriously to this act. In Ireland, 
copper was coined as early as 1339 ; in Scotland in 1 406 ; in France in 1 680. 
Wood's coinage in Ireland, {which tee) commenced in 1723. Penny and two-penny 
pieces were extensively issued, 1797. 

COPPER-PLATE PRINTING. This species of printing was first attempted in Ger- 
many, about a.d. 1450. Rolling-presses for working the plates were invented about 
1545. Messrs. Perkins of Philadelphia, invented, in 1819, a mode of engraving on 
soft sted which, when hardened, will multiply copper-plates and fine impressions 
indefinitely.— See Engraving, 

COPPERAS. First produced in England by Cornelius de Vos, a merchant, in 1587. 

COPYRIGHT. The decree of the Star-chamber regarding it, a.d. 1556. Every 

Vonis over the sun were taken in tho South Sea. The ship Endeavour was, in oonscquence, pre- 
pared for that pu rpoee, and the command of her given to Lieutenant James Cook. Ue sailed in July 
1788, toncfaod at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro, doubled Cape Ilom, and after a prosperous voyage 
readied Otahdte, the place of destination, in April 17C9. By a comparison of the observations made 
on this trandt (June 3, 17G9) from tho various parts of the globe, on which it was viewed by men of 
Bdeoce, tho qr^em of the imivcrae has, in some particulars, been better understood ; the distanco of 
ttiesan fttnn the earth, as calculated by this and the transit In 1/61, is now settled at 108,000,<IOO 
miles, instead of the commonly received computation of 95,000,(NKK»Bttf^. 




book and publication ordered to be licensed, 1585. An ordinmnce forbidding the 
printing of any work without the consent of the owner, 1649. Copyright further 
secured by a statute enacted in 1709. Protection of copyright in prints and engnr- 
ings, 17 George III., 1777. Copyright Protection act, 54 George III. 1814. 
Dramatic authors' protection act, 3 Wil&am lY., 1833. The act for prerentingthe 
publication of lectures without consent, 6 William lY., 1885. The act of the 17th 
George III., extended to Ireland, 7 WiUiam lY., 1836. International copyright 
bill, I Yictoria, 1838. Copyright of designs for articles of manufacture protected. 
2 Yictoria, 1839. For important aet of 1842, tee lAUrarp Property. 

CORDAGE. The naval eordage in eariy ages was, probably, merely thongs of kather ; 
and these primitiTe ropes were retained by the Caledonians in the third century, ud 
by some northern nations in Uie ninth. Cordage of weed and of hone-hair wu alio 
used anciently before that made of hemp. See Hemp. 

CORDELIERS. Friars of the order of St. Francis, and the same with ^e Muioritei. 
They are clothed in eoarse grey cloth, with a small oowl and cloak of the sasae BMt»> 
rial, baring a girdle of cord, or rope, tied with three knots, and hence the bio<^ 
which was first given to them by St. Louis of France, about a.d. 1227. They oeee 
had the degree of doctor in the nnifersity of Paris, and in that dty were all Scotiiti. 

CORFU. So celebrated in mythology and poetry, and capital of the island of theiasie 
name, was placed under British iSmlnistration, by the treaty of Paris in Norenbcr 
1815. It is the chief of the Ionian Isles, wMeh tee. 

CORINTH. This city was built in 1520 and the kingdom fonnded by Sisyphus fai 1376 
B.C. In 146 B.C. the capital was destroyed by the Romans, but was rebuilt bj 
Julius Caesar ; and was among the first cities of Greece that embraced the Chrifdaa 
religion. It was defended by a fortress called Acrocorinth, on a summit of a Ugh 
mountain, surrounded with strong walls. The situation of this citadel was so adm- 
tageous, that Cicero named it the Eye qf Greece, and declared, that of all the dtiai 
known to the Ronums, Corinth alone was worthy of being the seat of a great esapiifr 

Corinth buUt on the ruins of Ephyra, 

(Abb^UngM) b.c . 1A20 

Rebuilt by the king of Sioyon, and iirst 

called by its name . . . 1410 

Sisyphus, a public, robber, seiMS upon 

the city (i<f«m) ' 1375 

The Pythian games institated, it Is said 

by Sisyphus .... 
The reign of Bacchus, whose su cce ss or s 

are called Bacohidc, in remembrance 

of the equity of his reign . 
The Corinthians inrent ships called 

triremes i rossels consisting of three 

benches of oars .... 
Thelestes deposed, and the government 

of the Prytanes instituted: Automenes 

is the first on whom this dignity is 

coniBrred . 





A cdony goes to BSeily, and thtj bofid 

Syraouse . ba 79 

Sea fight between the Ckvinthians snd 

Coroyreans . • . . fM 
Pwiander rules, and encourages geains 

andleaming . i0 

Death of Periander . . W 

The Corinthians form a repubUo . • SO 
War with the Coroyreans . . 49 

The Corinthian war {%phieh tee) . • W 
Acrocorinth (citadel) taken by Axatas . M 
The Roman ambassadors first appear st 

Corinth ... .01 

Corinth destroyed by Lucius Mnmmins 
who sends to Italy the first fine paint- 
ings there seen, they being part of the 
spoil {Livjf) . . 148 

CORINTHIAN ORDER. The finest of all the orders of ancient architecture, apdj 
called by Scamozsi, the Tirginal order, as being expressive of the delicacy, tendemeny 
and beauty of the whole composition. The iuTcntion of it is attributed to Callimachaar 
540 B.c.---See Abactu. 

CORFNTHIAN WAR. The war which received this name, because the battles were 
mostly fought in the neighbourhood of Corinth, was begun b.c. 395, by a confederacy 
of the Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against the LacedsMnoniaDa 
The most famous battles were at Coronea and Leuctra, which tee. 

CORK. Built in the sixth century. The principality of the M*Carcys, was converttd 
into a shire by king John, ss lord of Ireland. A chapter was granted to the dty 
by Henry III. in 1242; its great charter was granted by Charles I. A largs 
part of the town was consumed by an awful fire, in 1621. The earl of Marlboroogh 
besieged and took Cork from king James's army, in 1690, when the duke of 
Grafton, a natural son of Charles II., was slain. The cathedral was built by the 
produce of a coal duty, between the years 1725 and 1735. Explosion of gunpowder 
here, Nov. 10, 1810. 




CORK, Sbb ot. Its fonndAtion is ucribed to St Barr, or Finbarr, early in the 
■eYenth oentarj. About 1431, thb tee and that of Clojne were canoidcally united ; 
bat on the death of Bishop Synge, in 1678, they were separated, the see of Ross 
IttYing been added to Coric about a centory before, a.d. 1582. No Tsluation is re- 
tomed of this see in the king's boolc ; bnt in a mannscript in Marsh's library, it is 
taxed, 31 Elis., at 40/. sterling ; and in a MS. in the College library, at 25/. The sees of 
Cork and Cloyne have been again vnited by act 3 & 4 W. IV., 1833.— See Biihopa, 

CORK-TREE. Called the Queretu tuber^ and resembling the holm ; it is a species 
of the oak, its fmit is an acorn, and its bark when homed makes the cork used for 
stopping bottles, casks, and other articles. Cork was in nse among the ancients. 
The Egyptians made coffins of cork, which being lined with a resinous composition, 
maerfed dead bodies uncorrupted. The tree grows in great abundance on the 
Pyrenean mountains, and in other parts of Spain, in France, and in the north of New 
England. The cork-tree was brought to England before 1690. 

CORN. The origin of its enltinLtion is attributed to Ceres, who hsTing taught the art 
to the Egyptians, was deified by them, 2409 b.c. — Arundelian Marbie*. The art 
of hosband^, and the method of making bread from wheat, and wine from rice, is 
attribnted by the Chinese to Ching Noung, the successor of Fohi, and second 
monarch of China, 1998 b.c. — Univ, Hitt. But com proyided a common article 
of food from the earliest ages of the world, and baking bread was known in the 
patriarchal ages. — See Exodus zli. 15. Wheat was introduced into Britain in the 
sixth century, by Coll ap Coll FnmL^Robert^ Hist. Anc. Britons. The first 
Importation of com of which we haTC a note, was in 1347. Bounties were granted 
on its importation into England, in 1686. Its importation from Ireland into Eng- 
land now forms a Test branch of trade. The new London Com Exchange, Mark- 
lane, London, was opened in June 1828 ; it is of the Grecian-Doric style of archi- 
tecture, and was erected at an expense of 90,000iL 

CORN BILLS. Various enactments regulating the importation of com, have been 
made from time to time ; among the most important recent acts hare been the fol- 
lowing : A bill to permit the exportation of corn was passed in 1814. An act to 
permit its importation when com shall be at eighty shillings per quarter, was passed 
in 1815. During the discussions on this latter bill, mobs assembled in London, 
and many of the houses of its supporters were damaged, January 28 ; and a riot in 
Westminster continued sereral days, and occasioned much mischief, March 21 et 
seq. 1815. The memorable Com Bill, after passing in the Commons, was defeated 
in the House of Lords by a clause, proposed by the duke of Wellington, being 
carried by a minority of four, June 1, 1827. The act whereby wheat was allowed 
to be imported on payment of a duty of 1/. 5«. %d. per quarter, whencTer the aTerage 
price of all England was under 62«.; from 62«. to 63«., I/. As, %d.\ and so gradually 
redooed to Is., when the average price was 73«. and upwards, was passed July 15, 
1828 : this act is designated as the ** sliding scale." The act of the 5th of Victoria, 
passed 29th April 1842, also called the *< sliding scale act," regulated the duty on 
wheat as follows ; with sliding duties also on other articles of com : 

SkUHmgt. akUttmgt. 

under 61 

Bl and under 52 

BS and under U 

65 and under 56 

66 and under 67 
07 and under 58 
66 and under 60 


. I 

£. » 










59 and 

60 and 

61 and 

65 and 

63 and 

64 and 

66 and 


under 60 

under 61 

under 68 

under 63 

under 64 

under 66 

under 66 

m^y. II 

£. «. 









Avtragt ftr qmmtlar. 
ShUtUtgt. 8hiUi»s*' 

66 and under 69 

69 and under 70 

70 and under 71 

71 and under 72 

72 and under 73 

73 and upwards 


d. 0. d, 


CORN-LAWS. Anti-Cokn-Law Lbagub. From Metropolitan and proTindal 
anti^om-law associations sprang the League, headed by Mr. Cobden and others. 
Keetings held in Tarious places, Ui Mardi and April, 1841. Meeting of a disturbed 
diaraeter held at Manchester, May 18, 1841. Basaar held at Mandiester at which 
the League realise 10,000/., Feb. 2, 1842. About 600 deputies connected with pro- 
vincial associations assemble in London and hold numerous meetings from Feb. until 
August 1842. The Lesgue at Manchester announce the intention of raising 
50,000/. in order to depute lecturers throughout the country, print pamphlets, &c. 
Oct. 20, 1842. The League commence a series of meetings at Drary-lane theatre, 

COB Q 151 2 COR 

March 15, 1843. The agitation is resamed by the commencement of a Krin 
of monthly meetings at Co vent- Garden ; and it appeared that the league in the put 
year had received £50,290, and had expended ;f47.814 ; and had distribated 
9,826,000 tracts amoog the people. Sept. 28, 1843. Great (ree>trade meetiogtt 
Manchester, when £12,606 were collec^d as contribations to the league fuuL 
Nov. 14, 1843. 

CORNWALL. Originally called Kemon, a term connected with the Latin Conia, t 
horn, in allusion to its numerous promontories or projecting points. On tbe 
retreat of the ancient Britons, Cornwall was formed into a kingdom, which eziitod 
for many years under different princes, among whom were Ambroaius Aurelins, ud 
the celebrated Arthur. It was erected into a dukedom by Edward III., in 1336, ud 
tiie heir to the Crown of England, if a prince, is bom duke of Cornwall, bat ii 
immediately afterwards created prince of Wales. 

CORONATION. The first coronation by a bishop, was that of Mijocianus, at Coo- 
stantinople, iuA.D. 457. The ceremony of anointing at coronations was introdneed 
into England in 872, and into Scotland in 1097. The coronation of Henry IIL 
took place, in the first instance, without a crown, at Gloucester, October 28, 1216. 
A plain circle was used on this occasion in lieu of the crown, which had been lost vitk 
the other jewels and baggage of king John, in passing the marshes of Lynn, or tbe 
Wash, near Wisbeach. — Matthew Paris. Rymer, At the coronation of king Wil- 
liam and queen Mary, the bishop of London put the crown on the king's head, u 
Dr. Sancroft, the archbishop of Canterbury, would not take the oaths to their ni- 
jesties. George IV. was crowned July 19, 1821. William IV. was crowned, witk 
his queen, Sept. 8, 1831 ; and Victoria, June 28, 1838. 

CORONATION CHAIR. In the cathedral of Cashel, formerly the metropolis of tbi 
kings of Mnnster, was deposited the Lia Fail^ or Fatal Stone, on which they mn 
crowned. In a.d. 513, Fergus, a prince of the royal line, having obtained the 
Scottish throne, procured the use of this stone for his coronation at Dnnstaffnage, 
where it continued until the time of Kenneth II., who removed it to Scone ; and ia 
1296, it was removed by Edward I. from Scone to Westminster. Edward wishiag 
to annex Scotland to his own dominions, dethroned John Baliol, ravaged the cooa- 
try, and seized this stone, among other monuments of Scottish history. 

CORONATION FEASTS, and OATH. The oath was first administered to the 
kings of England by Dunstan (the archbishop of Canterbury, afterwards canonised), 
to Ethelred II. in 979. An oath, nearly corresponding with that now in sie, 
was administered in 1377 ; it was altered in 1689. The fites given at coronatioai 
commenced with Edward I. in 1273. That at the coronation of George IV.rifslled 
the extravagances and sumptuousness of former times. 

CORONEA, Battlb of. Fought in the first year of the Corinthian war. The Athe- 
nians, Thebans, Argives and Corinthians having entered into a league, offensive and 
defensive, against Sparta, Agesilans, after diffusing the terror of his arms, from hb 
many victories, even into Upper Asia, engages the allies at Coronea, a town of 
Boeotia, and achieves a great victory over them, 394 B.C. — Com, Nepas. 

CORONERS. They were officers of the realm in a.d. 925. Coroners for every eonnty 
in England were first appointed by statute of Westminster, 4 Edward I. 1276.— 
Stoive, Coroners were instituted in Scotland in the reign of Malcolm II., about 1004. 
By an act passed in the 6th and 7th of queen Victoria, coroners are enabled to 
appoint deputies to act for them, but only in case of illness. Aug. 22, 1843. 

CORONETS. The caps or inferior crowns, of various forms, that distinguish the raak 
of the nobility. The coronets for earls were first allowed by Henry III. ; forrii- 
counts by Henry VIII. ; and for barons by Charles II. — Baker, But autfaoriiiei 
conflict. Sir Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, was the first of the degree of eari who 
wore a coronet, 1604. — Beatson, It is uncertain when the coronets of dsJcas and 
marquesses were settled. — Idem. 

CORPORATIONS. They are sUted by Livy to have been of very high antiqaitj 
among the Romans. They were introduced into other countries from Italy. These 
political bodies were first planned by Numa, in order to break the force of the two 
rival factions of Sabines and Romans, by instituting separate societies of every 
manual trade and profession. — Plutarch, 

CORPORATIONS, MUNICIPAL, in ENGLAND. Bodies politic, authorised bj 
the king's charter to have a common seal, one head officer, or more, and meBben, 
who are able, by their common consent, to grant or receive, in law, any matter within 

COB [l5l*] OOB 

the compBM of their charter. — Cowel, Corporations were formed by eharten of 
rights granted by the kings of England to Tsrions towns, first by Edward the Con- 
feasor. Henry 1. granted charters, a.d. 1 100 ; and sacceeding monarchs gave cor- 
porate powers, and extended them to numeroas large communities throoghout the 
realm, subject to tests, oaths, and conditions. — Blackstone. The Corporation and 
Test Act Repeal bill passed 9 George IV., May 1828. The Corporation Reform 
bill for the regulation of muncipal corporations in England and Wales passed 
Sept. 9, 183&. The Irish Municipal Corporation bill, altering the entire structure 
of corporations in Ireland, passed 4 Victoria, Aug. JO, 1840. — Statute*, 

CORPULENCY. The most extraordinary instances of corpulency occur in England, 
where many persons are loaded with flesh or fat.— Comaro. In Germany some fst 
monka haTC weighed eighteen stone. — Render, Of modern instances known in this 
coontry, was Mr. Bright, a tallow-chandler and grocer, of Maiden, in Essex, who 
died in the 29th year of his age. Seven persons of the common size were with 
ease enclosed in his waistcoat ; and a stocking, which when sent home to him was 
fonnd too little, was large enough to hold a child of four years old. Mr. Bright was 
•stemmed an honest tradesman, and facetious companion, and was comely in bis 
pereon and affable in his manners : he weighed 42 stone and 12 pounds ; and was 
buried in the church of All Saints, Maiden, Not. 12, 1750. Daniel Lambert, sup- 
poaed to have been the heayiest man that ever lived, died, in his 40th year, at Stam« 
ford, in Lincolnshire, weighing ten atone more than Mr. Bright, June 21, 1809. 

CORREGIDOR* An olScer of justice in Spain, and in the countries subject to the 

Spaniah government, acting as the chief judicial minister in a town or province ; 

the ofBee existed before the name, which ia referred to the fifteenth century. A 

similar f^uictionary heads the police magistracy in Portugal. 
CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE. A compound, in chemistry, which is 200 of mercury 

and 72 of chlorine : this preparation is said to have been known to the Arabians so 

early aa the tenth etaXwrj^^^Athe, 

CORSICA. Called by the Greeks Cymos, The ancient inhabitants of this island 
were savage, and bore the character of robbers, liars, and atheists, according to 
Seneca, when he exiated among them. It waa held by the Carthaginians ; and was 
ooaqoered by the Romans^ 231 B.C. In modern times, Corsica was dependent upon 
the republic of Genoa, until 1730 ; and was sold to France in 1733. It was erected 
into a kingdom under Theodore, its first and only king, in 1736. He came to 
England, where he was imprisoned in the King's Bench prison for debt, and for 
many years subsisted on the benevolence of private friends. Having been released 
by an act of insolvency in 1756, he gave in bis schedule the kingdom of Corsica aa 
an estate to his creditors, and died the same year, at hia lodgings in Chapel-street, 
Soho. The earl of Orford wrote the /ollowing epitaph, on a tablet erected near his 
grave, ia St. Anne's church, Dean-street :— 

** The grave, great teacher ! to a level brings 
Heroes and beggars, galley-BUyea and kings. 
But Theodore this moral leam'd ere dead ; 
Fate potir'd its lesson on his living head, 
Bestow'd a kingdom and denied him bread.** 

The eelehrated Pascal Paoli was chosen for their general by the Corsicans, in 1753. 
He was defeated by the count de Vaux, and fled to England, 1 769. The people 
acknowledged George III. of EngUnd for their king, June 17, 1794, when sir 
Gilbert Elliott was made riceroy, and he opened a parliament in 1795. A revolt was 
■appreased in June 1796 ; and the island was relinquished by the British, Oct. 22, 
same year, when the peof^le declared for the French. 

CORTES OF SPAIN. A deliberative assembly under the old constitution of Spain ; 
several times set aaide. The cortes were newly assembled after a long interval of 
years, Sept. 24, 1810 ; and they settled the new constitution, March 16, 1812. This 
eoastitntion waa set aside by Ferdinand Til., who banished many members of the 
assembly in May, 1814. The cortes or states- general were opened by Ferdinand Vll. 
1820, and they have since been regularly convened. 

CORUNNA, Batti^m of. The British army, under the command of Sir John Moore, 
amountii^f to about 15,000 men, had just accomplished a safe retreat when thej were 
attacfccMl by the Frendi, whose force exceeded 20,000 : the enemy were completely 
lapulsed, hot the loss of the British in the battle was immense. The illustrious and 

COR C 151 ** ] OOT 

hoDoared hero in command wu itmck by a eannon-bnll, which carried away his left 
shoulder and part of the collar-bone, leading the arm hanging by the flesh : he died 
in the arms of Tictory, oniTcrsally lamented. In the CTening of the day of battle, 
the remains of the army hastily embarked at Conmna, Jan. 16, 1809. The signal 
triumph which crowned this conflict is not more memorable than the ardaou 
retreat which preceded it ; retiring before a foe greatly saperior in numbers, ud 
from a country in which he had found no co-operation ; both these achierementi 
have placed sir John Moore upon the highest pinnsde of fame. 

CORYBANTICA, Fbstivaxs of. Held at Cnossus, in Crete, in commemorstion q( 
the Corybantes, priests of Cybele : they first inhabited Mount Ida, and from thenee 
passed into Crete, where they are said to have secretly educated Jupiter. — Horaee. 
In the celebration of these festivals they beat their cymbals in the d!anoe, and acted 
as if delirious, 1546 B.C. — 7*AtMfdufeff. 

CORYPHEUS. The name given to the principal of those who compote the chorus in 
the ancient tragedy ; and now a general name for a chief or principal of any com- 
pany. — South. This appellative occurs in describing the chomaea taaght by Tysiii, 
afterwards named Sterichorus, on account of his having been the first who instraetsd 
the chorus to dance to the lyre, 556 b.c 

COSMETICS. Preparations for improving beauty were known to the ancients, sad 
some authorities refer them even to mythology, and others to the Grecian stsge. 
The Roman ladies painted ; and those of Italy exo^«i in heightening their ehami 
artificially, by juices and colours, and by pernimes. Rouge haa always been in dii- 
repute among the virtuous and well-cohered women of England, though sons 
simple cosmetics are regarded as innocent, and are in general use.^-^til#. The 
females of France and Germany paint more highly tluji most other nations.— 
Richardson, A stamp was laid on cosmetics, perfumery, and such ^"^^^^-rnm as 
really or supposititiously beautify the skin, or perfume the peraon, and the venders 
were obliged to take out licences, 26th Geo. III. 1786. 

COSMOGRAPHY. The scienoe which teaches the structure, form, diapoaltbB, snd 
relation of the parts of the world, or the manner of repreaenting it on a pUiie.— 
Selden, It consisU of two parte, astronomy and geography : the earlieat aceoants 
of the former occur 2234 b.c. — Bkiir. The first record of the latter ia from Hoaief, 
who describes the shield of Achilles as representing the earth.— i/toi/. See tbe 
articles on Astronomy and Geography respectively. 

COSSACKS. The warlike people inhabiting the confines of Poland, Rnsaia, Tartaiy, 
and Turkey. They at first lived by plundering the Turkish galleys and the people 
of Natolia : they were formed into a regular army by Stephen Batori, in 1576, to 
defend the frontiers of Russia from the incursions of the Tartars. In the late great 
wsr of Europe against France, a vast body of Cossacks formed a portion of the 
Russian armies, and fought almost invincibly. 

COSTUME. See Dress. Accounts of magnificent attire refer to very remote anti- 
quity. The costume of the Grecian and Roman ladies was comely and gracefaL 
The women of Cos, whose country was fsmous for the silkworm, wore a manufiac- 
ture of cotton and silk of so beautiful and delicate a teiture, and their garments, 
which were always white, were so clear and thin, that their bodies could be seen 
through them. — Ovid. As relates to costume worn on the stage, JEschylus the 
Athenian was, it is said, the first who erected a regular stage for his actors, 
and ordered their dresses to be suited to their characters, about 436 b. c.— 
Parian Marbles, 

COTTAGES IN England. The English cottage is, perhaps, the happiest dweUiof 
on the earth, and its cleanly hearth and general aspect aod economy indicate the 
social order of its inmates ; even though homely it is full of comforts and the abode 
of contentment — Richardson. The home of the husbandman has considerably 
improved in England in the last century. — Hall. The term cottage originally applied 
to a small house without land, 4 Edward I. 1275. ^ No man may build a oottage, 
except in towns, unless he lay four acres of land thereto,*' &c. 31 Elizabeth, 1589. 
This statute was repealed, 15 George III. 1774. By returns to the Tax office in 
1786, the number of cottages was 284,459. The number in 1800 was 428,214 ; and 
the present nnmber ii laid to be about 770,000. 




COTTON. The method of tpimung cotton formerly wet by the hand ; but abont 1 767 » 
Mr. HargreaTes, of Lancashire, invented the tpinnine-jenny with eight spindles ; he 
alao erected the first carding-machine with cylinders. Sir Richard Arkwright 
obtained a patent for a new invention of machinery in 1769 ; and another patent for 
an engine in 1775. Crompton invented the mule, a farther and wonderful improve- 
ment in the mannfiiicture of cotton, in 1779, and various other improvements have 
been since made. The names of Peel and Arkwright are eminently conspicuous in 
connexion with this vast source of British industry ; and it is calculated that more 
than one thousand millions sterling have been yielded by it to Great Britain. Cotton 
minnfecturers* ntensila were prohibited from being exported in 1774. There have 
passed of late years many important acts regulating cotton fiitctories, and particularly 
relating to the employment of children ; among these are the acts of 6 George IV. 
1825 ; 2 William lY. 1831 ; 4 William lY. Aug. 1833, et $eq. 

COTTONIAN LIBRARY. Formed b^ great labour and with great judgment by sir 
Robert Cotton, a.d. 1600 ei uq. This vast treasury of knowledge, after having been 
with difficulty rescued from the Airy of the republicans during the protectorate, was 
•ecared to the public by a statute, 13 William III. 1701. It was removed to Essez- 
houae in 1712 ; and in 1730 to Dean's-yard, Westminster, where, on Oct 23, 1731, 
a part of the books sustained damage by fire. The library was removed to the 
British Museum in 1753. 

COUNCILS. An English council is of very early origin. The wise Alfred, to whom 
we are indebted for many excellent institutions, so arranged tbe business of the 
nationy that all resolutions passed through three councils. The first was a select 
oDuncUy to which those only high in the king's confidence were admitted ; here were 
debated all affairs that were to be laid before the second council, which consisted of 
biahope and nobles, and resembled the present privy council, and none belonged to 
it bat those whom tiie king was pleased to appoint. The third was a general council 
w aseembly of the nation, called in Saxon, Wittenagemot, to which quality and 
oflioet gave a right to sit, independent of the king. In these three councils we 
behold tiie origin of the cabinet and privy councils, and the antiquity of parliaments ; 
bat the term cabinet council is of a much more modem date, according to lord 
Clarendon.— See Cabinet Council, Common Council, Privy Council, j-e. 

COUNCILS OF THX CHURCH. The following are among the most important and 
memorable Christian councils, or conndls of the Church of Rome. Most other 
ooandls and synods (the list of which would make a volume) either respected 
national churches or the ecclesiastical government of particular cities. 

60 The fifth at Constantinople, when pope 

Tigilliu presided . aj>. 663 

The sixth at Constantinople, when pope 
Agatho presided .... 680 
S14 Authority of the six general councils re- 
established hy Theododus . . 716 
The second Nioene council, seventh Ge- 
neral: 3fi0 bishops attended . 787 
Of Constantinople ; eighth General : the 
886 emperor BasQ attended . . 889 
The first Lateran, the ninth General : 

336 tiie right of inTMtitures settled by 
treaty between pope Calixtus IL and 

337 the emperor Henry y 1188 

The second Lateran, tenth General, 

340 Innocent IL presided: the prMerva- 

347 tion of the temporal ties of ecclesias- 
tics, the principal subject, which occa- 
sioned the attendance of 1000 fsthera 
of the church ..... 1139 
The third Lateran, eleventh General: 
held against schismatics . .1179 

381 Fourth Lateran, twelfth General: 400 
bishops and 1000 abbots attended: 

431 Innocent III. presided . 1816 

Of Lyons, the thirteenth General, under 

461 pope Innooent IT 1246 

Of the Apostles at Jerusalem . a.d. 
Of tbe western bishops at Aries, in 

France, to s u p pr es s the Donatists; 

three fsthera of the Rngllsh church 

went over to attend it . 
The first OBoumenical or General Ni- 

oaie,held at Nice, Constantine tbe 

Great presided: Arins and Eusebius 

condemned for heresy. This council 

composed the Nicene creed 
At Tyre, when the doctrine of Athana- 

Tbe first held at Constantinople, when 

the Arian heresy gained ground 
At Rome, oonoeming Athaaasius, which 

lasted eighteen months . . 

At 8ardia : 370 bishope attended . 
Of Rimini : 400 bishops attended, and 

Constantine obUged them to rign a 

new confeasion of faith 
The second General at Constantinople: 

380 bishopa attended, and pope Dama- 

sios presided 
The third at Bphesus, when popeCelee- 


Fourth at Chaloedon : the emperor Mar- 

eian and his empress attended . 




Of BaaO, the eighteenth Geoflnl . aj>. 1431 

The fifth UkUsnaa, the nineteenth General, 
hegun by Julius LL . . . . ISli 

Continued under Leo X. for the enp^et- 
sion of the Pragmatic amction d 
France, against the council of Piia, 

Of Trent, the twentieth and last General 
councU, styled QBcumenical, as regard* 
ing the affairs of all the Christisn 
world: it was held Ui oondemn the 
doctrines of the reformers, Luther, 
ZuingUujy and Calrin.— ^M^ Lett^ . IMS 


Of Lyons, the fourteenth Goieral, under 

Gregory X ajk 1274 

Of Yienno in Dauphin^, tiie fifteenth 

General: Clement Y. presided, and 

the kings of France and Arragon at- 
tended. The order of the Elnlght 

Templars suppressed • . .1311 

Of Pisa, the sixteenth General: Gregory 

XIL and Benedict XIH. deposed, and 

Alexander elected . . . 1409 

Of Constance, the serenteenth General : 

Martin Y. is elected pope ; and John 

Huas and Jerome of Prague condemned 

to be burnt 1414 

COUNCILS, Frbnch Rkpublican. The council of Ancibnts was an assembly of 
reTolationary France, consisting of 250 members, instituted at Paris, Not. 1, 1795. 
together with the council of Fiyb Hundrbd ; the executive was a Directory of 
FIVE. Buonaparte dispersed the council of Five Hundred at St. Cloud, Nor. 9, 
1799, declaring himself, Roger Ducos, and Si^yes, consuls proruotrM.-— See Frana. 

COUNSEL. See Barristers, Counsel who were guilty of deceit or coUusioD woe 
punishable by the statute of Westminster, 13 Edwanl 1. 1284. Counsel were allowed 
to persons charged with treason, by act 8 William III. 1696. Act to enable pemsi 
indicted of felony to make their defence by counsel^ 6 and 7 William IV. Aug. 1836. 

COUNTIES. The division of this kingdom into counties began, it is said, with )dag 
Alfred ; but some counties bore their present names a century before. The diviiiMi 
of Ireland into counties took place in 1562. County courts were instituted in tbe 
reign of Alfred, 896. Counties first sent members to parliament, before which period 
knights met in their own counties, 1258. — See Commons, and Parliament. 

COURIERS OR POSTS. Xenophon attributes the first couriers to Cyrus; and 
Herodotus says that they were common among the Persians. But it does not appear 
that the Greeks or Romans had regular couriers till the time of Augustus, whentl^y 
travelled in cars, about 24 B.C. Couriers or posts are said to have been institated 
in France by Charlemagne, about a.d. 800. The couriers or posts for letters wen 
established in the early part of the reign of Louis XI. of France, owing to thif 
monarch's extraordinary eagerness for news. They were the first institution of tbe 
kind in Europe, a.d. 1463. — HenauU. 

COURT PARTY—COUNTRY PARTY. The latter, most usually direcUy oppoted 
in sentiment to the former, was a class of politicians of very fluctuating nnmberii 
and varying power, in the kingdom and parliaments of England. The title took itt 
origin as early as 1620, during the disputes of king and commons. At the end of 
the same century, their party principles embodied the high toryism and high church 
principles of the day, including a general if not universal bias to Jaoobitism, with a 
strenuous maintenance of the assumed rights of '* the land,'' as opposed to the inno- 
vations of Whiggism and the corruptions of the trading or moneyed interests-Hwr 
first Hanoverian kings, George I. and II., being ever supposed to favour the latter 
too much. The most distinguished statesman latterly of the Country Party was sir 
Thomas Hanmer (the Montaito of Pope's Satires), bom 1677, died 1746. 

COURTESANS. In all ages and countries courtesans have existed where refineoieBt 
and luxury abounded ; and many women of Egypt, Greece, Persia, and Rome, and 
the States of Italy, and in later times of France, have bi^en celebrated for their 
extraordinary beauty and debaucheries. Among very celebrated women of thit daaa, 
may be mentioned Lais. She first began to sell her favours at Corinth, for 10,000 
drachmas ; and the immense number of princes, nobles, and philosophers who 
courted her embraces, stands a record of her personal charms. Even Demostheoea 
himself visited Corinth for the sake of Lais. Diogenes, the cynic, was one of her 
admirers, and gained her heart, and enjoyed her most unbounded favours .* she wss 
assassinated in Thessaly, in the temple of Venus, about 340 b.c. — Piuiarek. 
Phryne, of Athens, was the loveliest woman of her time, and Apelles made her 
the model of his Venus Anadyomene. She became so rich by the liberality ot her 
lovers, that she offered to rebuild, at her own expense, Thebes, which Alexander had 
destroyed. — Ptu, Dem, Phryne was accused of impiety, and when she saw tbattht 

TOU [] 154 ] coy 

was about to be condemned, the unveiled her botom, and her judges were so influenced 
bj the sight of her beauty that they instantly acquitted her, about 328 b.c.— Qutn. 

COURTS. Conrts of justice were instituted at Athens, 1507 b.c. — See Areopagiiw, 
There were conrts for the distribution of justice in Athens, in 1272 b.c. — Blair, 
They existed under Tarions denominations in Rome, and other countries. For courts 
of justice in these realms, see Chancery , Qmmon Fleas, Exchequer, King* s Bench, 
Slc The citixens of London were privileged to plead their own cause in the courts 
of judicature, without employing lawyers, except in pleas of the crown, 41 Henry III. 
1257. — Stowe't Chron. The courts of law of England and Ireland were separated 
by a British act of parliament, in April 1783. 

COURT BARON. An ancient court which every lord of a manor may hold by pre- 
■eriptionf and which he may keep in some part of the manor. In this court, duties, 
heriots, and customs are received, and estates and surrenders are passed. 

COURT OF HONOUR. In England, the court of chivalry, of which the lord high 
constable was a judge, was called Curia MilUaris in the time of Henry IV., and sub- 
•equently the Court of Honour. In the States of Bavaria, in order to prevent 
doelliDgy a court of honour was instituted in April, 1819. In these countries, Mr. 
Joaeph Hamilton has been ardently labouring, during a number of years, for tha 
establishment of similar institutions. 

COURT LEET. A court of record belonging to a hundred, instituted for punishing 
encroachments, nuisances, and fraudulent weights and measures, and also offences 
i^gainst the crown. The steward is the judge, and all persons residing within the 
hundred (peers, clergymen, &c., excepted), are obliged to do suit within this court. 

COURT OF REQUESTS. This court, which is also called a Court of Conscience, was 
Arst instituted in the reign of Henry VI 1., 1493, and was remodelled by a statute of 
Henry VIII. in 1517. — Stowe, This court is for the summary recovery of small debts 
under forty shillings, but in the city of London, the jurisdiction extends to debts of five 
pounds. There are courts of requests in the principal corporate towns throughout 
the kingdom, and their functions have been regulated by various succeeding statutes. 

COVENANT. That of God with Abraham, in memorial whereof the rite of circum- 
cision was instituted, and Abraham circumcised himself, was made 1897 b.c.^- 

COVENANTERS. The name which was particularly applied to those persons who in 
the reign of Charies I. took the solemn league and covenant, thereby mutually engag- 
ing to stand by each other in opposition to the projects of the king ; it was entered 
into in 1638. The covenant or league between England and Scotland, was formed 
in 1643 ; it was declared to be illegal by parliament, 14 Charles II., 1662. 

COVENT GARDEN. So called from having been formeriy the garden of St. Peter's 
convent ; the square was built about 1633, and its noble piazza on the north side 
was designed by Inigo Jones. The fruit and vegetable market was rebuilt in 1829-30 
from the designs of Mr. Fowler ; it occupies about three acres of ground. 

COVENT GARDEN THEATRE. This theatre sprung out of the celebrated one in 
Linoc^Vinn>fields, and is indebted for its origin to a patent granted 14 Charles II., 
1662, to sir William Davenant, whose company was denominated the duke's servants, 
as a compliment to the duke of York, afterwards James II. The theatre which pre- 
ceded the present, was first opened by the celebrated Rich, about 1732, but after 
undergoing several alterations, was destroyed by fire, Sept. 20, 1808. The new 
theatre was erected during the ensuing year, the first stone having been laid by the 
dnke of Sussex, Dec. 31, 1808, and it opened Sept. 18, 1809, with Macbeth. The 
memorable O.P. riot, on account of the increased of prices of admission, commenced 
on the first night, and did not terminate until Dec. 10, following. The Covent 
Garden Theatrical Fund was instituted in 1765. — See Drama, Theatres, &c. 

COVENTRY. LeofHc earl of Merda, was the lord of Coventry, about a.d. 1040. A 
parliament was held here in the reign of Henry IV., called parliamentum ituioctum, 
or the unlearned parliament, because the lawyers were excluded. The town was well 
built, and was surrounded with strong walls, which were three miles in circumference, 
and twenty-six towers, which were demolished by order of king Charles II. in 1662. 

COVENTRY BisnoFBic of. Founded by Oswy, king of Mercia, a.d. 656. This 
has the double name of Coventry and lidhfldid, which is reversed by the present 

COV C '55 ] CRA 

bishops. It wu to extremely wealthy, that king Offa, by the favoar of pope Adrian, 
made it archiepiscopal ; but this title was laid aside on the death of that king. In 
1075 the see was removed to Chester ; in 1102, to Co?entry ; and afterwards to iti 
original foundation, Lichfield, but with great opposition from the monks of CoTentrj. 
The dispute was finally settled in a manner nearly similar to that mentioned between 
Bath and Wells. This see has given three saints to the church. It was valued in the 
king's book at ;^559 18«. 2d. per annum. 

COVENTRY, PEEPING TOM of. The great show fur of Coventry owes its origin 
to the following tradition : — Leofiic, earl of Merda, had imposed rach heavy taxes 
on the citizens, his lady, Godiva, moved by their entreaties, importoned her lord to 
remit them, and he consented on the condition of her riding naked through the city 
at mid-day. Her humanity induced her to consent, and she so disposed her flowing 
tresses as to hide her person ; and ordering all the inhabitants, on pain of death, 
to close their doors and windows, she rode quite naked through the town. Ose 
person, yielding to curiosity, stole a glance at the countess, and was struck dead; 
and has been famed ever since under the name of Peeping Tom, and his effigy is 
shown to this day. To commemorate this event, a.d. 1057, at the great show (air 
the mayor and corporation walk in procession through the town, accompanied by i 
female on horseback, clad in a linen dress closely fitted to her limbs. 

COW-POCK INOCULATION. This species of inoculation, as a security against the 
small-pox, was introduced by Dr. Jenner, audit became general in 1799. The 
genuine cow-pox appears in the form of vesicles on the teats of die cow, and 
was first noticed by Dr. Jenner, in 1796. He was rewarded by parliament with 
the munificent grant of ;^10,000, June 2, 1802.— See InoeuUUion, SmaU-Pot, 

CRACOW. The Poles elect Cracus for their duke, and he builds Cracow with the spofli 
taken from the Franks, a.d. 700, et $eq. Taken by Charles XII. in 1702 ; taken 
and retaken by the Russians and confederates on the one side, and the patriotic 
people on the other several times. Kosciusko expelled the Russian garrison frooi 
the city, March 24, 1794. It surrendered to the Prussians, June 15, same yeir. 
Formed into a republic in I8I5. Occupied by 10,000 Russians who followed there 
the defeated Poles, Sept. 1831.— See Poland, 

CRANES. They are of very early date, for the engines of Archimedes may be so called. 
The theory of the inclined plane, the pulley, &c are also his, 220 b.c. — Irtey. 

CRANIOLOGY. The science of animal propensities. Dr. Grail, a German, started 
this new doctrine respecting the brain, in 1803. Dr. Spnrzheim followed, and bj 
his expositions gave a consistency to the science, and it seems to be rapidly gainiDg 
ground ; it has now many professors, and in almost all countries craniology is coud- 
tenanced by learned and enlightened men. The science assigns the particular loca- 
tions of certain organs, or as many different seats of the most prominent operatioos 
of the mind. 

CRANMER, LATIMER, and RIDLEY. Illustrious names in the list of Eiiglish 
martyrs of the reformed religion. Ridley, bishop of London, and Latimer, bishop 
of Worcester, were burnt at Oxford, Oct. 16, 1555 ; and Cranmer, archbislM^ of 
Canterbury, March 21, 1556. His love of life had induced Cranmer, some time 
previously, in an unguarded moment, to sign a paper wherein he condemned the 
Reformation ; and when he was led to the stake, and the fire was kindled rooad 
him, he stretched forth his right hand, with which he had signed his recantation, that 
it might be consumed before the rest of his body, exclaiming firom time to dme, 
''This unworthy hand!" Raising his eyes to heaven, he expired with the dying 
prayer of the first martyr of the Christian church, " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit ! 

CRANON, Battles of. The Macedonians under Antipater and Cratems are ricto- 
rious over the confederated Greeks, whom they defeat twice by sea, and once by land, 
near Cranon. The Athenians demand peace, and Antipater, the conqueror, poti 
their orators to death. Among them was Hyperides, who, that he might not betray the 
secrets of his country, when under torture, cut out his tongue, 322 b.c. — Dn/resnoff* 

CRAPE. A light kind of stuff like gauze, made of raw silk gummed and twisted o& 
the mill. Its manufacture is of very early date, and it is said some crape was made 
by St. Badour, when queen of France, about a.d. 680. It was first made at Bologus, 
and in modem times has been principally used for mourning. 

CRA [ 156 ] CRI 

CRAYON& They were known in France before a.d. 1 422— improved by L'Oriui, 1 748. 

CREATION OF TBI WORLD. It is placed by Usher, Blair, and Dufresnoy, 4004 
B.C. Joaephos makes it 4658 years. — fVhuton. The first date agrees wUn the 
common Hebrew text, and the mlgate Latin translation of the Old Testament. 
There are about 140 different dates assigned to the Creation : some place ic Jo '.6 
years before the birth of oar Savionr. Plato, in his dialogue entitled CriiiaSf asserts 
his celebrated AtalaniU to have been buried in the ocean about 9000 years before 
the age in which he wrote. The Chinese represent the world as having existed some 
hundreds of thousands of years ; and we are told that the astronomical records of the 
andent Chaldeans carried back the origin of society to a period of no less than 
473,000 years. 

CREATION, EmA of thb. In nse by many nations. This era would be found eon- 
▼enient, by doing away with the difficulty and ambiguity of counting before and after 
any particular date, as is necessary when the era begins at a later period ; but, unfor- 
tunately, writers are not agreed as to the right time of commencing. This epoch is 
fixed by the Samaritan Pentateuch at 4700 b.c. The Septuagint makes it 5872. 
The authors of (he Talmud make it 5344 ; and different chronologers, to the number 
of 120, make it vary from the Septuagint date to 3268. Dr. Hales fixes it at 541 1 ; 
but the Catholic church adopted the even number of 4000, and subsequently, a cor- 
rectioo as to the birth of Christ adds four years : therefore, it is now generally con- 
sidered as 4004 years, which agrees with the modem Hebrew text. 

CREED. The Apostles' Creed is supposed to have been written a great while after 
their time. — Pardon* It was introduced formally into public worship in the Greek 
church at Antioch, and subsequently into the Roman church. This creed was 
translated into the Saxon tongue, about a.d. 746. The Nicene Creed takes its name 
from the council by whom it was composed, in a.d. 325. The Athanasian Creed is 
soppoaed to have been written about 340. — See Apostl€i\ Nieene, and other creeds. 

CRfiSSY, om CRECY, Battlb of. Edward III. and his son, the renowned Edward 
the Black Prince, obtain a great and memorable victory over Philip, king of France, 
Aug. 26, 1346. This was one of the most glorious triumphs ever achieved by English 
arms. John, duke of Bohemia ; James, king of Majorca ; Ralph, duke of Lorraine 
(sovereign princes) ; a number of French nobles, together with 30,000 private men, 
were slain, while the loss of the English was very small. The crest of the king of 
Bohemia was three ostrich feathers, with the motto ** Jch Dien/^ in English, ^* I 
serve ;" and in memory of this victory it has since been adopted by the heirs to the 
crown of England.— #'roissar/. Carte f Hume, 

CRESTS. The andent warriors wore crests to strike terror into their enemies by the 
sight of the spoils of the animals they had killed. The origin of crests is ascribed to 
tlM Carians. In English heraldry, are several representations of Richard I. 1189, 
with a crest on the hdmet resembling a plume of feathers ; and after his reign most of 
the English kings have crowns above their helmets; that of Richard II., 1377, was sur- 
mounted by a lion on a cap of dignity. In later reigns, the crest was regularly borne as 
wdl on the helmets of the kings, as on the head-trappings of their horses. — See Cretey. 
Alexander III. of Scotland, 1249, had a plume of feathers, by way of crest ; and the 
helmet of Robert I. was surmounted by a crown, 1306 ; and that of James I. by a 
lion, 1424. From this period crests appear to have been very generally borne both in 
England and Scotland. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the palmy days of 
heraldry, the crest was described to be, as it still is, a figure placed upon a wreath, 
coronet, or cap of maintenance. — GwUlim. 

CRETE. Now Candis, which tee. This island was once famous for its hundred cities, 
and for the laws which the wisdom of Minos established about 1015 b.c Some 
authors reckoned the Labyrinth of Crete as one of the seven wonders of the world. 
Crete became subject to Uie Roman empire, 68 b.c It was conquered by the Sara- 
cens, a.d. 808 ; taken by the Greeks, 961 ; passed into the hands of the Venetians, 
1194 : and was taken from them by the Turks, in 1669.^ Priestlep. 

CRIME. *' At the present moment,'' observes a popular periodical writer, " a one-fif- 
teenth part of the whole population of the United Kingdom is subsisting by the lowest 
and most degra^Ung prostitution ; another fifteenth have no means of support but by 
robbery, swindling, pickpocketing, and every species of crime ; and five-fifteenths of the 
people are what it denominated poor, living from hand to mouth, and daily sinking into 

M 2 

cm C 157 ] CRO 

beggary, and, as an almost necessary oon8e<JQence, into crime." A comparative view 
of foreign countries with Great Britain demonstrates the effects of poverty and igno* 
ranee on the great mass of the population. In North America pauperism is almoit 
unknown, and one-fourth of the people are educated ; pre-meditated murder U 
alone capital ; imprisonment for debt has, in several states, been abolished, ind 
crimes, particularly of enormity, are exceedingly rare. The Dutch, who possea i 
competency, and are generally educated, are comparatively free from grave offences; 
and France affords a remarkable illustration in the same way. But in the United 
Kingdom, the difference is painfully exemplified : — 

Scotland. England. Ireland, 
Instruction of the people . . 1 in 11 .. 1 in SO .. I in 35 

Criminals among the people . . . 1 in 5093 . . 1 in 9S0 . . 1 in 46B 

We have recently had a salutary revision of our criminal code, and several acts hxn 
been passed calculated to reduce the amount of crime, and mitigate die severity 
of its punishment. An act for improving the criminal law of England, passed 
8 George IV., 1827. An act for consolidating and revising the laws relatinf to 
crime, conformably with Mr. Peel's digest, passed 9 George IV., 1828. Hanging 
criminals in chains was abolished by statute 4 William IV., 1834. — See JSj^eeuiimu^ 
Hanging, Trials, &c. 

CRIMEA. The ancient Tauriea Chertonesus. Settled by the Genoese, in 1193. 
The Genoese were expelled by the Crim Tartars, in 1474. The khans were tributary 
to the Turks until 1774. The Russians, with a large army, took possession of thii 
country, in 1783 ; and it was ceded to them in the following year ; and secured to 
them in 1791. 

CRIMPING HOUSES. These were houses in London and other towns, used for 
the purpose of entrapping persons into the army ; and hence the name of ** criop 
sergeant.** In a riot, in London, some of these receptacles were destroyed by the 
populace, in consequence of the death of a young man who had been enticed into 
one of them, and who was killed in his endeavours to escape from it, Sept.l6, 1794. 
They were again attacked in London by large mobs the next year ; but they were 
sav^ by the military. 

CRIPPLEGATE, London. This well-known locality was so called, from thelssM 
beggars who sat there, so early as the year 1010. The gate was new-built by tke 
brewers of London, in 1244 ; and was pulled down and sold for ninety-one pounds, in 
July 1 760. — See article London Gates. 

CRISPIN. The name sometimes given to shoemakers. Crispin and Crispianus were 
two legendary saints, bom at Rome, from whence, it is said, they travelled to Soii- 
Bons, in France, about a.d. 303, to propagate the Christian religion ; and beesois 
they would not be chargeable to others for dieir maintenance, they exercised the trade 
of shoe-makers ; but tLe governor of the town discovering them to be Christisnii 
ordered them to be decollated. On this account, the shoe-makers, since that period, 
have made choice of them for their tutelar saints. 

CRITICS. The first society of them was formed 276 B.c.^Blair. Of this diss wen 
Varro, Cicero, Apollonius, and many distinguished men. In modem times, the 
Journal des Sfavans was the earliest work of the system of periodieal ultitisBysi 
it is now known. It was originated by Denis de Sallo, ecclesiastical connsellor in 
the parliament of France, and was first published at Paris, May 30, 1665, and con- 
tinued for nearly a century. The first work of this kind in England, was called the 
Heview of Daniel Defoe (the term being invented by himself) publishcid in Feb. 1703. 
The Waies of Literatures^ commenced in 1714, and was discontinued in 1722* 
The Monthly Review, which may be said to have been the third work of this natnrt 
in this country, was published in 1749. The Critical Review appeared in 1756; 
the Bdinb9irgh Review, in 1802 ; and London Quarterly in 1809. The Iqi^dtty 
of fair criticism was established in the English courts, in Feb. 1794, when an actioe^ 
that excited great attention, brought by an author against a reviewer for a severs 
critique upon his work, was determined in favour of the defendant, on the prin> 
ctple that criticism, however sharp, if just, and not malicious, is allowable* 

CROCKERY. In use, and made mention of, as produced bv the Egyptians and 
Greeks, so early as 1390 B.C. The Romans excelled in this kind of ware, many of 
Ijatie domestic articles being of earthen mannfacture. Crockeryi of a fine kind, in 

CRO [[ 158 ] CRP 

Tuioos houiefaold QtencUi, wai made at Faensa, in Italy, about a.d. 1310 ; and it 
is still called faytnee in F^«nch«— See Barthewware. 

CROSIER. A bishop's staff, in the form of a shepherd's crook, intended to admonish 
tiie prelate to be a tme spiritoal shepherd. The custom of bearing a pastoral staff 
before him is Terj ancient, as appears from the life of St. Cesarea of Aries, who 
lired abont a.d. 500. 

CROSS. That on which the RssKBicBm suffered on Mount Calrary, was found at 
Jerusalem, deep in the ground, by St. Helena, May 3^ a.d. 328. Three crosses 
were found ; but that of our Saviour was distinguished from those of the thieres by 
■ sidL woman being immediately cured upon touching it ! — Butler, It was carried 
away by Cosroes^ king of Persia, on the plundering of Jerusalem ; but was reco- 
rered by the emperor Heradius (who defeated him in battle) Sept. 14, 615, and that 
day has been since commemorated as a festivaL It is asserted by church writers 
tiiat a shining cross, two miles in length, was seen in the heayens by Constantine, 
and that it led him to adopt it on his standards, with the inscription, " In hoc signo 
wtaees;** '* in this sign thou shalt conquer." With these standards he advanced 
under the walls of Rome, where he vanquished Maxentius, driving his army into 
the Tiber, Oct. 27, '6\2,^Lenglet, 

CROSS, SIGN OF THE, &C. First practised by the Christians, thereby to distinguish 
thenuBdves from the Pagans, about a.d. 110. The Exaltation of the Holy Cross (J?jr- 
aitaiw CrveU), a feast held on the 14th Sept, was instituted on the restoration of 
tiie cross to Mount Calvary, in 642. Maids of the Cross were a community of 
young women, who made vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, instituted in 
1265. The Order of the Cross was instituted by the empress Eleonora de Gonzagna, 
queen of Leopold I., being an order of the higher rank, founded in 166S. 

CROSSES. Painted crosses in churches and chambers were introduced about the 
Tear 431. Crosses were first set up on steeples, in 568. They were erected in England 
m honour of queen Eleanor, in the places where her hearse rested, in 1307. Crosses 
and idolatrous pictures were removed from churches, and crosses in the streets 
demolished, by order of parliament, 17 Charles 1. 1641. 

CROW. The carrion crow was andently thought to be a bird of bad omen. " Its 
croaking forebodes rain." — VirffU, An act was passed for the destruction of crows 
in England (which breeds more of them than any other country in Europe), 24 Henry 
VIII. 1532. Crows were anciently employed as letter-bearers, as pigeons are now. 

CROWN. " The ancientest mention of a royal crown is in the holy story of the 
Amaleldtes bringing Saul's crown to David." — Selden. The first Roman who 
wore a crown was Tarquin, 616 b.c. The crown was first a fillet tied round the 
head ; afterwards it was formed of leaves and flowers, and also of stuffs adorned with 
jeweb. The royal crown was first worn in England by Alfred, in a.d. 872. The 
fiurst crown or papal cap was used by pope Damasius II., in 1053 ; John XIX. first 
encompassed it with a crown, 1276 ; Bonifiice VIII. added a second crown in 1295 ; 
and Benedict XII. formed the tiara, or triple crown, about 1334. The pope pre- 
vioasly wore a crown with two circles. — Rainaldu 

CROWN OF ENGLAND. That of Alfred had two little bells attached ; it is said to 
hare been long preserved at Westminster, and may have been that described in the 
parliamentary inventory taken in 1649. The crown worn by Athelstan resembled a 
modem earl's coronet, 929. William I. wore his crown on a cap, adorned with 
points, 1066. Richard III. introduced the crosses, 1483. Henry VII. introduced 
the arches, 1485. The crown of Charles II. made in 1660, is the oldest existing in 
our day. The crown and other royal valuables were stolen from the Tower by Blood, 
in 1673. — See Blood's Conspiracy, The crown and regalia of England were pledged 
to the city of London by Richard II. for 2000^, in 1386. ** See the king's receipt 
on redeeming them." — Rymer, 

CROWNS and HALF-CROWNS. These were coined in England very near to the 
present standard in the last year of Edward VI., by whom the coinage (which had 
been very much alloyed and debased by Henry VIII.) was in some degree restored 
and pniified, 1553. — Fleetwood's Chron, Preiios, 

CRUCIFIXION. A mode of execution common among the Syrians, Egyptians, 
Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Jews, and esteemed the most dreadful on account of 

CRU [[ 159 ] CUI 

the shame attached to it : it was usiially aocompanied by other tortures. Amoog 
early accounts may be mentioned, that Ariarathes of Cappadoda, when Tanqnished 
by Perdiccas, was discovered among the prisoners ; and by the conqueror's orden 
the unhappy monarch was flayed alive, and then nailed to m cross, with his principal 
officers, in the eighty-first year of his age, 322 b.c. — Bouugt. Regulns suffered 
the horrid death of crucifixion at Carthage, 255 b.c. — Livy. Cmci&rioa was ordered 
to be discontinued by Conatantine, a.d. 330. — Lenglet. See Death, Punuhmtnttf^ 

CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. The statute called " Mr. Martin's Act," passed 3 George 
IV. 1822. SUtute 7 and 8 George IV. 1827. Sutute 5 and 6 William IV. 1835. 
This last statute enacts '* that any person wantonly beating or ill-treating any hone, 
ox, cow, ass, sheep, dog, or other animal, or improperly driving the same whereby 
any mischief shall be done, shall upon conviction be fined or imprisoned ; and that 
any person keeping or using any house, pit, or other place, for baiting or fightiog 
any bull, bear, dog, or other animal (whether of a domestic or wild kind), or for 
cock-fighting, shtdl be liable to a penalty of 5/. for every day he shall so keep and 
use the same." The provisions of this act were extended to Ireland, by 1 Victoria, 
passed July 15, 1837. 

CRUELTY TO ANIMALS, Socwtt fob tbb Prevention of. *« Every beast 
of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.*' — pMolm L 10. This 
society, which has lately received the distinction of Royaly is held at Exeter-hall, 
and was instituted in 1824. Through its most praiseworthy exertions serenl 
hundreds of cases of cruelty are annually prosecuted to conviction. — Report, 1838. 

CRUSADES OR Holt Wars. (In French, Crouoiira.) Undertaken by the Christian 
powers to drive the infidels from Jerusalem, and the adjacent countries, called the 
Holy Land. They were projected by Peter Gautier, called Peter the Hermit, an 
enthusiast, and French oflScer of Amiens, who had quitted the military profenioo 
and turned pilgrim. Having travelled to the Holy Land, he deplored, on his retira, 
to pope Urban 11. that infidels should be in possession of the fiunous city where the 
author of Christianity first promulgated his sacred doctrines. Urban convened a 
Council of 310 bishops at Clermont in France, at which the ambassadors of the chief 
Christian potentates assisted, and gave Peter the fatal commission to exdte ail 
Europe to a general war, a.d. 1094. The first crusade was published ; an army of 
300,000 men was raised, and Peter had the direction of it, 1095. — Voltaire, The 
holy warriors wore a red cross upon the right shoulders, with tiie name of Croisef. 
Crossed, or Crusaders ; their motto was Voloni/ de Dieu, ** God^s will." The 
epidemical rage for crusading now agitated Europe, and, in the end, these unehrisdan 
and iniquitous wars against the rights of mankind cost the lives of 2,000,000 of men. 
— Voltaire, 

CRYOPHORUS, The. To demonstrate the relation between evaporation at low temper- 
atures and the production of cold, was invented by Dr. WoUaaton, about 1778. 

CUBA. Discovered by Columbus on his first voyage, in 1492. It was conquered by 
Yalasquez, in 1511, and settled by the Spaniards. The Buccaneer Morgan took the 
Havannah in 1669. See Buccaneers, The fort here was erected by admiral Vemoa, 
in 1 741. The Havannah was taken by admiral Pococke and lord AJbemarie, in 1762, 
but was restored at the peace, in 1763. — See Havannah, 

CUBIT. This was a measure of the ancients, and is the first measure we read of; the 
ark of Noah was made and measured by cubits. — Hidden, The Hebrew sacred cubit 
was two English feet, and the great cubit eleven English feet. Originally it was the dis- 
tance from the elbow, bending inwards to the extremity of the middle finger. — Cahut, 

CUCUMBERS. They grew formerly in great abundance in PsIestiDe and Egypt, 
where, it is said, they constituted the greater part of the food of the poor and slaves. 
This plant is noticed by Virgil, and other ancient poets. It was brought to Englsnd 
from the Netherlands, about 1538. 

CUDDALORE, India. On the coast of the Camatic. Thu place vras posienedby the 
English in 1681. It was reduced by the French in 1758 and 1781 ; and nnderweat 
a destructive siege by the British under general Stuart, in 1783, which was ooa- 
tinned until news arrived of peace having bewn signed. Cuddalore also suflfered in 
the subsequent wars with Hyder Ali. — See India, 

CUIRASS. This part of armour was that most in use by the Greeks and Romans.— 
Taciius. First, from the skins of beasts, and afterwards from tanned leather, wis 

CUL [ 160 1 era 

formed the cuirass of the Britons until the Anglo-Saxon era. In process of time it 
was made of iron and brass, and covered the warrior from neck to waist before and 
behind, as a protection against the spear and arrow. The cuirass was worn by the 
heavy caralry in the reign of Henry III. 1216, et seq, 

CULDEES. Monks in Scotland and Ireland in the early ages of Christianity, of simple 
and peacefhl lives. — Buhop Lloyd. They had their principal seat at St. Andrew's ; 
and in Tipperary was a Coldean abbey whose monks were ** attached to simple 
truth and pure Christian worship, and had not yet conformed to the reigning super- 
stition,'' in A.o. 1185.— Lffc/totdk. 

CULLEN'S-WOOD, MASSACRE at, in Irbland. This was a horrible slaughter of 
m vast number of the British by the Irish at this village near Dublin, on Easter, or 
Black Monday, so called from this massacre, a.d. 1209. The British were a colony 
from Bristol, inhabiting Dublin, from whence they went to divert themselves at 
Cnllen's-wooid, when the O'Bimies and Tooles, mountain enemies, fell upon them, 
and destroyed 500 men, besides women and children— one of the most unprovoked 
massacres on record. 

CULLODEN, BAfrLB of. In which the English, under William duke of Cumberland, 
defeated the Scottish rebels headed by the young Pretender, the last of the Stuarts, near 
Inverness, April 16, 1746. The Scots lost 2&00 men in killed upon the field, or in 
the slaughter which occurred in the pursuit, while the loss of the English did not 
far ezce^ 200. The duke's army practised great cruelties upon the vanquished, as 
weD as upon the defenceless inhabitants of the adjacent districts after the battle.— 
SmoUett. Immediately after the engagement. Prince Charles sought safety by flight, 
and continued wandering among the frightful wilds of Scotland for six months, while 
30,000/. were offered for taking him, and the troops of the conqueror were constantly 
in search. He at length escaped from the Isle of Uist to Morlaix, and died at 
Rome, in 1788. 

CULVERINS. Ordnance, introduced into England from a French model, in 1534. 

CUMBERLAND, Merchant Ship. Memorable and valorous achievement of Captain 
Barrett of this ship, who, with twenty-six men, defeated four privateers, taking 170 
men who had boanled the Cumberland, Jan. 16, 1811. 

CUNNERSDORF, Battle of. The king of Prussia, with 50,000 men, attacked the 
Russian army of 90,000 in their camp, and at first gained considerable advantages ; 
but pvrsuing them too far, the Russians rallied, and gained a complete victory. 
The Prussians lost 200 pieces of cannon and 20,000 men in killed and wounded, 
August 12, 1759. 

CURACOA. In the Caribbean Sea, seized by Holland, in 1634. In 1800, the French 
having settled on part of this island, and becoming at variance with the Dutch, the 
latter surrendered the island to a single British frigate. It was restored to the 
Dutch by the peace of 1802, and taken from them by a British squadron, in 1807, 
and again restored by the peace of 1814. 

CURATES. They were of early appointment as coadjutors in the Romish church, 
and are mentioned in England in the seventh century, though perhaps there were 
then but few. Several acts have passed in the later reigns for the relief and pro- 
tection of this laborious class of the clergy, among which are the 12th Anne, 1/13, 
and 36th and 58th George III. Among the more recent laws for their better main- 
tenance were the 53d George III., 1813, and the beneficent act 2 William IV., Oct. 
1831. It appears by the late Parliamentary Reports on Ecclesiastical revenues, that 
there are 5230 curates in England and Wales, whose stipends amount to 424,695/. ; 
hut the numbers in some benefices have not been returned to the commissioners. 
The greatest number of curates in one diocese is in that of Lincoln, 629 ; and the 
■mallest is in that of St. Asaph, 43.— Par/. Rep. 

CURFEW BELL. From the French eouvrefeu. This was a Norman institution, intro- 
dnoed into England in the reign of William I., a.d. 1068. On the ringing of the 
curfew at eight o'clock in the evening, all fires and candles were to be exUnguished, 
under a severe penalty. — Rapin. The curfew was abolished 1 Hen. I., a.d. 1100. 

CURRANTS. They were brought from Zante, and the tree planted in England, 1533. 
The hawthorn currant-tree (Ribes oxyacanthoides) came from Canada in 1705. 

CUSHEE PIECES. These were the invention of the bold and heroic Richard Leake, 

cus £ 161 2 

In 1748 Umt nBOontad to 


In 1808 ditto 

. . 9xy^ 

Inl8S ditto 

. 11.496.76 

In 1830 United Kin«dam . 

. . 17.540JO 

InlSS ditto 

. UjBlijm 

In 1810 ditto 

. . 19.9U4H 

OB bond 
Taa Troaip, hai gmn Ub u 
A 1€73. 

CUSTOH. Thn km Inr, wK vrictB, bat iiliTiiitii bj lo^ H^e a^ comcbL By 

k k 4e6mtd. iu- ■•• i r r i^ii , and k coads oppowd CoJIm 
seriptM^ or ike vrktca kv. It k ike rak of Uv vWa k k derived from ad. 1189, 
dowBvards. ^giTj jrm k liithn fa ftifl T«y. lit ihrfj jrnn in frrkiiiirir il t im 

CUSTOM-HOUSE. TWt oT I winB k oT tmAf kitktinn (ae ^gjiyylf), as cu- 
tooa were eoUectcd ia a rrgakr MiBaiT m ihe Icatli ccntary. A CMto a ihoMC wh 
erected on a krge lakv a.». 134M ; aad laortier cm a yet lai|ger acale was tnctai 
ia 1^9. Tbk kat was barat dova ia 1666, aad a aev ow was baik bj Charkfll. 
Afain baratdowa ial718, and agaia lebailt. Tbe caeCiMi-boaae oaee more beciae 
a prej to fire, Feb. 12, 1814, vbea k vaa totally barat dowa, and uaaBcaae property 
aad Taloable reeonk acre d e rtiu ycd. Tbe praaeat efifiee was opened May 12, 1817. 
The Dablia castOM.boaae wa8 fO Ma wTwrd ia 1781, aad was opened in 1791. TIm 
eastern wing of iti varcboaae vat dciliojed by ire, aith piopci tj to the aaioaat of 
idOfiOOL, Aog. 9, 1832. 

CUSTOMS. They were coOecied apon ■erehanfiee in Eogland, ander EXhAtA IL, 
in 979. Tbe king's daim to theai by gnat of parliaaMnt was established 3 Edward 
I^ 1274. The CBstoms were fimaed to Mr. Thomas Smith lor 20,000£. for sercnl 
years, in the reign of Elisabeth.— 5lMr«. They were fitfased by Charles II. for 
390,000/. in the year 1666.— 2>at«aaai. 

In Ism they amoonted to . £14,«80 

In 15SH ditto . . . SMOO 

Inl«14 ditto . UBjdOO 

In Ida ditto . . . 168,000 

In 1943 ditto . 500.000 

In 1720 ditto . . 1,»SSJBOO 

The customs in Ireland were, in tibe year 1224, ris., on every sack of wool, 3dL ; oa 
every last of hides, 6d. ; and 2d. on every band of wine. — Amnait t/DuUim, Css- 
tom -house officers, and officers of excise, were disqaalified from voting for the elee- 
tion of members of parlkment, by statate 22 George III,, 1782. The costosis' 
business of Ireland was transferred to the London board, January 6, 1830.— 
Bee Revenue, 

CYCLE. That of the sun U the tweaty-eight years before the days of the we^k retam 
to the same days of the month. That of the moon k nineteen lunar years and sevea 
intercalary months, or nineteen solar years. The cycle of Jupiter k sixty years, or 
sexagenary. Tbe Paschal cycle, or die time of keeping Easter, was first cakrulited 
for tbe period of 532 years, by Victorias, ad. 463. — Bktir. 

CYCLOPAEDIA. Cyclopedias were written late in the fifteenth, and some were pab- 
lished in the sixteenth century ; but the principal, and most comprehensive work 
of this kind was that of Alstedius, in 1620, of which many copies, mudi prised, art 
extant. Tbe earliest attempt in England to arrange the whole compass of humaa 
knowledge in an alphabetical form was the Dictionary of Ephraim Chambers (whidi 
may be said to be the foundation of all others since), printed in two large folio volumes 
in 1728. — See Encyclopa€Ua. 

CYMBAL. The oldest musical instrument of which we have certain record. It was 
made of brass, like a kettle-drum, and some think in the same form, but smaller. 
Xenophon makes mention of the cymbal as a musical instrument, whose invention is 
attributed to Cybele, by whom, we are told, it was used in her feasts, caUed tbe 
mysteries of Cybele, about 1580 b.c. The festivals of Cybele were introduced by 
Scamander, with the dances of Corybantes, at Mount Ida, 1546 b.c. 

CYNICS. The sect of philosophers founded by Antuthenes, 396 b.c. — Diog. Lmert 
He lived in the ninety-fourth Olympiad. — Pardon, These philosophers valued them- 
selves for contemning all worldly things, and even all sciences, except morality ; 
they were very free in reprehending vice, and did all their actions publicly, and prao> 
tised tbe greatest obscenities without blushing. — Idem, Diogenes vras one of thk 
sect. Tbey generally slept on Ihe ground. — Diog. Laeri, 

CYPRESS. Cupressut tempervirens, A tree whose wood is of an agreeable smell, 
that scarcely ever decays, or takes the worm ; originally found in the Isle of Cyprnib 

en [| 162 ] DAM 

It wsB used by the ancients as a token of sorrow. Some are of opinion that the 
wood gophir^ of which Noah's ark was made» was cypress ; and the Athenians buried 
thdr heroes in coffins made of this wood, of which many of the Egyptian mammy- 
chesta were also £ibricated. The cypress was brongbt to England about a.o. 1441. 
The Decidnons cypress, or CupressuM disiichat came from North America before 
the year 1640. 

CYPRUS. An island, whose inhabitants anciently were much given to lore and plea- 
sore — Phmf. It was d'lTided among several petty kings till the time of Cyrus, who 
■nbdued them ; it ranked among the proconsular provinces in the reisn of Augustus. 
Conquered by the Saracens, a.d. 648 ; but recovered by the Romans, m 957. Cyprus 
was reduced by Richard I. of England, in 1191. Taken by the Turks from the 
Yenetiansy in 1570. — PriettUy, 

CTRENAIC SECT. Aristippus the Elder, of Cyrene, was the founder of the Cyre- 
oaici, S92 b.c. They maintained the doctrine that the supreme good of man in thif 
life is pleasure, and particularly pleasure of a sensual kind ; and said that virtue ought 
to be commended because it gave pleasure, and only so for as it conduced thereto. 
The sect flourished for several ages. — Laer, Ar, Cicero, 

CTRENE. Founded by Battus, 630 b.c. Aristseus, who was the chief of the colonists 
here, gave the city his mother's name. It was also called Pentapolis, on account 
of its five towns, namely, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Berenice, Apollonia, and Arsinoe, 
Cyrene was left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans, 97 b.c. It is now a desert.— 

CTZICUM, Battlx or. The Lacedemonian fleet under Mindarus, assisted by Phar- 
nabazus, the Persian, is encountered by the Athenians, and is defeated with great 
slaughter. In this battle Mindarus is sUun, 410 b.c. — Plutarch, 408 b.c. — LengUU 

CZAR. From Csesar, a title of honour assumed by the sovereigns of Russia. Ivan 
BasUowitz, after having achieved great triumphs over the Tartars, and made many 
eonquests, pursued them to the centre of their own country, and returning in triumph, 
took the title of Tzar, or Czar, (signifying Great King). — Atpin*s Chron. The 
eourts of Europe consented to address the Russian Czar by the title of Emperor 
in 1722.— Idsm. 


DAHLIA. This beautiful flower was imported from China, of which it is a native, 
early in the present century, and amateurs in flowers have annually laid out hundreds 
of pounds in England, and thousands of francs in France, in the purchase of it. The 
Swedish botanist, professor Dahl, first cultivated and made it known. It soon 
attracted notice in England, where, from the beauty of its form and variety of colour, 
it became at once an especial favourite. In 1815, about two months after the battle 
of Waterloo, it was introduced into France, and the celebrated florist, Andr^ Thouin, 
suggested various practical improvements in its management. The botanist Georgi, 
had, shortly before this, introduced it at St. Petersburgh ; and hence it is, that to 
this day the dahlia is known throughout Germany under the name of Georgina. 

DAMASCUS. This city was in being in the time of Abraham. — Gen. ziv. It is, con- 
sequently, one of the most ancient in the world. From the Assyrians, Damascus 
paned to the Persians, and from them U^ the Greeks under Alexander ; and after. 
wards to the Romans, about 70 b.c. It was taken by the Saracens, a.d. 633 ; by 
the Turks in 1006 ; and was destroyed by Tamerlane, in 1400. It was in a journey to 
this place that the apostle Paul was miraculously converted to the Christian faith, 
and here he began to preach the gospel, about a.d. 50. Damascus is now the capital 
of a Turkish pachalic The disappearance of a Greek priest, named Father Tommaso, 
from here, Feb. 1 , 1840, led to the torture of a number of Jews, suspected of his mur- 
der, and in the end, to a cruel persecution of that people, which caused remonstrances 
finom many states of Europe. 

DAMASK LINENS and SILKS. They were first manufactured at Damascus, and 
beora the name, their large fine figures representing flowers, and being raised above 
the gromid-work. They were beautifully imitated by the Dutch and Flemish 
weavers ; and the manufacture was brought to England by artisans who fled from the 
persecution of the cmd duke of Alva, between the years 1571 and 1573. — Anderaon, 




DAMASK ROSE. The Rota Danuueena has not been more highly celebrated bj the 
poets of modem times, than by those of antiquity. — Butler, Most of the ancienu 
loved this fragrant and charming rose. — Darwin, It is the pride of plants, tud 
queen of flowers. — Sappho. And sweetest daughter of the spring. — A naereon, Ti.e 
damask rose was transplanted from the gardens of Damascns, and was brought to 
these countries from the south of Europe and Marseilles, by Dr. Linacre, physician 
to Henry YIII., about a.d. 1540. Seferal yarietiea of the rose were subseqaestly 
planted in England.— See article Rote. 

DAMIENS' ATTEMPT on thk LIFE or LOUIS XV. Loois, who was styled the 
WelUbeloyed, was stabbed with a knife in the right side by Damiens, a natire of 
Arras, Jan. 5, 1757. For this crime the wretched culprit suffered a dreadful death; 
he was first made to endure the most excruciating tortures, nearly similar to thoie 
which had been inflicted on the regicide RaTillac, and was then broken on the 
wheel, March 28, following. — See RawUao'e Murder of Henry IV. 

DAMON AND PYTHIAS. Pythagorean philosophers. When Damon was condemned 
to death by the tyrant Dionysins of Syracuse, he obtained leave to go and settle some 
domestic affairs, on a promise of returning at the appointed time of ezecutioD, and 
Pythias became surety for the performance of his engagement. When the fatal 
hour approached, Damon had not appeared, and Pythias surrendered himself, and waa 
led away to execution ; but at this critical moment Damon returned to redeem hia 
pledge. Dionysius was so struck with the fidelity of these friends, that he remitted 
the sentence, and entreated them to permit him to share their friendship, 387 B.C. 

DANCING. The dance to the measure of time was invented by the Curetes, 1534 b.c. 
Eutebius. The Greeks were the first who united the dance to their tragedies and 
comedies. Pantomimic dances were first introduced on the Roman stage, 22 b.c.— 
Uther. Dancing bv cinque paces was introduced into England from Italy a.d. 1541. 
In modem times, the French were the first who introduced baUeU analoguet in 
their musical dramas. The country dance (eontre-dantej is of French origin, but 
its date is not precisely known. — Spelman, 

DAN TO BEERSHEBA. The phrase '< Firom Dan to Beersheba,'* is now frequently 
used, and in modem literature is first met with, perhaps, in Sterne^ 1768. Dan 
was usually accounted the utmost northern border of the land of Israel, as Beersheba 
was the southern, whence the expression denotes the whole length of the Holy 
Land, from north to south, and, proyerbially, the extremity of any other district. 
We read of Erastus having been (about a.d. 60) bishop of Paneus, idiich is another 
name for Dan. '< I pity the man who can travel from Dan to Beeraheba and cry 
* 'Tis all barren' — and so it is ; and so is all the world to him who will not cnltifate 
the fruits it offers.'' — SenHmenUUJoumey. 

DANE-GELD, or DANEGELT. This was a tribute fbrmerly paid to the Danes, 
arising out of their exactions, and to stop their ravages in this kingdom. It was 
first raised by Ethelred II. in 991, and was again collected in lOOS ; and oontinaed 
to be levied after the expulsion of the Danes, to pay fleets for scouring the seas of 
them. The tax was suppressed by Edward the Confessor in 1051 : but it wu 
revived by William the Conqueror, and formed part of the revenue of the crown, 
until abolished by king Stephen. The Danegelt was thus raised : every Ude of 
land, t. e. as much as one plough could plough, or, as Bede says, maintain a family, 
was taxed one shillings — Stowe, g 

DANES, Invasions or the. The invasions of this people were a scouige toEof- 
land for upwards of two hundred years. During their attacks upon Britain and 
Ireland, they made a descent on France, where, in 895, under Rollo, they reedred 
presents under the walls of Paris. They returned and ravaged the Froich territoriea 
as far as Ostend in 896. They attacked Italy in 903. Neustria was granted by the 
king of France to Rollo and his Normans (North-men), hence Normandy, in 905. 
The invasions of England and Ireland were as follows : — 

rimsT 8BRIB8 or unrAsioNii. They invade Scotland and Indand . aj> T^JS 

First hostile appoarance of the Danes They oiter Dublin with a fleet (tf 60 sail, 

upon the coast .... A.a 783 and poesees themselves of DnhUn, Fin- 

They land near Purbock, Dorset . . 787 gal, and other places . . . . 7^ 

Descend in Northumberland; are re- They take the Isle of Sheppej • . . H32 

pcllcd, and perish by shipwreck . . 794 Defeated in Cornwall, by Egbert . . 816 





They land in Emoz, and in the west, and 
are paid a lum of money (16,00(M.) to 
quit the kingdom . a.o. 

A general manacre of the Danes, by 
order of Ethelr«d IL . . Nov. 1U(>4 

Sirein revengea the death of his oonntry- 
men, and receiTes 36,000/. (which he 
af terwarda demands aa an annual tri- 
bute) to depart 

They make fresh inroads, and defeat the 
Saxons in Suffolk .... 

They again sack Canterbury, and put the 
inhabitants to death .... 

Their conquest of England completed 




THiao anuBS or kataobs. 
They settle in Scotland . 
Vanquished at Clontarf in Ireland, in a 

bloody battle ($ee Clontarf) 
They are driTcn out oi England . . . 
They land again at Sandwich, carrying 

off much plunder to Flanders 
Th^ bum York, and put 9000 Normans 

to the sword 

Once more inrade England, but are 

bribed by WUliam to depart 






DANES, Invasions or thk, continued. 

They defeat Ethel wolf at Charmonth a.i>. 836 
Tbey land in Kent f^^om 380 tssssIs, and 

take Canterbury and Limdon . 851 

Their signal defeat by Etbelwolf . . 853 
[This defeat doses the first period of their 

8Bcoin> asaus or nrTAaiD>fB. 
They return to England, make a descent 

on Northnmboland, and take York . 867 
They defeat the Saxons at Mtfton . . 871 
They take Wareham and Exeter . . 876 
They take Chippenham ; but V20 of their 

ships are wrecked .877 

Defeated by the earl of Devon . . . ^ 
Alfred enters into a treaty with them . 889 
Their fleet totally destroyed by Alfred at 

Appledore 894 

They invade and waste Anglesey . . 900 
Tbey submit to the Saxcms . .931 

They defeat the people of Leinster, whose 

kinglskiUed 9S6 

Their new invasion of Dorsetshire . . 96S 
Tbey ravage Essex .991 

Tbeir fleet defeated aftor a brsach of 

treaty, purchased by numey . 992 

DANGEROUS ASSOCIATIONS' BILL. The statute for the suppression of dan- 
geroas aiiodations in Ireland, particularly with reference to Uie then Catholic 
Association, passed March 5, 1829. This law was enacted at the same time that the 
Catholic Relief Bill was passed. — See Coiholic Association. 

DANTZIC. A commercial city in a.d. 997. — Bmchiftg. It was built, according to 
other authorities, by Waldemar I. in 1169. Seized by the king of Prussia, and 
annexed to his dominions in 1793. It surrendered to the French after a siege of 
four months. May 5, 1807 ; and, by the treaty of Tilsit, it was restored to its former 
independence, under the protection of Prussia and Saxony. Dantzic was besieged 
by the alHes in 1812 ; and, after a gallant resistance^ surrendered to them Jan. 1, 
1814. By the treaty of Paris it again reverted to the king of Prussia. Awful 
inundation here, owing to the Vistula breaking through its dykes, by which 10,000 
head of cattle and 4,000 houses were destroyed, and a Tsst number of lives lost, 
April 9, 1829. 

DARDANELLES, Passage of the. The Dardanelles are two castles, one called 
Sestos, seated in Romania, the other called Abydos, in Natolia, commanding the 
entrance of the strait of Gaillipoli. They were built by the emperor Mahomet IV. 
in 1 659, and were named Dardanelles from the contiguous town Dardanus. The 
gallant exploit of forcing the passage of the Dardanelles was achieved by the British 
S({uadron under admiral sir John Duckworth, February 19, 1807 ; but the admiral 
was obliged to repass them, which he did with great loss and immense damage to the 
fleet, March 2, following, the castles of Sestos and Abydos hurling down rocks of 
stone, each of many tons weight, upon the decks of the British ships. 

DARIC. This gold coin was issued by Darius the Mede, and hence its name, about 
338 B.C. It weighed two grains more than the English guinea. — Dr, Bemoflrd. 

DARTFORD. At this town commenced the memorable insurrection of Wat Tyler, 
a.o. 1381. Here was a celebrated convent of nuns of the order of St. Augustin, 
endowed by Edward III. 1355, which was converted by Henry VIII. at the time 
of the Reformation into a royal palace. The first paper-mill in England was erected 
at Dartford by sir John Speilman, a German, in 1590. — Stowe, And about same 
period was erected here the first mill for slitting iron bars. The powder-mills here 
were blown up four times between 1730 and 1738. Various explosions hare since 
occurred, in some cases with loss of life to many persons. A great explosion took 
place Oct. 12, 1790 ; again Jan. 1, 1795 ; and others more recently. 

DARTMOUTH. Burnt by the French in the reigns of Richard I. and Henry IV. 
In a third attempt the invaders were defeated by the inhabitants, assisted oy the 
Tslour of the women. The French commander, M. Castel, three lords, and thirty-two 

BjUI QIiK 3 

two flMn 

DAT. thcf 
aaBOAf tke 
M it fw docs 
tbe dsjr froM 
ro«Dd, iiwCcad of 
Dortiont of tveire 
luhr, oMst paUie docks 
detifBSled OD 

parte of two boon cack. Oar civil daj is 
wbicb bcfiiM at dood, aad is tkm wmit of i 
At Rome, dar and night 
inteslKm of Scipio Nasica* L58 b^Cw — Fi 

DEACON. An order of the Christian printhood, vhich took its rise horn the imti- 
ttttion of feren deacons bj the ApoArs, which nnahcr was retained a hmg period 
In many charcbes, sboot A.n. 51. See AeU^ ekmp. tL The original deacons were 
Pbilip, Stepben, Procboms, Kicanor, T^matk, Vmimtatm, and Nkolaa. The qaab- 
flcationa of a deacon are men t io n ed by St. Faal, 1st Tmmtkg m. ^—W. 

DEAF AND DUMB. The first systematic attempt to imtract the deaf and dnmb wm 
made by Pedro de Ponee, a Benedictine monk of Spain, abont a^. 1S70. Bonet, 
wbo wai alio a monk, pnblisbed a system at Madrid in 1620. Dr. WaQis pnbliihed 
a work In Englsod on the safagect, in 1650. Tlie first rcgnlar academy for the deaf 
and dumb in tbeie coontries was opened in Edinbnrgb in 1773. In oar owntimei 
the Abb^ de TEp^, and Abb^Sinrd of Paris ; the rer. Mr. Townsend, and Mr. 
Baker, of London ; Mr. Braidwood, of Edinburgh ; and surgeon Orpen, of Dabliai 
have laboured with mncb aaooeas in promoting the instmction of the deaf and dumb. 
An ajiyium for teaching the deaf and dumb poor was opened in London tbroogb 
the humane eiertioni of Mr. Townsend, in 1792. The asylnm at Qaremont, 
Dublinf waa opened in 1816. — See Dumb, 

DRAN, FoRKST or. Anciently it waa abaded with woods qoite throngh, and was of 
Immenifl exlent ; and in the laat century, though much cuitailed, it waa twenty mflei 
In length and ten in breadth. It was famous for its oaks, of whidi most of our 
former *hipa of war were made. The memorable riota in this district, when more 
than 3,000 perioos aitembled in the foreat, and demolished upwarda of fifty miles of 
wall and fence, throwing open 10,000 acres of plantation, June 8, 1831. 

DEATH, PuNiRtiMKNT or. Death by drowning in a quagmire was a puniabment 
among the Britons before 450 B.C. — Stowe, The moat eulogised beroea of antiquity 
Inflloted death by cruciAxion, and eren women suffered on the cross, the fictims 
■ometlmes living in the most excruciating torture many daya. A most horriffing 
Instance of death by torture oooun in the fate of Mithridatea, the aaaaasin of Xerxes. 
Hiw a nnit to the article Persia; aee also Ravillac; BoUing to Death; Burn- 
ing to Dtnthf ho, Maurice, the son of a nobleman, was banged, drawn, and 
uUNrlered for piracy, the first execution in that manner in England, 25 Henry III. 
1241. The punishment of death was abolished in a great number of caaea by Mr. 
Peel's acts, 4tb to 10th George IV. 1824-9. Act abolisbing the punisbment of 
death in certain other cases, 2 and 3 William IV. 1832. Act of aame aeaaion to 
rontinuo the punishment of death in cases of forgery, excepting the forging of wills 
and t)owert-of-attorney to transfer stock, August 16, 1832. Act abolisbing the 
punbhment of death in all cases of forgery, 1 Victoria, July 17, 1837. 

DBA C ^^ D ^^^ 

DEATHS, Parish Rxgistkrs or. Cromwell, earl of Essex, who was the chief 
instrument of Henry YIII. in the luppression of monasteries and abheys, was the 
institntor of parish registers of deaths, births, and marriages, a.d. 1536 ; bat they 
were more formally compiled in 1593, after the great pU^e of that year. A tax 
was levied on deaths and births in England, 23 Gwrge III. 1783. 

DEATH'S HEAD. An ancient female order, instituted in Germany in the 17th 
century. It was reriTod by Louisa Elisabeth, widow of Philip Duke of Saxe 
Mersburghy 1709. — Atpin. 

DEBTORS. See Bankruptt, and Ituoivents. Debtors hare been subjected to impri- 
sonment in almost all countries and times ; and until the passing of the later bank- 
npt laws and inioWent acts, the prisons of these countries were crowded with 
dd>tors to an extent that is now scarcely credible. It appeared by parliamentary 
retoms, that in the eighteen months subsequent to the panic of December 1825, as 
many as 101,000 writs for debt were issued from the courts in England. In the 
year ending 5th January, 1830, there were 7114 persons sent to the several prisons 
of London ; and on that day, 1547 of the number were yet confined. On the 1st 
January, 1840, the number of prisoners for debt in England and Wales was 1732 ; 
in Ireland the number was under 1000 ; and in Scotland under 100. 

DECEMBER. In the year of Romulus this was the tenth month of the year, called 
so from deeem, ten, the Romans commencing their yesr in March. Numa intro- 
duced January and February before this latter month, in 713 b.c., and from 
tiieooeforward December became the twelfth of the year. In the reign of Commodus 
December was called, by way of flattery, Amazonius, in honour of a courtezan whom 
that prince passionately loved, and had got painted like an Amazon ; but it only 
kept the name during that emperor's life, between a.d. 181 and 192. The English 
commenced their year on the 25th December, until the reign of William the 
Conqueror. See article Year, 

DECEMVIRI. Ten magutrates, who were chosen annually at Rome to govern the 
commonwealth instead of consuls ; first instituted 450 b.c. — Livy. The decemviral 
power became odious on account of their tyranny, and the attempt of Appius 
Clandins to defile Virginia, and the ofSoe was abolished, the people demanding from 
the senate to bum tbe decemviri alive. Consuls were again appointed, and tran- 
quillity restored. — See Virginia, 

DECENN ALIA. Festivals celebrated by the Roman emperors every tenth year of their 
reign, with sacrifices, games, and largesses, instituted by Augustus, 17 b.c. — Livy. 

DE COURCY'S PRIVILEGE. The privilege of standing covered before the king, 
granted by king John, to John De Courcy, baron of Kinsale, and his successors, 
in 1203. Sir John De Courcy was the first nobleman created by an English 
sovereign, 27 Henry II. 1181 ; and was entrusted with the government of IreUnd, 
in 1 185. The privilege accorded to this family has been exercised in most reigns, 
and was allowed to ^e baron Kinsale, by William III., George III., and by George 
IV., at his court held in Dublin, in August, 1821. 

DECRETALS. The second part of the canon law, or collection of the pope*s edicts 
and decrees. The first of these that is acknowledged to be genuine by the learned, 
is a letter of Syrians to Himerus, the bishop of Spain, written in the first year of 
his pontificate, a.d. 385. — Howel. 

DEDICATIONS. The dedication of books was introduced in the time of Msecenas, 
17 B.C., and the custom has been practised ever since by authors to solicit patronage, 
or testify respect. Mccenss was the friend and privy counsellor of Augustus Csesar, 
and he was so famous a patron of men of genius and learning, that it has been 
customary to style every minister of a sovereign prince, imitating his example, the 
Msecenas of the sge or country in which he lived. — Valerius Paterculus, Uitt. Rom, 

DEDICATION or CHURCHES. Of the dedication of churches, we meet in the 
Scriptnres, under the Jewish dispensation, with the dedication of the tabernacle and 
of altars. It was also used in heathen worship. The Christians, finding themselves 
at liberty under Constantine, built new churches, and dedicated them with great 
solemnity, in a.d. 331 et teq, 

DEEDS. They were formerly written in the Latin and French languages : the earliest 
known instance of the English tongue having been used in deeds, is that of the 
indenture be t wee n the abbot ai.d convent of Whitby, and Robert, the son of John 

DEP Q 167 3 I>KL 

Bustard, dated at York, in tlie year 1543. The Engtish tongue was ordered to be 
lued. in all law pleadingt in 1362. Ordered to be need in all Uw suits in May, 1731. 

DEFENDER or thk FAITH. FiM D^<nu9r, A title conferred by Leo X. on 
Henry VIIL of En^and. The king wrote a tract in behalf of the Chordi of Rome, 
then accounted DowueUiMm /idgi Cmth^Rea, and against Lnther, who had just begun 
the Reformation in Germany, npon which the pope gave him the title of Defender of 
the Faith, a title still retained by the monarchs of Great Britain : the bull conferring 
it bears date Oct. 9, 1521. 

DEFENDERS. A fKtion in Irdand, which aroee o«t of a private quarrel bctweet 
two residents of Blarket-hiQ, Joly 4, 1784. Each was soon aided by a large bodj of 
friends, and many battles ensued. On Whitsm-Monday, 1 785, an armed assemblage 
of one of the parties (700 men), called the Nuppagk FUet, prepared to enoonoter 
the Bawn Fleet, but the engageaeiit was prevent^. They subeeqaently becune 
reliirioas parties. Catholic and P re s by t erian, distingnished as Defendere and Ptef- 
o*-day-biife : the latter were so named becaase they nsnallT Tisited the dwellingi of 
the Defenders at daybreak in aeaich of arms^ — Sir Richard Muegrave. 

DEGREES. The first attempt to determine the lengtii of a degree b recorded u 
haying been made by Eratoethenes, abont 250 ^.^.^--SneUiuM, The first degree of 
longitade was fixed by Hipparchns of Nice (by whom the latitude was determined also), 
at Ferro, one of the Canary islands, whose most western point was made the first geneni 
meridian, 162 b.c. Sereral nations have fixed their meridian firom piaces couiected 
with their own territories ; and thus the English compute their longitude from die 
meridian of Greenwich. — See Lmiiimde, Lenffihtde^ and the varimu CoUegimU degren. 

DEISM. This denomination was first assumed about the middle of the sixteenth century 
by some gentlemen of France and Italy, in order thus to disguise their opposition 
to Christianity br a more honourable appellation than that of Atheism. — Virott 
Instruetian Chretiennef 1563. Deism is a rejection at all manner of rerelatioB : 
its followers go merely by the light of nature, beliering that there is a God, t 
providence, rice and rirtue, and an after state of punishments and rewards : it ii 
sometimes called ft«e-thinking. The tnt deistical writer of any note in En^snd, 
was Herbert, baron of Cherbury, in 1624. The most distinguished deists were Hobbet, 
Tindal, Morgan, lord Bolingbroke, Hume, Holcroft, and Godwin. 

DELEGATES, COURT or. Until lately the highest of all the Ecclesiastical coartk 
Appeals to the pope in ecclesiastical causes luiving been forbidden (see Appeals), 
those causes were for the future to be heard in this court, by statute 24 Henry VI II. 
1532; and soon afterwards the pope's authority was superseded altogether ia 
England. — Stowe. This court was abolished, and in lieu of it appeals now lie to tbe 
Jumciai Committee of the Privy Council, as fixed by statute 3 and 4 William IV. 
August 14, 1833. 

DELFT. This town was founded by Godfrey le Bossu, and is famous for the earthen- 
ware which is known by its name, and which was first manufactured here in a.d* 
1310. It was the birth-place of the renowned Grotius. 

DELHI. The once great capital of the Mogul empire ; it is now in decay, but con- 
tained a million of inhabitants, in 1700. In 1738, when Nadir Shah inraded 
Hindoostao, he entered Delhi, and dreadful massacres and famine followed: 
100,000 of the inhabitants perished by the sword ; and plunder to the amount of 
62,000,000/. sterling was said to be collected. The same calamities were endured 
in 1761, on the invasion of Abdalla, king of Candahar. In 1803, the Mahrattit, 
aided by the French, got possession of tins place ; but they were afterwards defeated 
here by general Lake, and the aged Shah Aulum, emperor of Hindoostan, was 
restored to his throne. 

DELICATE INVESTIGATION. The memorable investigation, so called, into the 
conduct of the princess of Wales, afterwards queen of EngUnd as consort of George 
IV., was commenced by a committee of the Privy Council, under a warrant of 
inquiry, dated May 29, 1806. The members were lord Grenville, lord Erskine, 
earl Spencer, and lord Eilenborough. The inquiry, of which the countess of Jersey, 
sir J. and lady Douglas, and other persons of rank were the promoters, and in which 
they conspicuously figured, lasted until the following year, and led to the publication 
called '* The Book," which was afterwards suppressed.— See Queen. 




DELPHI. Celebrated for its oracles delivered by Pythia, in the temple of Apollo, 
whkh was built, some say, by the council of the Ampbictyons, 1263 b.c. The 
priestess delivered the answer of the god to such as came to consult the oracle, and 
was supposed to be suddenly inspired. The temple was burnt by the Pisistratidse, 548 
B.C. A new temple was raised by the Alcmsonidse, and was so rich in donations 
that at one time it was plundered by the people of Phocis of 20,000 talents of gold 
and silver ; and Nero carried from it 500 costly statues. The first Delphic, or 
sacred war, concerning the temple was 449 b.c. The second sacred war was com. 
menced on Delphi being attacked by the Phocians, 356 b.c — Du Fremoy. 

DELUGE, THE GENERAL. The deluge was threatened in the year of the worid 
1&36 ; and it began Dec. 7, 1656, and continued 377 days. The ark rested on Mount 
Ararat, May 6 , 1657 ; and Noah left the ark, Dec 18, following. The year cor- 
responds with that of 2348 B.C. — Blair. The following are the epochs of the deluge 
according to the table of Dr. Hales. 



BX. 3246 

Pentan . b.c. 3103 

Playfair . B.C. 2352 

. 3170 

Hindoo . . 3103 

Usher . . . 2348 

. . 3156 

Samaritan . 8996 

English Bible . 2348 

. 3146 

Howard . . 2696 

Marsham . . 2344 

Petavius . bjc. 2329 
Strauchuis . . 2293 
Hebrew . . 2288 
Vulgar Jewish . 2104 

Some of the states of Europe were alarmed, we are told, by the prediction (!) that 
anodier general deluge would occur, and arks were everywhere built to guard against 
the calamity ; but the season happened to be a fine and dry one, a.d. 1524. 

DELUGE or DEUCALION. The fabulous one, is placed 1503 b.c. according to 
£usebius. This flood has been often confounded by the ancients with the general 
flood ; but it was 845 years posterior to that event, and was merely a local inunda- 
tioDy occasioned by the overflowing of the river Pineus, whose course was stopped by 
an earthquake between the Mounts Olympus and Ossa. Deucalion, who then 
reigned in Thessaly, with his wife Pyrrha, and some of their subjects, saved them. 
selves by climbing up Mount Parnassus. 

DELUGE or 0GY6ES. In the reign of Ogyges was a deluge which so inundated 
the territories of Attica that they lay waste for near 200 years ; it occurred before 
the deluge of Deucalion, about 1764 b.c. — Blair, Buffon thinks that the Hebrew 
and Grecian deluges were the same, and arose from the Atlantic and Bosphorus 
bursting into the valley of the Mediterranean. 

DEMERARA and ESSEQUIBO. These colonies, founded by the Dutch, were taken by 
the British under majoi^general Whyte, April 22, 1796, but were restored at the peace 
of 1802. Demerara and Essequibo again surrendered to the British under general 
Grinfield and commodore Hood, Sept. 20, 1803. They are now fixed English colonies. 

DENARIUS. The chief silver coin among the Romans (from denos arts), weighing 
the seventh part of a Roman ounce, and value sevenpence-three-farthlngs sterling, 
first coined about 269 B.C., when it exchanged for ten asses (see article As). 
In 216 B.C. it exchanged for sixteen asses. A pound weight of silver was coined 
into 100 denariL — Dighy. A pound weight of gold was coined into twenty denarii 
aurei, in 206 b.c ; and in Nero's time into forty-five denarii aurei. — Lempriere. 

DENMARK. The most ancient inhabitants of this kingdom were the Cimbri and 
the Tentones, who were driven out by the Jutes or Goths. The Teutones settled 
in Germany and Gaul ; the Cimbrians invaded Italy, where they were defeated by 
Marina. The peninsula of Jutland obtains its name from the Jutes ; and the general 
name of Denmark is supposed to be derived from Darif the founder of the Danish 
monarchy, and marAr, a German word signifying country, t. e, Dan-mark, the 
country of Dan. 


Reign of Sdold, first king . bj^ 

The Banish chronicles mention 18 Icings 

to the time of Ragnor Lodbrog . a.i>. 7M 
[Ragnor !• kiUed in an attempt to invado 
England, and for more than 200 years 
from this time the Danes were a terror 
to the northern nations of Europe, 
oftoi landing on our own shores, and 
at length conquering all England.— See 

Reign of Canute the Great . . 1014 

Reign of Waldcmar the Great . a.d. 1167 
Waldemar II.. with a fleet of 1000 sail. 

makes immense oonquests . . . 1223 

Gothland conquered 1347 

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden are 

united into one kingdom . . • 13n7 
Revolt of the Swedes . . . . 1414 
The nations reunited .... 1439 
Copenhagen made the capital . • . 1440 
Accession of Christian I., from whom 

the present royal family springs. . 1448 




DENMARK, continued. 

Christian IL U deposed, end the hide- 
pendeoce of Sweden acknowledged A.D. 1523 

LntheraniemestahllahedbjChrietianllL 1536 

Danish East India Company establiahed 
by Christian IV I61S 

Christian IV. chosen head of the Protest- 
ant league IdS9 

Charles Gustavns of Sweden inrades 
Denmark, besieges Copenhagen, and 
makes largo conquests . 1858 

The crown made hereditary and absolute KJBU 

Frederick IV. takes Holstein, Sleswick, 
Tonningen, and Stralsnnd; reduoee 
Weiamar, and driTOs the Swedes out of 
Norway 1716 etteq. 

Copenhagen destroyed by a fire which 
consumes 1650 houses, 5 churches, the 
university, and 4 colleges . . . 1728 

The peaceful reign of Christian VL, who 
promotes the happiness of his suljjects 1730 

Christian VII. in a fltof }ealouqr suddenly 
confines his queen, Caroline Matilda, 
sister of Oeorgo IIL, who is afterwards 
banished.— See Z«U . . Jan. 18, I77S 

The counts Struensee and Brandt are 
seised at the same time, on the charge 
of a criminal intenxrane with the 

and the former oooiiesring to 
aToid the tortore, both are beheaded 
for high treason . . A|«11 S8, Ajk ITU 

The queen Caroline IfatildA dies st 
ZeU Msyl0.ins 

Christian VH. beoomee deranged, and 
prince Frederick is appointed regent . ITM 

One-fourth of Copmhagen is destrojed 
by fire JuneS^ 11% 

Admirals Nelson and Parker bombsrd 
Copenhagen, and engage the Daniih 
fleet, taking or destroying 18 shlpeof 
the line, of whoee crews 18U0 are killed. 
The Confederacy of the Ncnth (laa 
Arwud Neutrality) Is thus diseolrvd, 

April 2. UN 

Admiral Gambler and lord Cathcsrt 
bombard Copenhagen, and seise the 
Danish fleet of 18 ships of the line. 15 
frigates, and 37 brigs, dkc . Btpt.7, W 

Pomerania and Rugen are annexed t» 
Denmark, in exchange for Norway . UM 

Commercial treaty with England . . UM 

Frederick bestows a new oonstitntlan OB 

hisklngdom USI 

See Copenhaffen. 

A.V, 714. Gormo L 

7Aa Ragnor Lodbrog. 
770. Slgefrid. 
801. Oodefrid. 
809. Olaus I. 

811. Hemming. 

812. Siward and Ringon, kflled In a sea-fight. 
814. Harold and Regner; the latter made 

prisoner in Ireland, and died in a 
dungeon there. 

84a Siward II. depoeed. 

856. Eric ; killed in battle. 

858. Eric IL 

873. Canute I. 

915. Frothon. 

920. (lormo IL 

925. Harold. 

928. Hardicanut& 

930. Gormo IIL 

935. Harold UL 

980. Sucnon. 

1014. Canute IL the Great 
1036. Hardioanute IL 
1041. Magnus L 
1048. Suenon IL 
1079. Harold IV. 
lOea Canute HI. assassinated. 
1006. Olaus IL 
1097. Eric IIL 

1106. Nicholas, kiUed in Sleswick. 
1135. Erio IV., kiUed at Ripen. 
113& Erio V. 
1147. Suenon m., beheaded by Waldenuv for 

sntoa or DBifMAaic 

1157. Waldemar the Great 

1182. Canute V. 

1202. Waldemar IL 

124a Erio VL 

lS5a Abel L, killed In an expeditkm ipiMt 

1252. Christopher L, poisoned by the btftopof 

1880. Eric VIL assassinated, 
I28& Eric VIIL 
ISia Christopher n. (An in tan e gu e ia «f 

134a Waldemar lU. 
1375. OUns III. 
1375. Margaret L, queen of Denmark sad 

1411. Eric IX., abdicated. 
143a Christopher IIL 

144a Christian L, of the booae of OMsulwuiL 
1481. John. 
1513. Christian IL, confined 27 yean In adoa- 

geon, where he died. 
1583L Frederick. 
1534. Christian IIL 
1509. Frederick II. 
158a Christian IV. 
I64a Frederick UL 
1670. Christian V. 
160a Frederick FV. 
173a Christian VL 
I74a Frederick V. 
ITOa Christian VIL 
180a Frederic VL 
I83a Christian VHL 

inating prinoe Canute 

DENNEWITZ, Battle of. Iq which a remarkable victory wag obtained bf mar«bal 
Bemadotte, prince of Ponte Conro, (afterwards Charles XIV., king of Sweden) over 
marshal Ney, prince of Moscow, September 6, 1813. In this battle the loss on the 
French side exceeded 16,000 men, and sereral eagles; and the defisat of Napoleon 

DEN [[ 170 3 DEN 

it I^pric, <m the 18th of October following, cloeed the series of reverses ezpe- 
ieDoea by his sjnnt in the memorable and diststrous campaign of this year. 

*^lSf St. An ancient town of France, six miles from Paris to the northward, the 
■at stage on the road from England to that capital, — famous for its abbey and 
shvFch, the former abolished at the Revolution ; tiie latter desecrated at the same 
spoch, after having been the appointed place of sepulture of the French kings, from 
ta foundation by Dagobert, in 613. This church is a beautiful gothic edifice, not 
jtfge, but constmcted in the purest taste. On the 12th October, 1793, the republi- 
asa demolished most of the royal tombs, and emptied the leaden coffins into the 
Innghills, melting the lead for their own use. By a decree of Buonaparte, dated 
Pleb. 20, 1806, the church (which had been turned meanwhile into a cattle-market !} 
iraa ordered to be cleaned out and redecorated as "the future burial-place of the 
Bmperora of France." On the return of the Bourbons, some more restorations 
irere effected, and when the duke de Berry and Louis XVIII. died, both were bu- 
ried tiiere — thus reconsecrating it, for a time, to the old dynasty. It will probably 
be aimilarly used for the Orleans family. 

PTFORD. The hospital here was incorporated by Henry VIII., and called the 
Kinity-house cf Deptford Strond ; the brethren of Trinity-house hold their cor- 
porate righta by this hospital. Queen Elizabeth dined at Deptford on board the 
Pfliean, the ship in whicn the illustrious Drake, the firat British circumnavigator, 
liad made his voyage round the globe, April 4, 1581. The Deptford Victuailing- 
jflEoe waa burnt Jan. 16, 1748-9 ; the store-house, Sept. 2, 1758 ; the Red-house, 
Pd>. 26, 1761 ; and the King's-mUl, Dec. 1, 1775. 

RET STATE TRIALS. Brandreth, Turner, Ludlam senior, Ludlam junior, 
Weightman, and othen, convicted, at this memorable commission, of high-treason, 
October 15, 1817 ; and Brandreth, Turner, and the elder Ludlam, executed, Nov. 
Bi, following. Twenty-three were tried, and twelve not tried. — PhUlips, Twenty- 
Boe prisonera were indicted at Derby for the murder of several minen in the Red- 
loil mine ; but were acquitted on the ground that the mischief was not wilful, 
search 23, 1834. 

RRT. See Londonderry. The bishopric of Derry waa firat planted at Ardfrath ; 
from thence it was translated to Maghera ; and, in 1158, it was transferred to Derry. 
The cathedral, which was built in 1164, becoming ruinous, was rebuilt by a colony 
of Londonera who settled here in the reign of James I. The see is valued in the 
king's books, by an extent returned in the i5th James I., at 250/. sterling ; but it ia 
one of the richest sees in Ireland. — Beatson. 

SPARD'S CONSPIRACY. Colonel Edward Marcus Despard, a native of the 
Queen's County, in Ireland, and six othera, were executed in London on a charge 
of high-treason. Their plan was, to lay a restraint upon the king's pereon on the 
day of hia meeting parliament, January 16, 1803, and to destroy him, and overturn 
the government : a special commission was issued on February 7, and they all suf- 
fered death, February 21, 1803. 

TTINGEN, Battle or. Between the British, Hanoverian, and Hessian army, 
eoflunanded by king Ceorge II. of "England, in person, and the earl of Stair, on one 
dde, and the French army, under Manhal Noailles and the duke de Grammont, on 
the other ; the firat 52,000 and the latter 60,000 strong. The French passed a 
defile which they should have been contented to guard ; and the duke de Grammont, 
beading the French cavalry, charged the British foot with great fury, but were re- 
ceivad with such intrepidity that they were obliged to give way, and to repass the 
Ifayoe, and were defeated, losing 5000 men, June 16, 1743. 

EVIL AND DR. FAUSTU8." Fhuatus, one of the earliest printera, had the po- 
licy to conceal his art, and to this policy we are indebted for the tradition of ** The 
Devil and Dr. Fanstns." Faustns associated with John of Guttemberg; their 
typea were cut in wood, and fixed, not moveable as at present. Having printed off 
anmben of copies of the bible, to imitate those which were commonly sold in MS., 
be undertook the sale of them at Paria, where printing was then unknown. As he 
lold his copies for sixty crowns, while the scribes demanded five hundred, he created 
Bttivcrsal astonishment ; but when he produced copies as fast as they were wanted, 
■id lowered the price to thirty crowns, all Paris was agitated. The uniformity of 
ibt oopiea increased the wonder ; informations were given to the police against him 


DIA C 171 ] Die 

•s a magicUn, and his lodgings being searched, and a great namber of copies being 
found, they were seised. The red ink with which they were embellished wsi lop- 
posed to be his blood, and it was seriously adjudged that he was in league with the 
devil ; and if he had not fled, he would have shared the fate of those whom taper- 
stitious judges condemned in those days for witchcraft, a.d. 1460. — Nouv. Diet, 

DIADEM. The band or fillet worn by the ancients instead of the crown, and which 
was consecrated to the gods. At first, this fillet was made of silk or wool, and set 
with precious stones, and was tied round the temples and fbrdiead, the two esd* 
being knotted behind, and let fill on the neck. Aurelian was the first Roman esi- 
peror who wore a diadem, a.d. 272. — TiUemcni. 

DIALS. Invented by Anaximander, 550 B.C. — Pliny, The first dial of the sua nea 
at Rome, was placed on the temple of Quirinus by L. Papiriua Cursor, when time 
was divided into hours, 293 b.c. — Blair, In the times of the emperors idmost erery 
palace and public building had a sun-dial. They were first set up in churches in 
A.D. 613. — Lengkt. 

DIAMONDS. They were first brought to Europe from the East, where the mine of 
Sumbulpour was the first known ; and where the mines of Golconda were discovered 
in 1584. This district may be termed the realm of. diamonds. The mines of Brsnl 
were discovered in 1728. From these last a diamond, weighing 1680 carats, or 
fourteen ounces, was sent to the eourt of Portugal, and was valued by M. Romeo 
de risle at the extravagant sum of 224 millions ; by others it was valued at fifty>six 
millions : its value was next stated to be three millions and a half; botitstrae 
value is 400,000/. The diamond called the ** mountain of light/' which bekM^ 
to the king of Caubul, was the most superb gem ever seen ; it was of the finest wster, 
and the size of an egg, and was also valued at three millions and a half. The greet 
diamond of the emperor of Russia weighs 193 carats, or 1 ox. 12 dwt. 4 gr., troy. Tbt 
empress Catharine II. offered for it 104,166/. 13ff. 4</., besides an annuity for life, to 
the owner, of 1041/. 13ff. 4</., which was refused ; but it was afterwards sold to Cs- 
tharine's favorite, count Orloff, for the first mentioned sum, without the annnity, 
and was by him presented to the empress on her birth-day, 1772 ; it is now in the 
sceptre of Russia. The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats, and after cutting 106 
carats ; it was sold to the king of France fDr 100,000/. in 1720. The Pigot diamood 
was sold for 9,500 guineas, May 10, 1802. Diamonds were found in the Ursl 
mountains in 1829. 

DIAMONDS, Inflammability or. Boetius de Boot coi^ectnred that the dismood 
was inflammable, 1609. — HitL of Gemt, It was discovered that when exposed to 
a high temperature, it gave out an acrid vapour in which a part of it was dusipafeed, 
1673. — Boyle, Sir Isaac Newton concluded from its great refracting power thst it 
must be combustible, 1675. — Newton* s Opiice, The celebrated Avermni demoo- 
strsted, by concentrating the rays of the sun upon it, that the diamond was exhsled 
in vapour, and entirely disappeared, while other precious stones merely grew softer, 
1695. It has been ascertained by Guyton, Davy, and otiiers, that altbovgfa dia- 
monds are the hardest of all known bodies, they yet contain nothing more thui pan 
charcoal, or carbon. 

DIAMONDS, Nine of. This card has been called the curse of Scotland, owii^, it is 
said, to a Scotch member of parliament, part of whose family arms was the idae of 
diamonds, having voted for the introduction of the malt tax into Scotiand. 

DIANA, TEMPLE or, at EPHESUS. One of the seven wonders of the woild, 
built at the common charge of all the Asiatic States. The chief architect was 
Ctesipbon ; and Pliny says that 220 years were employed in completing this temple^ 
whose riches were immense. It was 425 feet long, 225 broad, and was siq>ported 
by 127 columns, (60 feet high, each weighing 150 tons of Parian marble) fbrnisfaed 
by so many kings. It was set on fire on the night of Alexander's nativity, by sn 
obscure individual named Eratostratus, who confessed on the rack, that the sole 
motive which had prompted him to destroy so magnificent an edifice, was the desire 
of transmitting his name to future ages, 356 B.C. The temple was rebuilt, and sgaia 
burnt by the Goths, in their naval invasion, a.d. 256.— C^niv. Hiti. 

DICE. The invention of dice is ascribed to PaUmedes, of Greece, about 1224 B.C. 
The keeper of the temple of Hercules, playing at dice, made that god one of the 
number in the game ; and Hercules having been the winner, became entitled to the 

Die C 17« ] DIO 

fayoun of Aoca Lanrentia, a celebrated courtesan, in whose honour the Laurentalia 
{which see) were afterwards institated. — Plutarch, The game of Tali and Tessera 
among the Romans was played with dice. Act to regulate the licenae of makers, 
and the sale of dice, 9 George IV. 1828. 

DICTATORS. These were supreme and absolute magistrates of Rome, instituted 
498 m.c., idien Titus Larcius FIstus, the first dictotor, was appointed. This office, 
respectable and illustrious in the first ages of the Republic, became odious by the 
perpetual usurpations of Sylla and J. Cassar ; and after the death of the latter, the 
Roman senate, on the motion of the consul Antony, passed a decree, which for ever 
fori>ade a dictator to exist in Rome, 44 b.c. 

DICTIONARY. A standard dictionary of the Chinese language, containing about 
40,000 characters, most of them hieroglyphic, or rude representetions somewhst like 
our signs of the xodiac, was perfect^ by Pa-out-she, who lived about 1100 b.c. — 
Morriton. Cyclopedias were compiled in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
The first dictionary of celebrity, perhaps the first, is by Ambrose Calepini, a Vene- 
tian fnar, in Latin ; he wrote one in eight languages, about a.d. 1500. — Nieeran, 
The Lexicon Heptaglotton was published by Edmund Castell, in 1659. Bayle's 
Dictionary was published in 1696, *' the first work of the kind in which a man may 
leara to think.'' — Voltaire, Chambers' Cyclopaedia, the first dictionaiy of the 
drde of the arts, sciences, dec, was published in 1728. The great dictionary of the 
English language, by Samuel Johnson, who was truly called the " Leviathan of 
literature," appeared in 1755. Francis Grose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, 
was compiled in 1768 ; and from this period numerous dictionaries have been added 
to our store of literature. 

DIEPPE. Laid in ashes by the English admiral Russell, in July 1694, and the town 
has not been so considerable since that time. It was again bombarded, together 
with the town of Granrille, by the British, September 14, 1803. 

DIET ov THX GERMAN EMPIRE. The supreme authority of this empire may 
be said to have existed in the assemblage of princes under this name. The diet, as 
composed of three colleges, viz. :— the college of electors, the college of princes, and 
the college of imperial towns, commenced with the famous edict of Charles IV. 
I^Srf^See Golden BuU, Diets otherwise constituted had long preriously been 
beld on important occasions. The diet of Wurtzburg, which proscribed Henry the 
lion, was held in 1179. The celebrated diet of Worms, at which Luther assisted 
in person, was held in 1521. That of Spires, to condemn the Reformers, was held 
in 1529 ; and the famous diet of Augsburg, in 1530. In the league of the German 
princes, called the Confederation of the Rhine, they fixed the diet at Frankfort, 
July 12, 1806. Germany is now governed by a diet of seventeen voices, 

** DIEU'DONNB,^ The name given in his infancy to Louit le Gram/, king of France, 
because the French considered him as the gift of Heaven, the queen, his mother, 
having been barren for twenty-three years previously, a.d. 1638. — Voltaire, 

DIEU ET MON DROIT, ** God, and my right" This was the parole of the day, 
given by Richard I. of England, to his army at the battle of Gisors, in France. In 
this battle (which see) the French army was signally defeated ; and in remembrance 
of this Tictorv, Richard made " Dieu ei mon droit** the motto of the royal arms of 
England, and it has ever since been retained, a.d. 1198. — Rymer*i Foedera, 

DIGEST. The first collection of Roman laws under this title was prepared by Alfrenus 
Yams, the civilian of Cremona, 66 b.c.— Qum/i/. Inst. Oral, Other digesta of 
Roman laws followed. The Digest, so called by way of eminence, was the col- 
lectkm of laws made by order of the emperor Justinian : it made the first part of the 
Roman law, and the first volume of the civil law. Quotetions from it are marked 
irith a C— Poftiofi. 

DIGITS. Arithmetical figures were known to the Arabian Moors about a.d. 900. They 
were introduced from thence into Spain in 1050, and into England about 1253. The 
digit is any whole number under lO^as !> 2, 3, 4, 5. 6, 7, 8, 9, which are called 
the nine digite ; also a measure conteining three-quarters of an inch. In astronomy, 
the digit is also a measure used in the calculation of eclipses, and is the twelfth part 
of the luminary eclipsed. — See article. Figures. 

DIOCESE The first divi^on of the Roman empire into dioceses, which were at that 
period civil goTemments, is ascribed to Constantino, a.d. 323 ; but Strabo remarkd 

If J 

Dio [_ 173 ] via 

that the Romani had the departments called dioceses long before. — Strabo^ lib. ziii. 
In England these circnits of the bishops' jurisdiction are coeral with Chiistiiiuty ; 
there are twenty-fonr dioceses, of which twenty-one are saiEragan to Canteiirary, 
and three to York. 

DIOCLETIAN ERA. Called also the era of Martyrs, was used by Christian writer* 
nntil the introduction of the Christian era in the siztJi century, and is still employed 
by the Abyssinians and Copts. It dates from the day on which Diocletian was pro- 
claimed emperor at Chalcedon, 29th August, 284. It is called the era of martjn, 
on account of the persecution of the Christians in the reign of Diocletian. 

DIORAMA. This species of exhibition, which had long previously been an object of 
wonder and delight at Paris, was first opened in London, September 29, 1823. Hie 
diorama differs from the panorama in this respect, that, instead of a circnlar rieir of 
the objects represented, it exhibits the whole picture at once in perspective, and it ii 
decidedly superior both to the panorama and tiie cosmorama in the fidelity with 
which the objects are depicted, and in the completeness of the illusion. 

DIRECTORY, thb CHURCH. The book so called was published in England aft the 
period of the ciril war. It was drawn up at the instance of the pariiament, by an 
assembly of divines at Westminster, with the object that the ministers might not be 
wholly at a loss in their devotions after the suppression of the Book of Comaioo 
Prayer. There were some general hints given, which were to be managed at 
discretion, for the Directory prescribed no form of prayer, nor rruknn^ of external 
worship, nor enjoined the people to make any responses, except Amen, The DireeCoiy 
was established by an ordinance of the parliament in 1644. — Bishop Tafflor, 

DIRECTORY, French. The French Directory was installed at the little Laxembooif , 
at Paris, under a new constitution of the government, Nov. 1, 1795, and held this 
executive power four years. It wss composed of five members, and roled in oos- 
nexion with two chambers, the Council of Ancients and Council of Five Hundrad, 
which tee. Deposed by Buonaparte, who, with Cambactfr^ and Si^^, became the 
ruling power of France, the three governing as consuls, the first as chief, November 
9, 1799. See Buonaparte. 

DISCIPLINE, THK BOOK or. Drawn up by an assembly of ministers in Seotlsnd, ia 
A.D. 1650. In this book the government of the church by prelates was set aside. 

DISPENSATIONS. Ecclesiastica] dispensations were first granted by pope Innoeent 
III. in 1200. These exemptions from the law and discipline of the church kd 
eventually, with indulgences, absolutions, and the remission of sins, to theRefonnation 
in Germany in 1517, and subsequently to that in England in 1534 et teq. 

DISPENSING POWER of thk CROWN. This was a power nnoonstitiitioiially 
asserted by James II. in 1686. Most of the judges were dismissed by that iafik- 
tuated monarch for refusing to allow the legality of this power, 1687. Since diis 
period the same power has been on certain occasions exercis^, as in the ease of 
embargoes upon ships, the restraint upon com leaving the kingdom, &c., without the 
prerious concurrence of parliament. See Indemnity, 

DISSENTERS. They arose early in the Reformation, contending for a more comdele 
departure from the Romish modeb of church government and disdpllDe. They 
were reproached with the name of Puritans, on account of the purity they proposed 
in religious worship and conduct ; and the rigorous treatment they endured under 
Elizabeth and James I. led multitudes of them to emigrate in those reigns. The 
first place of worship for Dissenters in England was established at Wandswortii, a 
village near London, November 20, 1572 ; and now, in London alone, the nnnber 
of chapels, meeting-houses, &c for all classes of Dissenters, amounts to near 200. 
The great act for the relief of Dissenters from civil and religious disabilities, was the 
statute passed 9 George IV. c. 17. By this act, called the Corporation and Test 
Repeal Act, so much of the several acts of parliament of the pr*«^ing reigns as 
imposed the necessity of receiving the sacrament of the Lord's Supper as a qnalifi* 
cation for certain offices, &c. was repealed, May 9, 1828. Several other ads of 
ameliorating effect have been rince passed. 

DISTAFF. The staff to which hemp, flax, wool, or other substances to be span is 
fastened. The art of spinning with it, at the small wheel, first taught to &iglish 
women by Anthony Bonavisa, an Italian, 20 Henry YII. IbOb.^Siowe, 

Dia [ 174 J DOC 

DISTILLATION, And the Ysrioas chemical processes dependent on the art, are 
generally believed to have been introduced into Europe by the Moors, about a.o. 
11«»0 ; their brethren of Africa had them from the Egyptians. The distillation of 
q^iiitnoiu Hquors was in practice in these countries in the sixteenth century. Bums, 

DIVINATION. In the Scriptures we find mention made of different kinds of dlTina- 
tkm ; and it is mentioned by most of the ancient authors. It was retained in the 
hands of the priest and priestesses, the magi, soothsayers, augurs, and other like 
professors, till the coming of Christ, when the doctrines of Christianity and the spirit 
of philosophy banished such visionary opinions. The oracles of Delphi began, 1 263 b. c. 
A^gnrs were instituted by Numa at Rome, 710 b.c. — See Augury ^ Witchcraft, ^o. 

DIVING-BELL. First mentioned, though obscurely, by Aristotle, 325 b.c. The 
dlTing-bcU was first used in Europe, a.d. 1509. It is said to hare been used on the 
ooast of MuU, in searching for the wreck of part of the Spanish Armada, before a.d. 
I6G9. HaUey greatly improved this machine, and was, it is said, the first who, by 
means of a diving-beil, set his foot on dry ground at the bottom of the sea. Smeaton 
aimUed the condensing-pump to force down air. Mr. Spalding and his assistants 
goiQg down in a diving-bell in Ireland, were drowned, June I, 1783. The Royal 
Cforyw man-of-war, which was sunk off Portsmouth in 1782, was first surveyed by 
BBcans of a diving-bell, in May 1817. Lately, and particularly in 1840, it has been 
employed in sub-marine surveys. The first diving-60//0 was the wife of Captain 
Morris, at Plymouth, who descended in one a few years ago. 

DIVORCES FOB ADULTERY. Of the earliest institution, both in ecclesiastical 
and civil law, among the ancients. First put in practice by Spurius Carvilius at 
Rome, 231 b. c. — Blair, At this time morals were so debased, that 3000 prosecu- 
tions for adultery were enrolled. Divorces were attempted to be made of more easy 
obtainment in England, in a.d. 1539. The bill to prevent women marrying their 
seducers was brought into parliament in 1801. 

DIZIER, St., in Cbampaonb. One of the most memorable sieges in modem history 
was sustained by this town for six weeks against the army of Charles Y. emperor of 
Germany, a.d. 1544. A battle was fought here between the army of the allies on 
one side, and the French commanded by Napoleon in person on the other, in which 
the latter army was defeated with considerable loss, January 27, 1814. 

DOCKS OP LONDON. They are said to be the most extensive and finest constructions 
of the kind, for the purposes of commerce, in the world. In London there are a 
number of these docks, of which the following are the principal : — ^The West India 
docks, the act for whose formation passed in July 1799 ; they were commenced 
February 3, 1800, and were opened August 27, 1802, when the Henry Addington 
West Indiaman fint entered them, decorated with the coloura of the different nations 
of Europe. The London docks were commenced June 26, 1802, and were opened 
January 31, 1805. The East India docks were commenced under an act passed 
July 27» 1803, and were opened August 4, 1806. The fint stone of the St. Kathe- 
rine dodu was laid May 3, 1827 ; and 2,500 men were daily employed upon them 
vntil they were opened, October 25, 1828. 

DOCK-TARDS, Rotal. There are seven chief dock-yards in England and Wales, 
and nine othicn in various of our colonies. That of Woolwich was already an 
emtensive one in 1509. Chatham dock-yard was founded by queen Elisabeth, and 
it one of the principal stations of the royal navy ; it contains immense magazines of 
warlike stores, rendering it one of the finest arsenals in Europe. The dock-yard at 
Bortsmouth was established by Henry VIII. Plymouth Dock, now Devonport, is a 
matchless naval magazine and rendezvous. After the insult of the Dutch, who 
burnt our men-of-war at Chatham in 1667, Charles II. strengthened Sheerness, 
where there b a fine dock-yard. Great fire in the dock-yard at Devonport, by 
which the Talavera, of 74 guns, the Imogene, of 28 guns, and immense stores were 
destroyed ; the relics and figure-heads of the favourite ships of Boscawen, Rodney, 
Duncan, and other naval heroes, which were preserved in a naval museum, were 
also burnt, September 27, 1840. lire at Sheemess dock-yard on board the Cam- 
perdown, October 9, 1840. 

DOCTOR. This rank was known in the earliest times. Doctor of the church was a 
title given to SS. Athanasius, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and Chrysostom, in the 
Greek diorch ; and to SS. Jerome, Augustin, and Gregory the Grea^ in the 

DOC [ 175 ] DOM 

Romish church, a.d. 373, etseq. Doctor of the law was a title of honour among 
the Jews. The degree of doctor was conferred in England, 8 John, 1207.— 
Sprlman, Some give it an earlier date, referring it to the time of the Venerable 
Bede and John de BcTeriey, the former of whom, it it aaid, was the fint that 
obtained the degree at Cambridge, about a.d. 725. S ee CoUegkUe Dtffnet, 

DOCTORS' COMMONS. The college for the profatson of ciTil and canon law, rending 
in the city of London ; the name of Commons ia giren to this college from the 
ciTilians oommoning together as in other colleges. Doctors' Commons was founded 
by Dr. Henry Hanrey, whose original college was destroyed in the great fire of 1666, 
but after some years it was rebuilt on the old site. The causes taken oogniaanoe of 
here are, blasphemy, divorces, bastardy, adultery, penance, tithes, mortuaries, pro- 
bate of wills, &C. — Scie article CitU Law, 

DOG. The chien de berg^r^ or the shepherd's dog, is the origin of the whole raoe.^ 
Buffon. Bttifon describes this dog as being '^ the root of the tree," assigning as his 
reason that it possesses from nature the greatest share of instinct. The Irish wolf- 
dog is supposed to be the earliest dog known in Europe, if Irish writers be correct 
Dr. Gall mentions that a dog was taken from Vienna to England ; Uiat it escaped to 
Dover, got on board a vessel, landed at Calais, and after accompanying a genUemaa 
to Mentz, returned to Vienna. Statute against dog-stealing, 10 Geoige III. 1770. 
Dog-tax imposed, 1796, and again in 1808. The cruel employment of dogs ia 
drawing carts and burthens through the streets, was abolished January 1, 1840.— 
See Greyhound, 

DOG-DAYS. The canicular or dog-days, commence on the 3d of July, and end oo 
the 11th of August. Common opinion has been accustomed to regard the rising 
and setting of Sirius, or the dog-star *, with the sun, as the cause of excessive heat, 
and of consequent calamities, instead of its being viewed as the sign when sach effects 
might be expected. The star not only varies in its rising, in every one year as the 
latitude varies, but is always later and later every year in all latitudes, so that ia 
time the star may, by the same rule, come to be chaiged with bringing firost and 
snow. — Dr, Hution, 

DOGE. The title of the duke of Venioct which state was first governed by a prince so 
named, Anafesto Paululio, a.d. 697. The Grenoese revolted against thdr count, sad 
chose a doge from among their nobility, and became an aristocratic republic, 1030-4. 
The ceremony of the doge of Venice marrying the sea, *' the Adriatic wedded to oar 
duke,'' was instituted in 1173, and was observed annually on Asoension-day, until 
1797, when the custom was dispensed with. — See Adriatic. 

DOGGET COAT and BADGE. The annual rowing-match upon the Thames, thus 
called, originated in this way. Mr. Thomas Dogget, an eminent actor of Drwy-lane, 
on the first anniversary of the accession to the throne of George I. gave a watennan's 
coat and silver badge to be rowed for by six young watermen in honour of the day. 
And, to commemorate that event, he bequeathed at his death a sum of money, the 
interest whereof was to be appropriated annually, for ever, to the same pur po se . 
The candidates start, at a signal given, at that time of the tide when the corrent is 
strongest against them, and row from the Old Swan, London-bridge, to the Whits 
Swan, at Chelsea; first match, August 1, 1715. 

DOIT. A silver Scottish penny, of which twelve were equal to a penny sterling Some 
of those struck by Charles I. and II. are in the cabinets of the curious. A Dutch 
piece of this name was also coined. 

DOMINGO, ST. Discovered by Columbus in his second voyage, in 1493. The dty 
was founded in 1494. The town of Port-au-Prince was burnt down, and neariy 
destroyed by the revolted negroes, in Oct., Nov., and Dee., 1791. Toussaint 
L'Ouverture governed the island, on the expulsion of the French colonists, after this 
till 1802, when he was entrapped by Buonaparte, and died in prison. His successor, 
Desaalines, recommended the blacks, by proclamation, to make a general massacre of 
the whites, which was accordingly executed with horrid cruelty, and 2500 were 
butchered in one day, March 29, 1804. Dessalines proclaimed himself emperor, 

* Mathematicians aaacrt that Siriua, or the Dog Star, ia the neareat to oa of all the fixed alan ; aii4 
they oompute its distance from our earth at 2,300,000 milUona of milea. Thej iw*i«tMiti that a aoond 
would not reach our earth from Biriua in 50,000 years ; and that a cannon-hall, flying with Ita 
velocity of 480 milea an hour, would conanmo 583,81 1 years in ita passage thenoe to our globe. 

DOM [ 176 J IMJCJ 

Oct. 8, 1804. See HayH^ in which article particiiUn will be found up to the 
independence of St. Dosoingo, acknowledged by France, in April, 1825. 

DOMINICA. DiscoTered by Columbus in hia second Toyage, in 1493. This island 
was taken by the British in 1761, and was confirmed to them by the peace of 1763. 
The French took Dominica in 1778, but restored it at the subsequent peace in 1783. 
It suffered great damage by a tremendous hurricane in 1806 ; and sereral devas- 
tating hurricanes hare more recently occurred. 

DOMINICAL LETTER. Noting the Lord's day, or Sunday. The seven days of 
the week, reckoned as beginning on the 1st of January, are designated as by the first 
seyen letters of the alphabet, A, B, C, D, Et F, 6 ; and the one of these which 
denotes Sunday is the dominical letter. If the year begin on Sunday, A is the do- 
minical letter ; if it b^gin on Monday, that letter is 6 ; if on Tuesday, it is F, and so 
on. Generally to find the dominical letter call New Year's day A, the next day B, 
and go on thus until you come to the first Sunday, and the letter that answers to it 
is the dominical letter ; in leap years count two letters. 

DOMINICANS. A religious order whose power and influence were almost uniyersaL 
Tbey were called in France Jacobins, and in England Blackfriars, and were founded 
by St. Dominick, approved by Innocent III. in 1215 ; and the order was confirmed 
by a bull of Honorius III. in 1216, under St. Austin's rules, and the founder's 
particular constitutions. In 1276 the corporation of London gave them two whole 
streets by the river Thames, where they erected a large and elegant convent, and 
whence Uiat part is still called Blackfriars. 

DONATISTS. An ancient sect of schismatics founded by Donatus, bishop of 
Carthage, about a.d. 331. Hie general profession of this sect was an exclusive 
prefcen&d puritanism. — Hookw, The Donatists held that the Father was above the 
Son, and the Son above the Holy Ghost ; and that there was no virtue in the church, 
for which reason those of their sect were re-baptised. 

DOOM'S-DA Y on DOME'S-DAY BOOK. L\heT Judiciariut vel Ceruuatit Anglia. 
A book of the general survey of England, commenced in the reign of William I. a.d. 
1080. The intent of this biook was, to be a register whereby to determine the right 
in the tenure of estates ; and from this book the question whether lands be ancient 
demesne or not, is sometimes still decided. The book is still preserved in the 
Exchequer, fair and legible, consisting of two volumes, a greater and lesser, wherein 
all the counties of England, except Northumberland and Durham, are surveyed. 
It was finished in a.d. 1086, having been completed by five justices. ** This dome*s- 
day book was the tax4x>ok of kinge William." — Camden. The taxes were levied 
according to this survey till 13 Henry YIII. 1522, when a more accurate survey was 
taken, anid was called by the people the new Doom's-day-book. 

DORCHESTER, Bishopuic or. Founded in a.d. 634. It continued for 460 years. 
In A.D. 1094, Remigius, its last prelate, transferred it to Lincoln, which tee, 

DORIC Onnsm or AncHXTBCTunB. The most ancient of the five, the invention of 
the Dorians, a people of Greece. The Dorians also gave the name to the Doric 
■rase. The migration of this people to the Peloponnesus took place 1104 b.c. 
They sent, in thor vast spirit of enterprise, many colonies into different places, which 
afterwards bore the same name as their native country. 

DORT. Here happened an awful inundation of the sea, a.d. 1446. It arose in the 
breaking down of the dvkes ; and in the territory of Dordrecht 10,000 persons were 
overwhdmed and perished ; and more than 100,000 round Dullart, in vViesland and 
in Zealand. In the last two provinces upwards of 300 villages were overflowed, and 
the tops of their towers and steeples were for ages after to be seen rising out of the 
water. Dort is fiunous for the Protestant njnod held in 1618 ; a general assembly, 
to which deputies were sent firom England, and from all the Reformed churches in 
Europe, to settle the differences between the doctrines of Luther, Calrin, and 
Arminius, principally upon points of justification and grace. This synod condemned 
the tenets of Arminius. — AiiMemct, 

DOUAY, IN France. Erected into a university by Philip II. of Spain, who founded 
here the celebrated college of Roman Catholics, a.d. 1569. Douay was taken from 
the Spaniards by Louis XIV. in person, in 1667. It was taken by the duke of 
Marlborough, in 1710 ; and retaken by the French next year. This town gives its 
name to tli^ Catholic edition of the Bible, which continues in almost universal use 

DOV Q 177 ] DRA 

bj the consent of the snccessiTe popes among the m e mb ers of that communion, ai 
the only aathorised Tersion of the Sacred Tolome ; its text being eopionsly ezpbined 
bj the notes of Catholic diTines. 

DOVE. This bird has been always in great fiiToar with the Eastern natioiis, and wif 
held sacred in the early ages by many of them. The dore waa sent from the ark, 
and returned 2347^ B.C. FuUer, in his History of the Holy War, tells ns that at the 
siege of Jerusalem the Christians intercepted a letter tied to the feet of a dore, in which 
the Persian emperor promised assistance to the besieged. — FulUr, book I. cap. sxiT. 

DOVER. Here Julius Casar made his first landing in England, August 26, 55 i.c. 
Its original castle is said to have been built by him soon after ; bnt this is disputed. 
The castle was rebuilt and strengthened by Henry II. and rendered impregnable by 
the towers and works erected in succeeding reigns. The priory was commenced 1^ 
archbishop Corboyl, or Corbois* about a.d. 1130. At Dorer, Iring John inglorioosly 
resigned his kingdom to Pandolf, the pope's legate, May 13, 1213. The pier vu 
projected by Henry VIIL in 1533^ Charles II. landed here fitmi his exifoy May 25, 
1660. The Foot-barracks were burnt down by an accidental fire, July 30, 18001 
A large part of the cliff fell, Not. 27, 1810. The quantity of land lost by two Ms 
was estimated at six acres. 

DOWER. The gifts of a husband for a wife.— Getiem zxzir. 12. The custom is said 
to be deriTcd from the Grermans ; and it was a usage among the Saxons, as appesrs 
from the laws of king Edmund, by which a widow was entitled to a moiety of her 
husband's property for her life, a.d. 941. The widows of traitors, but not thoae ol 
felonSf are debarred their dower by statute 5 Edward VI., 1550. — Statuiet. 

DOWN, Bishopric of. An ancient see, whose first bishop was St. CaUan, in 499. 
At the instance of John Courcey, the conqueror of Ulster, the cathedral, although 
previously consecrated to the Trinity, was dedicated to the honour of St fttricfc, 
about 1183. Christopher Pembridge alleges, in his Annals, that many believed 
Courcey by this act had drawn on himself that vast train of misfortunes which after^ 
wards befel him. The sepulchre of St. Patrick (who iras buried here in 493, in the 
abbey of Saul, founded by himself) brought this place into great repute. The see 
was united with that of Connor in 1441 ; it is ralued in the king'a books, 15 Janes 
I., at 25/. per ann. — See Connor, The cathedral of DovmpatridL was destroyed by 
lord Grey, lord deputy of Ireland, for which, and other crimes, he waa impeached, 
and beheaded, in 1541. — Beatton, 

DRACO, Laws of. Draco, when he exercised the office of arehon, made a code of 
laws, which, on account of their seyerity, were said to be written in lettere of blood : 
by them idleness was punished with as much severity as murder ; the amaUeit 
transgression, he said, deserved death, and he could not find any punishment more 
rigorous for more atrocious crimes, 623 b.c. — Siffonius de Repub. Athen. 

DRAGOONS. The name is supposed to have been derived from dragon, '^ because 
mounted on horseback with lighted match he seemeth like a fiery dragon." — Jif«y- 
rick^8 Pref. to Anc. Armour, The d&aconarii were horse soldiera who bore 
dragons for ensigns. The first regiment of dragoons was raised in England, ▲.». 1681. 

DRAKE'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION. Sir Francis Drake saUed from Plymouth Nov. 
13, 1577, and sailing round the globe, returned to England, after many perilous ad- 
▼entures, Nov. 3, 1580. This illustrious seaman was vice-admiral under lord 
Howard, high admiral of England, in the memorable conflict vrith the Spanish 
Armada, July 19, 1588. His expc^iitions and victories over the Spaniards have 
been equalled by modem admirals, but not his generosity ; for he divided the booty 
he took in proportional shares with the common sailors, even to wedges of gold given 
him in return for his presents to Indian oMdt.^^Stowe, Rapin, 

DRAMA. We owe both forms of composition, tragedy and comedy, to the GrttkM, 
The first comedy was performed at Atbens, by Susarion and Dolon, on a moveable 
scaffold, 562 b.c. See Comedy, The chorus was introduced 556 b.c. See 
Chorus, Tragedy was first represented at Athens, by Thespis, on a waggon, 536 
B.C. — Arnnd, Marb, Thespis of Icaria, the inventor of tragedy, performed tt 
Athens Alcesiis, this year, and was rewarded vrith a goat, 536 B.C. — PHny. Anax- 
andrides was the first dramatic poet who introduced intrigues and rapes upon the 
stage. He composed about a hundred plays, of which ten obtained the pnse ; he 
died 340 B.C. 

DBA C 178 ] DRE 

DRAMA IN ROME. The drama waa tint introdaced into Rome on occarion of a 
nlagne which raged doring the conanlate of C. Solpicins Peticns and C. Luciniua 
Scolo. The magifltratea to appease the incensed deities instituted the games called 
Seenteif which were amnsements entirelj new. Actors from Etrnria danced, after 
the Tuscan manner, to the flute, 364 B.C. Subsequently came satires accompanied 
with music set to the flute ; and afterwards plays were represented by Livius An- 
dronicus, who, abandoning satires, wrote plays with a regiUar and connected plot, 
240 B.c. — Livf. Andronicus was the first person who gave singing and dancing to 
two different perfonnen ; he danced himself, and gave the singing to a younger 

DRAMA, MoDXRN. The modem drama arose early in the rude attempts of minstrels 
and buffoons at fairs in France, Italy, and England. — Warion, Stories from the 
Bible were represented by the priests, and were the origin of sacred comedy. — Idem, 
Gregory Naziansen, an early father of the church, is said to have constructed a 
drama about a.d. 364, on the Pasnon of Christ, to counteract the profanities of the 
beathen stage, and thus to have laid the foundation of the modem romantic drama ; 
Init this is not clearly proved. Fitsstephen, in his L\fe qf Thomat ik Beckett asserts 
that ** London had for its theatrical exhibitions holy plays, and the representation of 
miracles, wrought by holy confessors." The Chester Mysteries were performed about 
1270. Flays were performed at ClerkenweU by the parish clerks in 1397, and mi- 
racles were represented in the fields. Allegorical characters were introduced in the 
reign of Henry VI. Individual characters were introduced in Henry YII.'s reign. 
The first regular drama acted in Europe was the '^Sophonisba" of Trissino, at Rome, 
in the presence of pope Leo X., 1515. — VoUaire, The English drama became per- 
fect in the reign of Elizabeth. The first royal license for the drama in England was 
to master Burbage, and four others, servants to the earl of Leicester, to act plays at 
the Globe, Bankside, 1574. A license was granted to Shakspeare, and his associates. 
In 1603. Plays were opposed by the Puritans in 1633, and were afterwards sus- 
pended until the Restoration in 1660. Two companies of regular performers were 
Bcensed by Charles II., KiUigrew's and Davenant's, in 1662. Kiliigrew*s patent 
bean date April 25, in that year ; and sir William Davenant's was r^^ulated same 
time. The first was at the Bull, Vere-street, Clare-market, which was immediately 
afterwards removed to Drary-laue ; the other in Dorset-gardens. Till this time 
boys performed women*s parts. Sir William Davenant introduced operas, and both 
eompanies united, 1684, and continued together till 1694, when a schism under 
Betterton led to the opening of a theatre in Lincoln's-Iun Fields, 1695, which was 
the parent of Covent Garden. Act for the revision of plays, and for licensing them 
previously to being performed, 1737. Authors' Dramatic Copyright Protection Act. 
3 WilUam lY., June 1833. — See Coveni Garden^ Drury-lantt &c. 

DREAMS. The first who attempted to give an interpretation to dreams, and to draw 
prognostics from omens, was Amphictyon of Athens, 1497 b.c Laodice, the mo- 
ther of Seleucus, nine months before his birth, dreamed that Apollo presented her 
with a precious stone, on which was engraved the figure of an snchor, and com- 
manded her to deliver it to her son as soon as bom. It is said, that in the morning 
she found a ring, answering in description the jewel she had dreamed of; and that 
not only the son of whom she was then pregnant, but all his successors of the house 
of the Seleuddfle, had the mark of an anchor on the thigh, 353 b.c. There is scrip- 
tural authority for a reliance upon dreams; particularly may be mentioned the dream 
of Joseph, see Matthew i. 20. In Westminster Abbey are singular records of the 
dreams of Edward the Confessor ; and instances of faith in visions would fill a vo- 
lume. A remarkable modem instance is attested in the Life of lord Lyttleton : that 
distinguished nobleman expired three days after a singular dream, in which he waa 
warned of his spproaching dissolution, Aug. 22, 1773. 

DRESDEN. Peace of Dresden, between Saxony, Prassia, and the queen of Hungary, 
confirming the treaties of Berlin and Breslau, Dec. 25, 1745. Siege of Dresden by 
the king of Prussia ; during which memorable investment he bombarded the town, 
Imt was obliged to retire after nine days, 1759. This city has been taken and retaken 
aeveral times. Battle of Dresden, see next article. Here marshal St. Cyr, and 
25,000 French troops, surrendered to the allies, Nov. 6, 1813. Political commotion, 
the king of Saxony resigns the royal authority, and prince Frederick, his nephew, is 
declared regent, Sept. 9, et seq» 1830. 

DRE [ 179 2 DRU 

DRESDEN, Battlb of, bctveai the aDied army madtr the priiiee of Schwmenber;, 
and the French amy comoMaded by Napokoo, Aof^. 26 and 27, 1813. The allies, 
who were 200,000 itniBg, attacked Napofeoa in hia poaitioa at Dreaden, and the 
event had neariy prored fatal to them, bat fiir an error in the oondnct of genenl 
Yandanune. They were defeated with dreadfal loaa, and were obliged to retreat 
into Bohemia ; b«t Yandamaae imraaing them too £ar, hia dtrisioQ waa cut to pieces, 
and himself and all hia itaff made priaonen. In thia battle general Morean receiTcd 
his mortal wound while in coa n e isa tion with the emperor of Woaaia. 

DRESDEN CHINA. The fine porcelain ware known as Dresden china, was disoo- 
Tcred by M. Boetidier, who was at the time only an apothecary's boy, 1700. Ser- 
rices of this ware hare cost many thonsands of poimds each. A costly serriee, 
each piece exquisitely painted, and the battles represented, and snbiecta, all diiferent, 
was presented to the doke of Wrflingtnn, by the king of Prussia, in 1816, and is the 
finest in England. 

DRESS. Excess in dress was restrained by a law in England, in the reign of Edward 
IV., 1465. And again in the reign of Elisabeth, 1574.— JPtowr. Sir Walter 
Raleigh, we are told, wore a white satin-pinked irest, dose sleeved to the wrist, and 
orer the body a brown doublet finely flowered, and embroidered with pearls. In the 
feather of his hat, a large mby and pearl drop at the bottom of the sprig, in plaoe 
of a button. Hia breeches, with his stoddngs and ribbon garters, fringed at the 
end, all white ; and buff shoes, which on great court days were so gorgeoaaly 
oOTcred with precious stones, as to have exceeded the Talne of 6600/. ; mad he bad 
a auit of armour of solid sUrer, with sword and belt biasing with diamonds, rubies, 
and pearls. King James's fayourite, the duke of Bnddngfaam, could afford to hare 
hia diamonda tacked so loosely on, that when he chose to shake a few otT on the 
ground, he obtained all the feme he desired from the pidEers>np, who were generally 
Um Damea de la Cour. 

DROGHBDA. Anciently this town was called Tredagh, and was a place of great im- 
portance, haying the privilege of coining money. In the reign of EUiward VI. an 
act, yet unrepeided, was paased for the foundation of a uniyeraity here. Drogheda 
was besieged aeyeral timea in the contests between 1641 and 1691. Cromwell took 
the town by storm, and put the goyemor, sir A. Aston, and the whole of the gar- 
rison, to the sword, Aug. 14, 1649. More than 3000 men, most of them Kng^'fK, 
perished in this dreadful slaughter, firom which one indiyidual only, a lieutenant, 
escaped. Cromwell also murdered eyery man, woman, and child, of the dtiieos 
that were Irish. — See Boyne. 

DROMORE, Bishopric of. Ita founder was St. Coleman, descended from a sept of 
the Arada : he was first bishop, about 556 : the cathedral is dedicated to the Ri- 
DKEMSR. By an extent returned 15 Joe. I. this see was yalued in the king's books 
at 50/. The see of Dromore is to be united to that of Down, on its next bf^yrning 
yacant, by statute, 3 and 4 William lY., 1833. — See Bithop*. 

DROWNING, Punishment of. The punishment of death by drowning is yery an- 
cient, and was practised by many countries, eyen by our own. The Britons inf***^*^ 
death by drowning in a quagmire, before 450 B.C. — Stawe. It waa it»iiM»HMi on 
eighty intractable bishops near Nicomedia, a.d. 370. It was practised in France 
under Louis XI., and on the French clergy in 1792, when they were termed No^adeu 

DROWNING PERSONS. Societies for the recoyery of drowning persons were first 
instituted in Holland, a.d. 1767. The second society is said to haye been formed 
at MiUn, in 1768 ; the third in Hamburg, 1771 : the fourth at Paris, in 1772 ; and 
the fifth in London, in 1774. Similar societies haye been instituted in other coun- 
tries. The motto of the Royal Humane Society in England is yery appropriate : — 
Lateat tointillula forsan — a small spark may lurk unseen. 

DRUIDS. A celebrated order among the ancient Germans, Gails, and Britons, who 
from their yeneration for the oak (Drys) were so called. They acted as priests and 
magiatratea ; one of them was inyeated occasionally with supreme authority. In 
England they were chosen out of the best fiimilies, that the dignity of their station, 
added to that of their birth, might procure them the greater respect They were 
yersed in sciences ; had the administration of all sacred things ; were the inter- 
preters of the goda ; and supreme judgea in all causes. The Druids headed the Bri- 
tons who opposed Cesar's first landing, 55 b.c. They were cruelly put to death. 




defending the freedom of their country against the Roman governor, Saetonias 
Panlinan, who totallf deatrojed erery mark of Dmidiam^ a.d. 59. — JiowlancTs 
Mona AiUiq»ia. 

DRUM. A martial instrument whose inrention is ascribed to Bacchus, who, according 
to Polyenes, "gave his signals of battle with cymbals and drums." The drum was 
an oriental inyeation brought by the Moors into Spain, a.d. 713. — Le Clerc, The 
braces on the sides, whereby the sound may be rendered louder or slacker, are of later 
date.— ^«A#. In navigation, the drum, or drum-capstan, for weighing anchors, was 
inTented by sir S. Moreland, in l6B5.~~Atiderson, 

DRUNKARDS. The phrase ** Drunk as a lord,'' arose out of an older proverb, 
*' Drunk as a beggar ; " and we are told that it was altered owing to the vice of drun* 
kenncss prevailing more among the great of late years. Drunkenness was punished 
in many of the early nations with exemplary severity. In England, a canon law re- 
strained it in the clergy so early as a.d. 747. Constantine, king of Scots, punished 
this offence against society with death. He used to say, that a drunkard was but 
the mimie of a man, and differed from the beast only in snape, a.d. 870. Drunken- 
ness was restrained in the commonalty in England in 975 ; and by several later laws. 

DKURY-LANE THEATRE, derives its origin from a cock-pit which was converted 
into a theatre in the reign of James I. It was pulled down, and rebuilt, and called 
the Phoenix ; and Charles II. granted an exclusive patent to Thomas Killigrew, 25 
April, 1662. The actors were the king's servants, and ten of them, who were called 
gentlemen of the great chamber, had an annual allowance of ten yards of scarlet cloth 
with a suitable quantity of lace. The theatre, with sixty adjoining houses, was 
burnt down in 1671 ; and a new edifice was buflt in its room by sir Christopher 
Wren, in 1674. The interior was rebuilt by Mr. Adams, and was re-opened Sept. 
23, 1775. The Drury-lane Theatrical Fund was originated by David Garrick, in 
1777. In 1791, the whole structure of the theatre was pulled down, and it was re- 
built and opened March 12, 1794. It was totally destroyed by fire, Feb. 24, 1809 ; 
and was rebuilt and opened, Oct. 16, 1812. — See Theatres^ and Drama. 

DUBLIN. This dty, anciently called Aschcled, built a.d. 140. It obtained its pre- 
sent name from Alpinus, a lord or chief among the Irish, whose daughter, Auliana, 
having been drowned at the ford where now Whitworth-bridge is bmlt, he changed 
the name to Auliana, by Ptolemy called Eblana (afterwards corrupted into Dublanis), 
that she might be haid in remembrance. Alpinus is the first chief mentioned in his- 
tory as having made this place his residence, which he did about a.d. 155, when he 
brought " the then rude hill into the form of a town." — See Ireland, 

Christianity estabUabed here on the ar- 
rival of fit. Patrick . . A.D. 

[St Batriekt cathedral foundod about 
tills time.] 

Dublin oovfroned with walls by tho 
Danes, or Ottroen (see Dants) 

Kamed by king Edgar in the preface to 
hli charter, « KobUtuima Civitat ** . 

Battle of Clootarf {which te4) 

DabUn taken by Raymotid le Groe, for 
Hemy IL, who soon after arrives 

Charter granted by this king 

Christ** Church boflt, 1038 ; rebuUt . . 

eianghtar of 500 British by the dtixcns 
{tmo CulteH't teood) . . . . 

ftwmiTiligii of Irish princes, who swear 
allegianoe to king John 

Foondatioa of Dublin castle laid by 
Ifenry de Loundrcs. ISOS ; finished 

John le Deoer first provost ; Hichard de 
Sc OUve and John Stakobold, first 
b«niini(8ee Afajror) . . . . 

Thomas Coaack, first mayor iidem) . . 

Ucsioged by the son of the oorl of Kildaro, 
lord deputy 

Christ Church made a deanery and chap- 
ter by Henry VUL — Sco Christ- 











Name of bailiff changed ; John Ryan and 

Thomas Comyn, first sheriffs . a.d. 154f 

University founded 1591 

Charter granted by James L . . 160C 

Convocation which established the 

Thirty-nine Articles of religion . . 1614 
Besieged by the marquis of Ormond and 

battle of Rathmlnes {which see) . . 1649 
Cromwell arrives fan Dublin with 9000 

foot, and 400 horse Aug. 1649 

Chief magistrate honoured with the title 

of lord while holding office • . 186S 
Blue-coat hoq>ital incorporated . . 1670 

Essex-bridgo built by sir H. Jenris . 1679 
Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, founded . 1683 
James VL arrives in Dublin . . . 1688 
Great gunpowder explosion . . . 1693 
Lamps first erected in the city . , . 1698 
Infirmary. Jcrvis-strcct, founded . .1728 
Parliament-bouse began . . . . 1729 
Foundling Hospital incorporated , . 1739 
St Patrick's spire erected— See Patrick's 

Cathedral 1749 

Royal Dublin Society, originated 1731 ; 

incorporated 1749 

Lock Hospital op^mcd • • • 1758 

Hibernian Society • 1765 

Marine Soctety • . . • '768 




DUBLIN, continued, 

QueenVbridge first a«cted, 16B4 ; d»-* 

stroyed by a flood. 1763 ; rebuilt a.d. 1768 
Act for a geoeral pavement of the streets 

of the city 1773 

Royal Exchange bqsan, 1769 ; opened . 1779 
Order of 8t. Patrick InsUtuted . .1783 
Bank of Ireland instituted (see Bank) . 1783 
PoUoe establisfaed by statute .1736 

Royal Academy incorporated . . . 1786 
Duke of Rutland's funeral . 1787 

Custom-hooss begun, 1781 ; opened . . 1791 
Dublin Ubrary instituted . .1791 

Fire at the Parliament-house . . 1792 

Carlisle-bridge erected .... 1794 
City armed Association • . . 1796 

New law courts opened . . 1796 

Unkm with England (see Union), Jsn. 1. ISN 
Emmett's Insorreotion July 23. IftiS 

Hibernian Bible Society - \»6 

Bank transferred to College-green. . laOB 

Dublin Institution foonded 
Riot at the theatre • 
Visit of Geoige IV. . 
Hlbemian Academy 
Dublin lighted with gas . 
Railroad to Kingstown 
Dublin New Police Act 
Royal-arcade burnt 
Poor Law Bill passed 
Awful storm raged 
O* ConneU'a anest (see IWoZf ), 

. .1811 

Dec. 16, 1814 

Aug. 13. 18?1 

Aug. 16, 1823 

Oct. 5, 189S 

Dec. 17, 1834 

. July 4, 1838 

April 25, 1837 

July 31. 1838 

Jan. 6, 1839 

Oct. 14, 1843 

See Ote variaue other artictee under their re- 
ep^ive 'heade. 

The Rebellion ; arrest of lord Edward 
Fitcgerald, in Thomas-street, May 19, 1798 

DUBLIN, Archbishopric of. United to the aee of Glandekgh, or Glendalacifa, in a.o. 
1214. It is supposed that the see of Doblin was founded hj St. Patrick, in 448. 
Gregory, who sucoeeded to the prelacj in 1121, afterwards became archbithop ; and 
George Browne, an Augustine friar of London (depriTed by queen Mary in 1554), 
was the first Protestant archprelate of this see. Dublin has two cathedrals, Christ- 
Church, and St Patrick's, both in the city, a most rare thing. The revenue was 
▼alued, in the king's books, by an extent taken 30 Henry YIII., at 534/. I5«. ^d, 
Irish. — See Bishops. 

DUCAT. First coined by Longinus, governor of Italy. — Procopius. First struck in 
the duchy of Apulia. — Du Cange, Coined by Robert, king of Sicily, in a.o. 1240. 
The ducat is so called because struck by dukes.— ^o^twon. It is of silver and gold, 
the value of the first being As, 6d,, and that of the gold 9s. 6d. — Pardon. 

DUELLING AND KNIGHT.ERRANTRY, took their rise fiN>m the judicial combats 
of the Celtic nations. The first duel in England, not of this character, took place, 
A.D. 1096. Duelling in civil matters was forbidden in France, 1305. The present 

fractice of duelling arose in the challenge of Francis I. to the Emperor Charles V. 
527. The fight with small swords was iotroduced into England, 29 EUzabeth 1587. 
ProclamatioB that no person should be pardoned who killed another in a duel, 30 
Charles II., 1679. Duelling was checked in the army, 1792.— See Battel^ Wager 
off Combat, ^c. 


Between the duke of Hamilton and lord 
Mohmi, fought . . . ajd. 171i 

[This duel was fought with small swords 
in Hyde-park. Lord Mohun was killed 
upon the spot, and the duke expired of 
his wounds as he was being oarried to 

Captain Peppard and Mr. Hayes; the 
latter killed 1728 

Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Morgan ; the for- 
mer killed .... 1748 

Mr. S. Martin and Mr. Wilkes, M.P. . . 1763 

Lord Townahend and lord Bellamont ; 
lord Bellamont wounded . Feb. 1, 1773 

The Count D'Artois and the duke of 
Bourbon . . . March 21 , 1778 

Charles James Fox and Bir. Adam ; Mr. 
Fox wounded . . ' Nov. 30, 177» 

Mr. Donovan and captain Hanson ; the 
latter killed . . . Nov. 13, 177» 

Colonel Fullerton and lord Shelbume ; 
the latter woimded March 23, 1780 

Rev Bfr. Allen and Lloyd Dulany ; the 
latter killed . June 18, 1783 

Colonel Thomas of the Guards and Col. 
Gordon ; Col Thomas kUled, Sept. 4, 1783 

Lord Macartney and miOor.-fen.8taart ; 
the former wounded June 9, I7K 

Mr. Barrington and Mr. M'Kcnaie ; (the 
former killed on the ground by geoenl 
Gillespie, the second of the latter !) . I7W 

Mr. M*Keon and George Nugent Rty- 
nolds; the latter murdered by the 
former .... Jan. 31, 17M 

Mr. Purefd^ and colonel Roper; the lat- 
ter killed . . I>eo.l7,178i 

Duke of York and colonel Lennox, after- 
wards duke of Richmond . May 37, I7B9 

Bir George Ramsay and captain Macrea ; 
sir George kHIed .... 179S 

Bir. Curran and major Hobart April 1. \7W 

Mr. liaoduiTand Mr. Prince; the latter 
killed .... June 4, ITS^ 

Mr. Harv^ Aston and lient. Fitsgerald ; 
the former severely wounded, June 35, 17W 

Mr. Steevens and Mr. Anderson; tiie 
former killed • b4^80,17» 

Mr. Graham and Mr. Jnliua; tbelbnncr 
killed .... July 19, 1791 

Mr. John Kemble and Mr. Aiken ; no 
fatality . March 1, 179 

Earl of Lonsdale and captain Cutbhot ; 
nofbtaUty Juns9,17» 




DUELLING AND knight-errantry, oon/intMi/. 

ILdeCbsaffgnyaadSlr. Lttneth: the 
ImUarwoonded . . Nov. 8, 1792 

Mr. Carponter and Mr. Pride ; the for- 
mer killed . Ang.aOb 1796 

Lord Norbury and Mr. Napper Tandy 
(an aflkir ; no meeting) . Ang. 21, 1796 

Lord Vakntia and Mr. Oawler ; the 
former wounded • . June 28, 1796 

Rt. bon. William Pitt and Mr. Georse 
Tlemey . May 27, 1796 

Rl Hon.lBaao Conryand Rt. hon. Henry 
Orattan .... Jan. 15, 1800 

Ueat. Willis and major Impey : the 
major killed Aug. 96, 1801 

Rthon. George Ogle and Bernard Coyle 
{tijfht tkoU i mofatalitjf) . . . 1802 

flb* Richard Muagrave and Mr. Todd 
Jones ; sir Riohard wounded, June 8, 1802 

Colonel Montgomery and captain Mao 
Kamara ; the former killed, April 6; 1809 

Gen. Hamilton and col. Burr ; the gen. 
killed, greatly lamented . . 1804 

Lord Camelford and oi4;>tain Best ; lord 
Gamelford killed March 10, 1804 

S ur geon Fisher and lient Torrens ; the 
latter killed . . March 92, 1806 

Baron Hompesch and Mr. Richardson ; 
the latter sererely wounded. Sept 21, 1806 

Sr Francis Bnrdett and Mr. Panll ; the 
fonner wounded . May 5, 1807 

Mr. Aksock and Mr. Coldongh ; the Ut- 
ter killed (the sunriror soon after loet 
his reason,) June 8, 1807 

M. de Granproe and M. Le Pique, in bal- 
knns, at Paris; the latter killed. May 3, 1808 

Mi^ Campbell and captain Boyd ; the 
latter murdered . . June 23, 1808 

Lord Paget and captain C^dogan ; nei> 
ther wounded May 90, 1809 

Lord Castlereagh and Mr. George Can- 
ning; the latter wounded . Sept 22, 1809 

Mr. George Payne and Mr. Clarke ; the 
farmer killed Sept. 6, 1810 

Captain Boardman and ensign de Bal< 

ton : the framer killed 

March 4, 1811 

Lient Stewart and lieut Bagnal ; the 

latter mortally wounded . Oct 7. 1812 
Mr. Edward Maguire and lient Blun- 

d^; the latter killed . . July 9, 1813 
Mr. Hatehell and Mr. Morley Feb. 12, 1814 
Gapt Stackpole (Statira) and lieut 

Ceefl ; the captain kUled . April, 1814 
Mr. O'ConneU and Mr. D'Esterre ; Bfr. 

D^Esterre UUed . . Feb. 1, 1815 

CoL Qoentin and coL Palmer . Feb. 7* 1815 
Mr. O'Connell and Mr. Peel (an affair; 

no meeting) Aug. 31, 1815 

MiO^ Greene and Mr. Price in America ; 

the latter killed, greaUy lamented . 1816 
Captain Fottrell and colonel Ross ; five 

shots each, but no fatality . Dec. — , 1817 

Lieut Hindes and lieut Gilbert Conroy ; 
the former killed . March G, 1817 

Mr. John Sutton and major Lockyer, 
the former killed Dec. 10, 1817 

Mr. CCallaghan and lieut Bayley ; the 
Utter killed . Jan. 12, 1818 

Mr. Grattan and the earl of Clare, June 7, 1820 

Mr. Henshaw and Mr. Hartinger ; both 
desperately wounded Sept. 18, 1820 

Mr. Scott and Mr. Christie ; the fonner 
killed .... Feb. 16, 1821 

M. Manuel and Mr. Beaumont AprO 9, 1821 

Sir Alexander Boswell and Mr. James 
Stuart ; the former killed March 26, 1822 

The duke of Buckingham and the duke 
of Bedford; no fataUty . May 2, 1822 

General Pepe and general Caraacosa ; 
the Utter wounded . . Feb. 28, 1823 

Mr. Wostall and captain Gourlay ; the 
latter killed 1824 

Mr. Beaumont and Mr. Lambton, July 1 , 1826 

Mr. Brie, barrister, and Mr. Hayes ; the 
former killed . . Dec. 26, 1826 

Rer. Mr. Hodson and Mr. Grady ; the 
Utter wounded Aug. 1827 

Mi^or Edgeworth and Mr. Henry Grat- 
tan (an affair ; no meeting) Sept. — , 1827 

Mr. Long Wellesley and Mr. Creeplgny ; 
neither wounded 1828 

Duke of Wellington and the earl of Win- 
chilsea . March 21, 1829 

Lieut Crowther and captain Helsham ; 
the former killed . . April 1, 1829 

Captain Smith and Mr. O'Grady; the 
Utter kiUed . March 18, 1830 

Mr. Wm. Lambrecht and Mr. Olirer 
Clayton ; the Utter kiUed . Jan. 8, 1830 

Mr. Storey and Mr. Mathlas ; the Ut- 
ter wounded . . Jan. 22, 1833 

Mr. Maher and Mr. Colles . Jan. 22, 1833 

Sir John W. Jeffcott and Dr. Hennis ; 
the Utter mortally wounded, and died 
on the 18th . . . Bfay 10, 1833 

Capt Wellesley Ashe and sir Charles 
Hampton . . Sept 11, 1834 

Lord Alvanley and Mr. Morgan O'Con- 
nell ; two shots each . Bfay 4, 1835 

Sir Colquhoun Grant and lord Seymour ; 
no fatality .... May 29, 1835 

Mr. Roebuck,M.P. and Mr. Black, editor 
Mom. Ckron.i two shoU each, Nov. 19, 1835 

Mr. RuthTen and Mr. Scott ; and Mr. 
Ruthven and Mr. Close (Mr. Scott's 
second), the Utter wounded . May 23. 1836 

The earl of Cardigan and capt. Tuckett 
11th Regt., two shots each, the Utter 
wounded . . . Sept 12, 1840 

Capt Boldero and hon. Craven Berke- 
ley ; no fataUty . July 15, 1842 

CoL Fawcett and capt Munroe; col. 
Fawoett killed . . July 1, 1843 

As many u 227 official and memorable duels were fought during my grand climacteric. 
— Sir J, Barrington, A single writer enumerates 172 duels, in which 63 iDdividuaU 
were killed and 96 wounded : in three of these cases both the combatants were 
killed^ and 18 of tlM sunrirors suiSered the sentence of the law. — Hamilton. 

DUKE, originally a Roman dignity, first giTcn to the generals of armies. In England, 
during Saxon times, the commanders of armies were called dukes, duMt. — CanuUn, 

DUK Q 183 2 DUN 

The title lay dormant from the Conquest till the reign of Edward 111., who oonferred 
the title on hia eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, by the style of dnke of Corn- 
wall, A.D. 1336. Robert de Vere was created marquis of Dublin and duke of 
Ireland, 9 Richard II. 1385. The first duke created in Scotland was by king 
Robert III., who created David, prince of Scotland, duke of Rothsay, a title which 
afterwards belonged to the king's eldest son, a.d. 1398. 

DUKE, Grand. The Medici family was one of extraordinary greatness and immense 
wealth. Of this family, Alexander de Medicis was acknowledged the chief of the 
republic of Tuscany in 1531 ; he was stabbed in the night ; and his son, Cosmo, wu 
created grand duke, the first of that rank, by pope Pius V. in 1569. 

DUKE HUMPHREY. The old saying of ** Dining with duke Humphrey," was in 
allunon to persons who used to ^ndk in St. Paul's church during dinner time; 
Humphrey duke of Gloucester being a man of great hospitality, and supposed to 
have been buried in St. Paul's. 

DULWICH COLLEGE, founded by Edward AUeyne, an eminent comedian, and called 
God's-Gift College, was completed in 1617; he was the first master of his own 
college, and died in 1626. A fine gallery, to contain the Boui^geois coUectioo of 

Eictures, bequeathed by sir Francis Bourgeois, was annexed in 1813. The manor of 
Mwich belongs to the corporation of this college ; and the estate being much 
increased by inclosures, donations, and the advanci^ Talue of land, wUIe the 
original number of persons relicTed has not been enlarged, a situation in GodVGift 
CoUege approaches to opulence* — Leigh, 

DUMB. As early as the end of the sixteenth century, Pedro de Ponce educated two 
children of the constable of Castile, who were bom deaf and dumb, so as not only to 
read and write and know arithmetic, but to understand sereral languages, and the 
principles of religion, philosophy, and astronomy. Perreira, a Spaniard, exhibited 
at Paris children instructed by him, whose acquirements astonished the Academy of 
Sciences there, 1748. The Abb^ I'Ep^ has been most successful in Prance ; and in 
these countries are many asylums for teaching the deaf and dumb. See Dtaf^ Dumb, 

DUMBLANE, Battlx of, called also Sheriffmuir, between the royalist armj and the 
Scots rebels, the former commanded by the duke of Argyle, and the latter by the 
earl of Mar, who was defeated with great loss, Norember 12, 1715. 

DUN. This term has been supposed to come from the French, where dtmne signifies 
give me, implying a demand for something due, but the true origin of the expressioD 
is as follows : — ^lliere was a man named John Dun, a bailiff of the town of Linoohi, 
who was so extremely actire, and so dexterous at the management of his rough 
business, that it became a prorerb, when a man refused to pay his debts, to say, 
'* Why don't you Dun him ?" that is, << Why don't you send Dun to arrest him?" 
Hence it grew into a custom, and is now as old as since the days of Henry YIL— 
Gale's Recreations, 

DUNBAR, Battle of, between the Scottish and English army, in which John Baliol 
was defeated by the earl of Warrenne, and Scotland subdued, by Edward I., fought 
April 27, 1296. Battle between the Soots and the English under Cromwell, who 
obtained a signal rictory, September 3, 1650. 

DUNDALK. After the defeat of the unfortunate Edward Bruce, who had invaded 
Ireland in 1315, and had been crowned king, he was beheaded here in 1318, and 
with him 6200 Scots iuTaders lost their lives. The walls and fortifications of 
Dundalk were destroyed in 1641. The first cambric manufacture in Ireland was 
established in this town by artisans from France in 1727. 

DUNGAN-HILL, Battlx of, in Ireknd, between the English and Irish armies, the 
former commanded by colonel Jones, who signally defeated the Irish, of whom 6000 
were slain, while the loss of the English was inconsiderable, July 10, 1647. 

DUNKIRK. This town was taken from the Spaniards by the English and French, 
and put into the hands of the English, June 24, 1658, the last year of Cromwell's 
administration. It was sold by Charies II. for 500,000/. to Louis XIV. in 1662. 
The French king made Dunkirk one of the best fortified ports in the kingdom ; but 
all the works were demolished, and the basins filled up, in consequence of the treaty 
of Utrecht, in 1713. The French afterwards resumed the works; but theywer« 
ordered to be demolished at the peace of 1763. They continued thus till the peace 

DUN C 184 ] DWA 

of 1783, when they were again reanmed. The English attempted to besiege this 
place ; but the duke of York, who commanded, was defeated by Hoche, and forced to 
retire with Ums, Sept. 7, 1793. 

DUNMOW, IN EsBBX. This town is famous for the tenure of the manor, ** that 
whatever married couple will go to the priory, and, kneeling on two sharp-pointed 
stones, will swear that they had not quarrelled nor repented of their marriage within 
a year and a day after its celebration, shall receive a flitch of bacon." This custom 
was instituted by Robert de Fitswalter, in the reign of Henry III. 1244. The earliest 
recorded daim for the bacon was in 1445, since which period it has only been de- 
manded five times. Thelast claimants were John Shakeshanks and his wife, who estab- 
lished their right to it, June 20, 1751 ; they made a large sum by selling slices of the 
llitch to those who were witnesses of the ceremony, there being 5000 persons present. 

DUNSINANE, Battlx of. Celebrated in dramatic story by the immortal Shak- 
ipeare. On the hill of Dunsinane was fought the renowned battle between Macbeth, 
the thane of Glammit, and Seward, earl of Northumberland. Edward the Confessor 
had sent Seward on behalf of Malcomb III., whose father, Doncan, the thane and 
vsvrper had murdered. Macbeth^ who was signally defeated, fled, and was pursued, 
it is said, to Lnmphanan, in Aberdeenshire, and there slain, 1057. The history of 
MadMth is the subject of Shakspeare's incomparable drama. 

DURHAM, Bishopric of. First fixed at Holy Island on the coast of Northum- 
berland, in 635, but forced from it by the merciless invasion of the Danes. It was 
next fixed at Chester-le-street for 200 years, and then finally at Durham. The 
bones of St. Cuthbert, the sixth bishop, were taken to Durham, and interred in the 
cathedral founded there. This see is deemed the richest in England, and was valued 
in the king's books at 2821/. The Palatinate jorisdiction of Durham was separated 
firom the diocese, and vested in the crown, June 21, 1836. 

DURHAM, Battlb of, between the English and Scottish armies, fought at Nevill's- 
citwi, near Durham. The former army was commanded by oueen Philippe and 
lord Piercy, and the latter by David Bruce, king of Scotland, who was vanquished. 
nfteen thousand of Bruce's soldiers were cut to pieces, and himself, with many of 
his nobles and knights, and many thousand men, were taken prisoners, Oct. 17, 1346. 

DUUMVIRI. Two noble patricians at Rome, who were first appointed by Tarquin 
the Proud to take care of the books of the Sibyls, which were supposed to contain 
the Cste of the Roman empire. The Sibylline books were placed in the capitol, and 
aeenred as a sacred deposit in a chest under the ground. The Duumviri were 
instituted 520 b.c, and continued until their number was increased to ten, and called 
the Decemviri, 450 b.c.— Ltey. 

DWARFS, Ancient. The most celebrated dwarf in ancient history for shortness of 
stature, was Philetus of Cos, who was, at the same time, most distinguished in his 
age as a poet, and for learning : he was so diminutive that he always carried leaden 
weigfata in his pockets to prevent his being blown away by the wind. Philetus was 
preomtor to Ptolemy Philadelphus. — JElian, Julia, niece of Augustus, had a dwarf 
catted Coropas, but two feet and a hand's breadth high ; and Andromeda, a freed- 
maid of Julia's, was of the same height. — Pliny, Aug. Cfesar exhibited in bis plays 
a man not two feet in stature. — Sueton. Alypius of Alexandria, a logician and 
philosopher, waa but one foot five inches and a half high; he seemed to be consumed 
into a kind of divine nature. — Vosa, IruiHi, 

DWARFS, MonxRN. John de Estrix, of Mechlin, was brought to the duke of Parma, 
in 1592, when he waa 35 years of age, having a long beard ; he was skilled in 
languages, and not more than three feet high. Jeffery Hudson, an English dwarf, 
was served up to table in a cold pie, before the king and queen, at a feast given to 
them by the duchess of Buckingham, in 1626 ; he was then a youth 18 inches high. 
In later years, JeiTery having challenged a Mr. Crofts, who had offended him, to 
fight n duel, die latter came to the gpround armed only with a squirt : this new 
indignity led in the end to an actual meeting, and the dwarf shot his antagonist 
dead, 1653. Count Borowlaski, a Polish genUeman, of great accomplishments and 
elegant manners, well known in England, where be resided many years, was bom in 
November 1739. His growth was, at one year of age, 14 inches ; at six, 17 inches ; 
at twenty, 33 inches ; and at thirty, 39. He bad a sister, named Anastasia, seven 
jc»Ta younger than himself, and so much shorter that she could stand under hia 

DYE C 185 *J EAR 

arm. He Tisited many of the coarti of Europe, and died in England at the great 
age of 98, in 1837. 
DYEING, Art of. The disooTery of it attributed to the Tjriana. In dyeing and 
dipping their own cloths, the English were so little skilled, that their manufactures 
were usually sent white to Holland, and returned to England for sale. The art of 
dyeing woollens was brought from the Low Countries in 1608, '* Two dyers of 
Exeter were flogged for teaching their art in the north** (of England) 1628. A 
statute against abuses in dyeing passed in 1783. 


EAGLE. An ancient coin of Ireland, made of a base metal, and current in the lint 
years of Edward I., about a.d. 1272 ; it was so named from the figure impressed 
upon it. The American gold coinage of eagles, half-eagles, and quarter eagles, begsn 
December 6, 1792. An American eagle is of the value of 10 doUars, or about two 
guineas English. 

EAGLE. The standard of the eagle was first borne by the Persians ; and the Romans 
carried figures of the eagle, as ensigns, in silTer and gold, and sometimes repre- 
sented with a thunderbolt in its talons, on the point of a spear ; they adopted the 
eagle in the consulate of Marius, 102 b.c. When Charlemagne became master of 
the whole of the German empire, he added the second head to Uie eagle for his anns, 
to denote that the empires of Rome and Germany were united in him, a.d. 802. 
The eagle was the imperial standard of Napoleon ; and is that of Amtria, Russia, 
and Prussia. — White Eagub, an order of knighthood instituted in 1325, by 
Uladislaus, king of Poland, on the marriage of his son Casimir with a daughter ci 
the great duke of Lithuania ; the knights of this order wore a gold chain oo the 
breast, to which hung a silver eagle crowned. — See Knighthood. Black Eaou 
was an order of the same kind, instituted in 1701, by the elector of Brmndenborgh, 
Frederick I., on his being crowned king of Prussia. 

EAR-RINGS. Among the Athenians the perforation of the ears was a mark of 
nobility : among the Hebrews and Romans it indicated servitude. Pendents firom 
the ears are at this day sometimes used by the men in France, Italy, and other 
countries, even the most civilised in Europe. 

EARL. An honour which came trom the Saxons, and continued for many ages the 
highest rank in England, until Edward III. created dukes, and Richard 11. created 
marquesses, both having precedency assigned above earls. They had, anciently, for 
the support of their state, the third penny out of the sheriff's court, issuing out of 
the pleas of the shire whereof they had their title, as in ancient times there were no 
counts or earls but had a county or shire for his earldom. Upon the increase of 
earls their revenue ceased, and their powers were abridged. Alfred used the title of 
earl as a substitute for king. William Fitz-Osbom was made earl of Hereford by 
William the Conqueror, a.d. 1066. Gilchrist was created earl of Angus, in Soot- 
land, by king Malcolm III. in 1037. Sir John de Courcy created baron of Kinsale 
and earl of Ulster in Ireland, by Henry II. 1181. 

EARL MARESCHAL. The Earl Mareschal of Scotknd was an officer who com- 
manded the cavalry, whereas the constable commanded the whole army; but they 
seem to have had a joint command, as all orders were addressed to " our constable 
and marischal.'* The office of earl mareschal has never becm out of the noble &mily 
of Keith. It was reserved at the Union ; and when the heritable jurisdictions were 
bought, .it was in the crown, being forfeited by the rebellion of George Keith, eari 
mareschal, in 1715. 

EARL-MARSHAL. The eighth great officer of state. This office, until it was made 
hereditary, always passed by grant from the king. The rank was lord marshal only, 
until Richard II., in 1397, granted letters patent to the earl of Nottingham, by the 
style of earl marshal. In 1672, Charles 11. granted to Henry, lord Howard, the 
dignity of earl marshal, with power to execute the same by deputy. Gilbert de 
Clare was created lord marshal by king Stephen, 1135. The last lord marshal was 
John Fitz-Allan, lord Maltravers. — Camden ; A»hmoU*» InstU. 

EARTH. The globular form of the earth was first suggested by Thales of Miletus, 
about 640 b.c. Its magnitude was calculated trom measuring an arc of tfia meridisn 




by Entotthenefly 240 b.c. The Greeks Unght the sphericity of the earth, and the 
popes beliered it to be a plane, and gaTe all towards the west to the kings of Spain. 
The first ship that sailed round the earth, and thence demonstrated that its form was 
lobular, waa Magellan's, in 1519. The notion of its magnetism was started by 
Gilbert in 1576. The experiments of M. Richer, in 1672, led Newton to prove the 
earth to be in the shape of an oblate spheroid. The variation of its axis was disco- 
Tered by Dr. Bradley in 1737. — See Globe. 

EARTHENWARE. Vessels of this ware were in use among the most ancient nations. 
Various domestic articles were made by the Romans, 715 b.c. The art was revived 
and improved in Italy, a.d. 1310. Wedgewood's patent ware was first made in 
1762. His pottery in Staffordshire was extended to a variety of carioas compositions, 
anbaenrient not only to the ordinary purposes of life, but to the arts, antiquity, 
htstory, ice,, and thereby rendered a very important branch of commerce, both 
foreign and domestic. See China. 

EARTHQUAKES. The theory of earthquakes has not yet been formed with any 
degree of certainty. Anaxagoras supposed that earthquakes were produced by sub- 
terraneous clouds bursting out into lightning, which shook the vaults that confined 
them, B.C. 435. — Dioff, Laert. Kircher, Des Cartes, and others, supposed that 
there were many vast cavities under ground which have a communication with each 
other, some of which abound with waters, others with exhalations, arising from 
inflammable substances, as nitre, bitumen, sulphur, &c. These opinions con- 
tinued to be supported till 1749-50, when an earthquake was felt at London, and 
aeveral parts of Britain. Dr. Stukeley, who had been engaged in electrical experi- 
ments, then began to suspect that a phenomenon of this kind ought to be at- 
tributed not to vapours or fermentations generated in the bowels of the earth, 
bat to electricity. These principles at the same time were advanced by Signor 
Becearia, vridiout knowing anything of Dr. Stukeley's discoveries, and the hypothesis 
has been confirmed by the experiments of Dr. Priestley. In many cases, however, 
it appean probable that the immense power of water converted into steam by sub- 
terraneous fires must contribute to augment the force which occasions earthquakes. 
Aasong those which are recorded as having been the most destructive and memorable, 
are the following, which are quoted from the best sources : it would be impossible 
to enumerate in this volume ail that have occurred * : — 

One wbidi made the pimtnimla of Eu- 
baaanidand b.c. 425 

ElUoe and Bnla in the Pdoponnenu, 
swallowed up 973 

One at Rome, when, hi obedlenoe to an 
oracle, IC. Ciutius, armed and mounted 
oo a itately horae, leaped hito the 
dreadful duum it oooasioned (£<«y) . 9S8 

Doras, hi Greece, burled with iJl its hi- 
haUtants ; and twelve cittee in Cam- 
pania also buried .... 345 

Lyifanachia totally buried, with aU its 
Inhabitants 283 

Awfol one in Asia, which overturned 
twdve cities aj>. 17 

One aooompanled by the eruption of 
YasDvins ; the cities of PompeU and 
Hercnlaneom buried ... 79 

Four cities in Asia, two in Greece, and 
two in Galatia, overturned . 107 

Anttoeh destroyed 114 

IViocmwdia, CMana, and Niceain Bithy- 
nia, overturned .126 

In Asia, Pimtns, and Macedonia, 150 
cities and towns damaged . . 307 

Nioomedla again demolished, and its in- 
habitants buried in its ruins . aj>. 

One felt by nearly the whole world . . 

At Constantinople ; its edifices destroyed, 
and thousands perished . 

In Africa ; many cities overturned . . 

Awful one in Syria, Palestine, and Asia; 
more than 500 cities were destroyed, 
and the loss of life surpassed all calcu- 

In France, Germany, and Italy . . 

Constantinople overturned, and all 
Greece shaken .... 

One felt throughout England . . 

One at Antioch ; many towns destroyed : 
among them, Mariseum and Mamistria 1114 

Catania in Sicily overturned, and 15,000 
persons buried in the ruins 

One severely felt at Lincoln . . . 

At Calabria, when one of its cities and 
all its inhabitants were overwhelmed 
in the Adriatic Sea .... 

One again felt throughout England . . 

At Naples, when 40,000 of its inhabitants 








* Sbooks of earthquakes are recorded as occurring at various times in these realms : but they hare 
Bsvar been fatal in their consequences, although in some cases (but the instances are rare) a few 
bnCmhigs have fallen, or sustained partial damage. To avoid the fatal effects of a more terrible 
shock predicted by a madman, for the 8th of April following, thousands of persons, particularly 
those of rank and fortune, passed the night of the 7th April, 1750, in their carriAges and in tents 
in Hyde-park. o 





One felt in London : part of 8t. Piuil't 
and the Temple chorches fell . ajx 1580 

In Japan, aereral cities made ruins, and 
thousands perished .... 1596 

Awful one at Calalvia . . . 1638 

One in China, when 300,000 persona were 
huried in Peldn alone . . 1663 

One sererely felt in Irdand . . 1690 

One at Jamaica, which totally destroyed 
Port Royal, whose houses were en- 
gulfed finrty fathoms deep, and 300 
perscms perished .... 1682 

One in Sicily, which OTcrtumed 54 cities 
and towns, and 300 Tillages. Of Catania 
and its 18,000 inhabitants, not a trace 
remained ; more than 100,000 lives 
were lost 1603 

Palermo nearly destroyed, and 6000 per- 
sons perished 1726 

Again in China; and 100,000 people 
swallowed up at Pdcin . . . . 1731 

One in Hungary, which turned a moun- 
tain round 1736 

Lima and Callao demolished ; 18,000 per- 
sons buried in the ruins . Oct. 28, 1746 

One at Palermo, which swallowed up a 
conrent ; but the monks escaped . . 1740 

In London, the inhabitants terrified by 
a slight shock . . Feb. 8, 1750 

Another, but sevoer shock, March 8, 1750 

Adrianople nearly orerwhdmed . . 1752 

At Grand Cairo, half of the houses, and 
40,000 persons swallowed up . . 1754 

Quito destroyed . . . April, 1755 

Great earthquake at Lisbon. In about 
eight minutes most of the houses, and 
upwards of 50,000 inhabitants, were 
swallowed up, and whole streets buried. 
The cities of Coimbra, Oporttt, and 
Braga, suffered dreadfully, and St. 
Ubcs was wholly overturned. In Spain, 
a largo i>art of Malaga became ruins. 
One half of Fex, in Morocco, was de- 
stroyed, and more than 12,000 Arabs 
perished there. Above half of the 
island of Madeira became waste ; and 
2000 houses in the island of Meteline, 
in the Archipelago, were overthrown : 
this awful earthquake extended 5000 
miles, even to Scotland . Not. 1, 1755 

One in Syria extended over 10,000 square 
miles : Balbec destroyed . . . 1759 

One at Martinioo, when 1600 persons lost 
their lives . Aug. 1767 

At Guatemala, which, with 80,000 inha- 
bitants, was swallowed up . Dec. 1773 

A destructive one at Smyrna .1778 

At Tauris : 15,000 houses thrown down, 
and multitudes buried . . . . 1780 

One which overthrew Messina and a 
number of towns in Italy and Sicily : 
40.000 persons perished . . . 1783 

Archindschan wholly destroyed, and 
12,000 peratms buried in its ruins a d. 17S4 

At Borgo di San Sepolcro, an opening of 
the earth swallowed up many houses 
and 1000 persona Sept I7tfi 

Another fatal one in Sicily . .1791 

One in Naples, when Vesuvius issuing 
forth its flames overwhelmed the city 
of Torre dA Orooo . . . . 1794 

In Turk^, where, in three towns, 10,000 
persons lost their lives . 17<M 

The whole country between Santa Fe 
and Panama destroyed, including the 
cities of Cusco and Quito. 40.0U0 of 
whose people were, in one eeoood, 
hurled into eternity . . . . 1797 

One at Constantinople, which destroyed 
the royal palace and an immensity of 
buildings, and extended into Romania 
and Wallachia iwn 

A violent one felt in Holland . Jan. 1804 

In the kingdom of Naples, where S0,c00 
persons lost their lives .1805 

At the Axores: a village of St. Midiael's 
sunk, and a lake of boiling water ^>- 
peared in its place Aug. 1810 

Awful one at Caraocas {^^ich tec) . ISIS 

Several felt throughout India. The dis- 
trict of Kutch sunk ; 8000 persons were 
buried with it . . . June, 109 

In Genoa. Palermo* Rome, and many 
other towns ; great damage sustained, 
and thousands perished . 1819 

One fatal, at Messina . Oct. ISi 

One in Spain, which devastated Marda, 
and numerous Tillages ; 6000 persons 
perished . . .March?!, 189 

In the duchy of Parma ; no less than 40 
shocks were experienced at Borgotaro ; 
and at Pontremoli many houses wers 
thrown down, and not a chimney was 
left standing . Feb. 14. ISM 

In many cities ci Southern Syria, by 
which hundreds of houses were thrown 
down, and thousands of the Inhabit- 
ants perished . . Jan. 22, 1837 

At Biartinique, by which nearly half of 
Port Royal is destroyed, nearly 700 
persons killed, and the whole kland 
damaged . Jan. 11. 1839 

At Temate : the island made a waste, 
almost every house destroyed, and 
thousands of the inhabitants lose thdr 
lives .... Feb. 14, IM 

Awful and destructive earthquake at 
Mount Ararat ; in one of the districts 
of Armenia 3137 honaes were over- 
thrown, and several hundred persons 
perished . July 2, 1840 

Great earthquake at Zant^ where many 
persons porished . Oct 30, 1840 

EAST ANGLES. The kingdom of the East Angles commenced a.d. 575, smd ended 
in 792. — See article Britain, Of this name was an ancient see founded bj St. Felix, 
who converted the East Angles, in 630. In 669 this see was divided into two 
bishoprics, viz., Elmham and Dunwich, and these were united in 955. Tlie biihophe 
WIS removed to Norwich, in 1088. See Norwich^ Bishopric of. 




EAST INDIA BILL. This bill originated in a parliamenUry committee on Eatt 
India affain, which exposed a scene of disgraceful intrigues and crimes : a governor- 
general was appointed to reside in Bengal, to which the other presidencies were now 
made sobordinate : a supreme court of judicature was instituted at Calcutta : the 
salary of the gOTemor was fixed at 25,000/. per year ; that of the council at 10,000/. 
each ; and of the chief judge at 8000/. : the affairs of the company were controlled ; 
all the draartments were reorganised, and all territorial correspondence was henceforth 
to be laid before the British ministry, June 16, 1773. Mr. Pitt's bill, appointing a 
Board of Control, passed August 13, 1784 — See Board of Control, 

EAST INDIES. For all particulars relating to the East Indies, see India. The 
East India house, Leadenhall-street, was built in 1 726, and considerably enlarged 
in 1799. The East India Docks were opened August 4, 1806.—See India, 

EAST SAXONS. The kingdom of the East Saxons began with Erchenwin, a.d. 527, 
and ended with Sigered, the last monarch previous to the union of the kingdoms of 
the heptarchy under Egbert, in 828. — See article Britain, 

EASTER. So called in England from the Saxon goddess Eottre. The festival of 
Easter was instituted about a.d. 68 ; the day for the observance of it was fixed in 
England by St. Austin, in 597. It was ordained by the council of Nice to be 
obserred on the same day throughout the whole Christian world. Easter is the first 
Sunday after the first full moon that occurs after the 21st of March. 

E4STER ISLAND. This island, which lies in the Pacific Ocean, was discovered by 
DaTia, in 1686 ; it was visited by Roggewin, in 1722, and from him it obtained the 
name it now bears ; it was visited by Cook, in 1774. 

EASTERN EMPIRE. Commenced under Valens, a.d. 364, and ended in the defeat 
and death of Constantine XIII. the last Christian emperor, in 1453. Mahomet II. 
resolved to dethrone him, and possess himself of Constantinople ; he laid siege to 
that dty both by sea and land, and took it by assault after it had held out fifty-eight 
days. The unfortunate emperor, seeing the Turks enter by the breaches, threw 
himself into the midst of the enemy, and was cut to pieces ; the children of the 
Imperial house were massacred by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gratify 
the Inat of the conqueror ; and thus terminated the dynasty of the Constantines, and 
commenced the present empire of Turkey, May 29, 1453. — See Turkey, 

R«lgn of Yalens .... a.d. 

Maximus, the tyrant, defeated and put 
to death 

ThtodcMlns defeats Engenius . . 

PabUo adiools Initituted, and Tboodosfus 
n. endcavonrs to restore learning 

ConslanttnoiAe besieged 1^ Yitalinnus, 
whose fleet is burned with a brasen 
■|i^<ni^ii« i^ Procltts • . . • 

TWkish empire begins in Asia . . . 

Phocas, a dmpis centurion, elected em- 
peror, after a revolt of the soldiery, 
and morder of Maurice and his children 

Power of the popes iMgins, by the conoes- 
skuis of Phocas 

The PsrslaDs besiege Constantinoide . . 

The Arabs besiege it . . . . 

It Is besieged by the Saracens, whose fleet 
is destroyed by the Gredc fire.— See 
Oreeft Fire 

Second sisge of Coostantfnople by the 

2Soe prostitutes herssif, poisons her hus- 
band; and her faronrite, Michael, a 
P^>hlsgonian money-lender, ascends 








Zoe adopts for bcr son Michael V., sur- 
nained Calaphatcs . . a.d. li)4l 

Isaac Comnenus chosen emperor by tlio 
soldiery \Kfj 





Isaac Comnenus abdicates . . 

Romanus taken prisoner b> the Turks . 

Alexius Angelus, brother of Isaac II., 
revolts, puts out the emperor's eyes, 
and ascends the throne 

Ckmstantinoplo is taken by the Latins, 
who restore Isaac, with his son . 

The father and son murdered by Mour- 

The French and Venetians take Condtan- 
tlnople by storm ; Mounouflc put to 
death, his eyes being flrst torn from 
hishead 1S04 

Ck>nstantinople recovered from the Latins^ 
by the Greek emperors . . .1261 

Andronicus abdicates ... 13^> 

Turks first enter Europo . . \dii 

Fall of the Eastom Empire, and extinc- 
tion of the imperial families of the 
Comneni and Palcrologi . 1453 

See Turkey, 


a n. 

384. Talcna. 

379. Theodosins the Great 

3I& Areadlos, the son of Thoodosius. 

408. Theodosins XL, suooeeded his father. 

4Mi llaroiaii* a Thxaoian, of obscure family. 

457. Leo I., the Thracian. 
468. Ardaburius. 

474. Leo the younRer, died the same }'e«r. 
474. Zeno, called tlie Itaurian. 
491. Anastasius I., an Illyrian, of mean birth. 






A. D. 518. Justin L, originally a priTata soldier. 
527* Jostinian, foonder of the Pigest 
6S5. Justin IL, nephew of Justinian. 
578. Tiberius n., renowned for his virtues. 
562. Maurice, murdered. 
602. niooas, mnrdered. 
610. HeraoUus. 
641. Oonstantine. 

641. Heradeonas, poisoned. 

642. Constans. 

668. Ckmstantioi^ ion of Constans. 

685. Justinian n. 

695. Leontius. 

697- Apeimar Tiberius. 

705. Justinian HL 

711. Phillppious. 

713. AnastasiusH. 

714. Theodoslus m. 
716. Leo Isaurious. 

741. Ckmst. Copronymos. 

752. Leo Forphyrogenitus. 

780. Constantino and Irene. 

790. Constantino alone ; murdered. 

797. b-ene alone. 

802. NicepbomsL 

811. lilohael L 

813. Leo Tm the Armenian. 

820. Mlohael n., the Stammerer. 

829. Theophilus Logothetes. 

842. BCichael IIL, murdered. 

867. Basil L, the Macedonian. 

886. Leo YI., the Sage. 

911. Alexander. 

912. Constantinos Porpbyrogenitus. 
919. Romanus L associated. 

945. Constantinus alone. 

959. Romanus IL, the Boy ; poisoned. 

963. NicephorusIL, IHiocas, murdered. 

969t. John Zimisces, the Small. 

976. Basil IL and Constantino IX. 
1025. Constantino alone. 
1028. Romanus IIL, poisoned. 

1034. MIdiael IV., the Paphlagonlan. 

1041. Michael V. 

1042. Zoe and Theodora. 
1042. Constantine X. 
1054. Theodora. 

1056. Michael TL 

1057. Issac Comnenns. 
1059. Constantine Dncas XL 
1067. Michael AndronicusL 
1061. Romanus Diogenes. 
1071. Michael Diecas Tn. 
1078L Nioephoms Botoniates. 
1081. Alexius Comnenns L 
1118. John, or Calojohannee. 
1143. Manuel Comnenns. 
1180. Alexius Comnenus II. 
1183. Andronicna L Comnenns. 
1185. Angelus, Isaac IL 

1195. Alexius Angelns. 

1203. Isaac Angdns restored. 

1204. Alexius Ducas, or Monrsoolle. 
1204. Baldwin of Flanders, deotedempenr. 
1206. Henry. 

Iil7* Peter de Coortenal. 

1219. Robert de CourtenaL 

122a John de Briennc, king <rf Jsroiakait 

emperor with Baldwin IL 
1237. Baldwin IL, alonfr 
1261. Miohad PalsBologna. 
1282. Andronions PaUeologn% the elte. 
1292L Andronieos PalsK>logus and Michsd. 
132a Androniens Palsralogns, alone. 
1323. Andro8iiousPaIsBo]ogus,andAndroiiicai 

the younger. 
1328. Andronlcus the younger, alone. 
1341. John Cantaeuaene. 
1355. John PalsMdogns. 
1391. Manuel Palsralogos. 
1425. John Palseologos IL 
1448. Constantine Palcologus, the Isst dui*' 

tian emperor. 
1453. Mahomet IL [See IVrfaf .] 

EBIONITES. Ancient heretics who arose in the yery fint ige of the chnrdi, and 
who, denying the divinity of Christ, formed themielyea into a aect in the tecoD4 
century. The Ebionites seem to hare been a branch of the Naiarenes. — Emebiut, 

EBONY. Atnerimnum Ebentu, The ebony wood was unknown at Rome imtil it 
was introduced there by Pompey, after his defeat of Mithridates, abont 66 b.c. 

EBRO. The scene of a signal defeat of the Spaniards by the French, near Todela, 
Nov. 23, 1808 ; and also the scene of several important movements of the allied 
armies during the Peninsular war, between the years 1800 and 1814, etseq. 

ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS. There existed no distinction between lay and eode- 
siastical courts in England until after the Norman conquest, a.d. 1066. — See Ardkgtf 
Consistory, and other courts. The following are the causes cognisable in frdrsiss" 
tical courts : blasphemy, apostacy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordinatinns, 
institutions to benefices, matrimony, dlTorces, bastardy, tithes, incests, foniicaliQB, 
adultery, probate of wills, administrations, &c. — BiaeksUme, 

1798, this state was taken possession of by the French, who erected it Into ths 
^ Roman Republic." They obliged the pope, Pius YI. to remoTe into Tnscany, and 
afterwards into France, where he died, in 1799. In the same year a condate was 
permitted to be held at Veniee ; and, in 1800, cardinal Chiaramonti, who was elected 
to the papal chair, took the title of Pius YII. and resumed the dominion of ths 
Ecclesiastical State. This power was held until 1 809, when he was deprired by Buona- 
parte of his temporal sovereignty, and reduced to the condition of bishop of Rome ; 
but in 1814 the pope was restored. 


C w] 


ECHOES. The time whidi ekpeei between the uttennoe of a sound and its return 
must be more than one-twelfth of a second, to form an echo. Echo is supposed to 
hare been a nymph who pined into a sound. — Spdney, Echoes in poetry are found 
in tiie earliest authors ; the following is an example : — 

'* Cmdelis mater magis, an poer, frnproboB ille ? 
Improbns flle poer, cradells ta qooqoe mater.**— Virgil. 

Hie echo of Westminster-bridge has attained a dramatic fame. In the arch-roofed 
sitting places, or at least in one of them, it is said that the least whisper uttered in 
the dry arches below may be heard, and trtoe vend, 

ECKMUHL, Battlx of, between the main armies of France and Austria ; the one 
commanded by the emperor Napoleon in person, and the other by the archduke 
Charles. Napoleon adopted his usual plan of breaking through the enemy's line, to 
which the Austrian position afforded too great &cility ; and the conflict terminated in 
tiie disastrous defeat of the Imperialists, whose loss of this battle led to other and 
Immediate rererses^ April 22, 1809. 

ECLECTICS. Ancient philosophers, also called Analogetici, and Philalethes, or the 
lovers of truth. Without attaching themselyes to any sect, they chose what they 
judged good from each : founded by Polemon of Alexandria, about a.d. 1. — Dryden, 
Also a sect, so called in the Christian church, who considered the doctrine of Plato 
eonfbnnable to the spirit of Uie doctrine of the Christian. 

ECLIPSES. The theory of eclipses was known to the Chinese at least 120 b.c— 
GambU. An edipse was supposed by most of the eastern nations to be the effect of 
magic ; hence the custom among them of drumming during its continuance. The 
first eclipse recorded, happen^ March 19, 721 b.c. at 8' 40^' p.ii. according to 
Ptolemy ; it was lunar, and was obsenred with accuracy at Babylon. — See Agtronomf, 
The following were extraordinary eclipses of the sun and moon : — 

distingulah the differeDoe by their 


That predicted by Thales ; obsenred at 
Bardie rP/Jny, <j&. iL> . &c. 

One at Athens (Thucpdidtt, l(b. Ir.) 

Total one ; three days' aopplicatkm de- 
creed at Rome (Livp) 

One genexml at the death of Jesus Christ 
(Jo$€pku$) . . .A.D. 

One at Rome, causing a total darkness 
at noon-day (Livy) '. , , ' 

One obsenred at Constantinople . . . 

In France, when it was dark at noon-day, 
(Du Ftuuoif) . June 89, 1033 

In England, where it occasioned a total 
darkness r ITm. Jfa/flwb.; . .1140 

AgMbx; the stars risible at ten in the 
morning (Cawtden) June 83, 1191 

The true son, and the appearance of ano- 





g\»aae»(Comp.Hist.EngJ . .1191 

Again ; total darkness ensued (idem) . 1331 
A total one ; the darkness so great that 
the stars di(me, and the birds went to 
roost at noon (Oldmixon's Annals <^f 
Geo. /.;... AprU 82, 1715 
Remarlcable one, central and annular in 
the interior of Europe . . Sept 7, 1880 


The first, observed by the Chaldeans at 

Babylon (Ptokmp, lib. ir.) . . nx. 
A total one, observed at Surdis (Thvep- 

dides, lib. rii.J 

Again, in Asia Minor (Polybiu$) . . 
One at Rome, predicted by Q. Sulpltius 

Gallos (Livp, lib. xliv.y . 
One terrified the Roman troops and 

quelled their revolt (Taeitut) . a.d. 





ther, so that a s tronomers alone conld 

The rerolution of eclipses was first calculated by Calippus, the Athenian, 336 b.c. 
The Egyptians say they had accurately obsenred 373 eclipses of the sun, and 832 
of the moon, up to the period from Vulcan to Alexander, who died 323 b.c. 

BDDYSTONE LIGHT-HOUSE, off the port of Plymouth, was erected by the 
Trinity-house to enable ships to avoid the Eddystone rock. It was commenced under 
Mr. Winstanley, in 1696 ; was finished in 1699 ; and was destroyed by the dreadful 
tempest of Nov. 27, 1703, and by which Mr. Winstanley and those with him 
perished. It nas rebuilt by act of parliament, 4 Anne, 1706, and all ships were 
obliged to pay one penny per ton inwards and outwards towards supporting it. This 
^fat-house was burnt in 1755 ; and one on a better plan was erected by Mr. Smeaton, 
and finished Oct. 9, 1759. Of this last, the wood-work was burnt, in 1770, but it 
was afterwards renewed with stone, and has continued uninjured since 1774. 

BDBN, GARDEN of. The question about the site of Eden has greatly agitated 
Uieologians ; some place it near Damascus, others in Armenia, some in Caucasus, 
others at Hillah, near Babylon, others in Arabia, and some in Abyssinia. The 
Hindoos refer it to Ceylon : and a learned Swede asserts that it was in Sudermania 1 
Several authorities concur in placing it in a peninsula formed by the main river oC 

KDO [ 191 ] KDI 

EdeD, on the east side of it, below the coofloenoe of the leaaer rivers, which emptied 
themselves into it, about 27^ N. Ut^ now swallowed ap by the Persian Gulf, an 
event which may have happened at the Universal Deluge, 2348 B.C. The country of 
Eden extended into Armenia. — Calmet. The Almighty eonstrueted Eden wilh a 
view to beauty, as well as usefulness : not only every plant that was good for food, 
but such also as were pleasant to the eye, were planted there.— Gen^tu iL 8, 9. 

EDGEHILL, Battle op, also called Edgehill Fight, between the RoyalisU and the 
Parliament army, the first engagement of importance in the civil wmr ; Charles I. 
was personally present in this battle. Prince Rupert commanded the royalists, and 
the earl of Essex the parliamentarians. The earl of Lindsay, one of Charles's 
generals, who headed the foot forces, was mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. 
The king's army lost 5,000 dead on the field of battle, with vast numbers of wounded 
and prisoners ; but, owing to the great loss on the other side also, the action pro- 
duced no decisive consequence to either party, and neither could fairly claim the 
victory, though the parliament army did, Oct. 23, 1642. 

EDICT OF NANTES. This was the celebrated edict by which Henry IV. of France 
granted toleration to his Protestant subjects, in 1598. It was revoked by Loais 
XIV., Oct. 24, 1685. This bad and unjust policy lost to France 800,000 Protestants, 
and gave to England (part of these) 50,000 industrious artisans. Some thousands, 
who brought wiih them the art of manufisoturing silks, settled in SpitalAelds, where 
their descendants yet remain : others planted themselves in Soho and St. Giles's, 
and pursued the art of making crystal glasses, and various fine works in which thej 
excelled ; among these, jewellery, then little understood in England. — Anderson*t 
Orig. of English Commerce. 

EDICTS. Public ordinances and decrees, usually sent forth by sovereigns, as in the 
precedingf^ case : they originated with the Romans. The Perpbtual Edict : 
Salvias Julianus, of Milan, a civilian at Rome (the author of several treatises on 
public right), was employed by the emperor Adrian to draw up this edict or body 
of laws for the Prstors, ad. 132. 

EDILES. These were Roman magistrates, like our mayors, and there were two ediles 
at a time. They had the supcrintendance and care of public and private works and 
buildings, baths, aqueducts, bridges, roads, &c. ; they also took cognisance of weights 
and measures, and regulated the markets for provisions ; they examined comedies 
before they were acted, and treated the people with games and shown at their own 
expense. The duties of ediles have suggested similar offices in our own polity, and 
served in many instances as models for our magistracy. — Pardon. 

EDINBURGH. The metropolis of Scotland, and one of the first and finest cities of 
the empire. It derives its name— in ancient records Dun Edin^ signifying ** the 
hill of Edin" — from its castle^ founded or rebuilt by Edwin, Ung of Northumbris, 
who, having greatly extended his dominions, erected it for the protection of hit 
Dewly-acquired territories from the incursions of the Scots and Picts, a.d. 626. 
But it is said the castle was first built by Camelon, king of the Picti, 330 b.c. It 
makes a conspicuous appearance, standing at the west end of the town, on a rock 
300 feet high, and, before the use of great guns, was a fortification of considerabJa 
strength. The early accounts of this city are not authentic. 

Christianity introduced, the reign of 

Donald I a.d. 801 

Edinburgh taken by the Anglo-Saxons 452 
Retaken by the Picts . . 685 

City fortified, and castle rebailt . . 1074 
Bodeged by Donald Bane . . 1093 

Abbey founded by David I. . .1188 

Edinburgh constituted a burgh . . ♦ ♦ 
Castle surrendered to Henry II. . .1174 
A parliament is held here under Alex. 

ander U. in 1815 

City Uken by the English . . 1896 

Grant of the town of Leith . 1389 

James II. first king crowned here . .1437 
Execution here of the earl of Athol 

Annual fidr granted by James IL a d. 1447 
City strengthened 1^ a wall . 1450 

Charter of Jamea nL . . 1477 

Edinburgh made the metropolis of Sooi* 

laud by king James HI. . .1488 

Royal College of Burgeons Inoorporated 

by charter 15» 

Charter of Jamea IV. . . ,1508 

[The Palace of Holyrood la buUt la 
the reign of Jamea IT.] 
High school founded . . . 1518 

A British force, landing from a fleet of 

800 ships, takes Edinburgh and Leith, 

and bums both towns . 15M 

Leith is again burnt, but Bdinbur^ la 

and bis grandson .... 1437 spared 154* 


[ «!>»* ] 


EDINBURGH, eonHnued, 

Mmrriafft of queen Mary and lord Dam- 

Iqr at Holyrood-houM . . ajk 1565 
Dayid Rixxio murdered . . . 1566 

Lord Damley (tlie husband of Mary) is 
Uown up In a prirate hooae by gun- 
powder: he is snppoied to have been 
first murdered Feb. 10, 1567 

Mary's marriafe with James Hepburn, 

earl of BothweU . . May 15, 1567 

Eim of theotTil war on aooount of Mary's 

forced resignation .... 1570 
Death of John Knox . . 1572 

University founded by James VL— fiee 
Bdinbtarfh Univtrsftp Apr. 84, 

Barl of BothweU'e attempt on Holyrood- 
house • Dec. 27* 

Riot in the city, in which the mob 
attacks the king .... 
Janes VL learse Edinburgh, as king 
of England .... Apr. 5, 
Be TislU Edinburgh . M«y 16, 

Berlot's Hospital founded . . 

Cbartes L Tisits Edinbufgh 
Edinburgh erected into a bishopric by 

ChailesL, while here . 
Pailiameot house finished . 
Charles again Tisits the oity . . . 
The castle is surrendered to Cromwell 


Coffee-honsee first opened . . 
Merdiants* Company incorporated 
Oollsge of Pbyricians incorporated . . 
Earl of Argyll beheaded . June 30, 
AfHcan and Bast India Company incor- 

Bank of Scotland founded . 
Union of the kingdoms • 
Boyal Bank founded .... 
Board of trustees of trade and manu- 
factures app<^ted 
Royal Infirmary incorporated 
AfRdr of Captain Porteous : be is hanged 
by the populace in the Graannarket. 

{SeBporUous) 1736 

Medical Society insUtuted . .1737 

The young Pretender^ army occupies 

thedty 1745 

He takee possession of Holyrood . . 1745 
Modem improrements oommenoed . . 1753 
Magistrates assigned gold chains . .1754 
Royal Exchange completed . . 1761 

Foundation stone of the North Bridge 

laid .... Oct. 21. 1763 
Theatre Royal erected . . 1769 

Great fire in the . . 1771 
Register-office, Princes-street, com- 














Great commotion and tumult against 

popery in the city . . a.0. 1779 

Society of Antiquarians . . . J780 

Royal Society instituted . 1783 

South Jlridge commenced . . 1785 

Royal College of Surgeons incorporated 

by charter 1788 

First stone of the preeent unirersity 
laid .... Nor. 16. 
Robertson, the historian, died at Edin- 
burgh .... June 11. 
Bridewell, Calton-hlll, erected 
Holyrood affords an asylum to Louis 
XVIII. and his brother, afterwards 
Charles X., from 1795 to 
[Charles X.. subsequent to the revolu- 
tion of 1830, resided here.] 
New Bank commenced . . June 3, isrtl 
Edinburgh Revitw published . 1802 

New system of police established . .1805 
Alarming riots here . Doc 31. 1811 

Nelson's monument completed . .1815 
Gas company incorporated . .1818 

Water company incorporated . . . 1819 
Professor Playfair dies July 20, 1819 

Society of Arts instituted 
Union Canal completed 
George IV.'s visit . 
He holds his levee 
And leaves for Elngland . 
Foundation of tbe great national monu- 
ment of Scotland laid 
Royal Institution erected 
Destructive fires . June and Nov. 

SootUsb Academy founded 
Lord Melville's monument erected 
The Edinburgh and Dalkeith KaUway 
opened .... July, 
Statue of George IV. erected 
Association of the Fine Arts . . . 
Edinburgh, Lelth, and Grantoo Rail- 
way commenced .... 
Art-union of Scotland 
Monument to Sir Walter Scott com- 
menced (since fini^ed) 
Society of Arts, founded in 1821, and 

Incorporated in 1842 

Railway between Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow opened . Feb. 21, 1842 
Victoria visito Edinburgh . Aug. 31 , 1843 
Her public entry Sept. 3. 1842 
Her Msjesty holds her court at Dalkeith 

Palacck .... Sept. 5. 1842 

And leaves for England . Sept. 15, 1842 

New College instituted .1843 

North British Railway commenced . . 1844 

See Scotland. 

EDINBURGH, Bishopric of. This see was created by Charles I., when that monarch 
was in Scotland, in 1683 ; and William Forbes, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, 
was made first bishop. The king allotted the parishes of the stiires of Edinbnrgh, 
Linlithgow^ Haddington, and a part of Berwick and of Stirlingshire, to compose the 
•ee. Tbe ibith and last prelate was Alexander Ross, who was ejected on the sbolition 
of episcopacy, at the period of the Revolution, in 1688. The bishopric of Edin- 
bvrgh is now one of the sii existing bishoprics of Scotland. 

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY. A college was commenced by the town-conncil of 
Edinburgh, for which qneen Mary had given the site of ancient religions houses. 


. 1822 

Aug. 14. 1822 

Aug. 17. 1822 

Aug. 29. 1822 








and Robert Reid, bbliop of Orknejy tbe fonda, 1581. The UniTerrity wai founded by 
Jamei VI., afterwards Jamea I. of England, in 1582. The first principal was 
appointed in 1585. The foondation stone of the new baildings was laid by Francia, 
lord Napier, grand master of the masons of Scotland, Not. 16th. 1789. In 1845, 
the library contained npwards of 80,000 Tolnmes, besides namerons carious and rare 
MSS. and documents. This uniTersity has long been celebrnted throughout the 
world, particularly for its medical school, which is entitled to the first rank. Some 
of the most learned men, the most profound writers, end ableat physicisnsy haft 
been produced by this uniTcrsity. 

EGALITE'. Equaiity, The surname assumed by Philip Bourbon Capet, the infamous 
duke of Orleans, to ingratiate himself with the republicans, on the abolition of 
monarchy in France, Sept 11, 1792. He voted for the death of Louis XVI. his 
relative ; but this did not save him from a like doom. He was guillotined Not. 6, 1793. 

EGYPT. The dynasty of its Pharaohs or kings commenced with Misraim, the son of 
Hsm, second son of Noah, 2188 b.c. The kingdom lasted 1663 years ; it was 
conquered by Cambyses, 525 B.C. In a.d. 639, this country was wrested from the 
eastern emperor Heradius, by Omar, calif of the Saracens. The fiimous Saladin 
established die dominion of the Mamelukes, in 1171. Selim I. emperor of the 
Turks, took Egypt, in 1517, and it was goyemed by Beys till 1799, when a grat 
part of the country was conquered by the French, under Buonaparte. In 1801, the 
inyaders were disposssessed by the British, and tiie goTemment was restored to the 
Turks. — See Turkey, for modern events. 

Misraim bnilda Memphis {Blair) . bjc 2188 

Bgypt made four kingdoms, vix. : Uppo: 

Egypt. Lower Egypt, This, and Mem- 
phis (Ahbi LengUtt Blair) . . . 91S6 
Athotes invonts hiernglyphlos . . . 9182 
BtuirlsboUds Thebes ((7«A«r) . .2111 
Osymandyas, the first warlike king, 
passes into Aria, ccmqnera Baotrla, and 
causes his exploits to be represented in 
sculpture and painting ( Uthert Lenfflet) 2100 
The Phcniicians invade Lower Egypt and 

hold it 200 years (tr«*<r) . . .2080 
Tho lake of Moeris constructed . . . 1938 
The patriarch Abraham risits Egypt to 

avoid the famine in Canaan . . 1921 
Byphoas introduces the use of ths com- 
mon letters ( Uther) .... 1891 
Memnon invents the Egyptian letters 

(B/at'r, Lenglet) .... 1822 

Amcnophis I. is acknowledged the king 

of all Egyiti {Lenglet) . . .1821 
Joseph the Israelite is sold into Egypt as 

a slave (Lenglet) .... 1728 
He interprets the king's dreams . . 171A 
His father and brethren settle here . 1700 
8esostris reigns ; he extends his dominion 
by conquest over Arabia, Persia, India, 
and Asia Minor {Unglet) * . . 1618 
Settlement of the Ethiopians {Blair) . 1615 
Rampses, who Imposed on his subjects 
the building of walls and pyramids, 
and other labours, dies {LtngM) . 1492 

Amenophis I. is overwhelmed in the Red 

Boa, with all his army {LengUt, Blair) 1492 
Reign of Egyptus, from whom the coun- 
try, hitherto called Mixraim, is now 
called Egypt {Blair) .... 1485 
Reign of Thuoris (the Proteus of the 
Greeks) who had tho faculty of assum- 
ing whatever form he pleased, as of a 
lion, a dragon, a tree, water, fire . 1189 



[These fictions were probably intended 
to mark the profound policy of this 
king, who was eminent for his wisdom, 
by which his dominion fik>iiri8hed.-JB<.] 

Pseusennes enters Palestine, ravages Ja- 
dea, and carries oflT the sacred vessels 
of the Temple .... aa 

The dynasty of kings called Tanita be- 
gins with Fetubastes {Blair) 

The dynasty of &it(e#(BIair) . . 

Sebacon invades Egypt, subdues the king. 
Bocchorls, whom he orden to beroasted 
aUfe{Uiher) 79 

Psanunitticfaus the Fowerftal reigns . 

He invests Axoth, whidi iKdds out for 19 
years, the longest siege in the annals 
of antiquity (£r#A«r) .... 

Neoho begins the famous canal bet we ai 
the Arabic gulf and the Meditenraneaa 
sea (Btofr) . . - . . 

This canal abandoned, after coaling the 
lives of 120.000 men {Herodottu) 

Nebnchadnesaer ci Babyhm deposes 
Aprles {Ueher) Ml 

Aprles taken prisoner and sCrsntfM In 
his palace {Died. Sicuiiu) . 

The philosopher Pythagoras oomes from 
Samoa Into Egypt, and is instmcted in 
the mysteriesof Egyptian theology( ITir.; 

The line of the Pharaohs ends in ths mur- 
der of Psammenitus by Gambyaes {BL) 

Dreadful excesses of Cambyses ; he puts 
the children <rf the grandees, male andf 
female, to death, and makea the coon-* 
try a waste (^erodoffw) . • • 

He sends an army of 50,000 men aerom 
the desert to destroy tho temple of Ju- 
piter Ammon, but they sU perish in 
the burning sands {jHsUn) 

Egypt revolts from the Persians; again 
subdued by Xerxes {Blair) . • 








* The epoch of the reign of Sesostris is very uncertain ; Blair makes it to fall 133 years later. 
As to tho achievements of this monarch, they are supposed to have been the labonrs of several 
kings, attributed by the Egyptian priests to Sesostris alone, whose very existence. Indeed, la donbted* 




EGYPT, cmUmtud. 

ATrwdtuoOterlnaxraiBtair) . . b.c. 

Bacomdal rarolt midar Amyrtmaa, who 
l» procialmcd Mng jLenffUt) 

Egypt acain rsdnoed b7 Fenift, aad iti 
templM pOlagad ( {7<*«r) 

AlexmndertheOrMtenten Egypt, wmts 
it from the Paniaiia, and hauliM Alex> 
wndxiM (Blair) 

Fliiladeliiiias eomplatM the Pharcw of 
AkCTMMhia jBiair) . . . . 

Hie Btptuagiiit T0nioii of the Old Teita- 
mcBt made about thia time 

Hie famona library of Alexandria alao 
daftv about this period (Blair) . 

Umbawartora flrtt tent to Rome . . 

Ptolemy Bnergetea oreiTuns Syria, and 
ratoma ladea with rkh qwila, and 
9B00 alataea and Teeeele of gold and 
•QTar, wfaieli Gambyaes had taken 
Cram the Egyptian templea {Blair) 

Reign of Philometcr and Fhyaoon 

At the death ot Fhilometer, hia brother 
Phy aoon marriea hia qoeen, and on 
the day of hie nuptiale mnrdere the 
Infuit aoD of FhUomcter in Ite mo- 








Be repodiatee his tHfe, ind marriea her 
davghter by bia brother {Blair) 

BiaiableotB, wearied with hia orueltlea 
and Crimea, demollah hia atatuea, eet 
flre to his palaoe, and he fliea from 
their fury (Bto<r) . . . . 




ne murders his son by his new queen ; 
also his son by her mother, sending the 
head and limbs of the latter as a pre- 
sent to the parent on a feast day b.c. 189 

Tet, defeating the Egyptian army, ho 
reoorers his throne ; and dies . 117 

Pestilenoe fhnn the putrefaotion of raat 
swarms of locusts i 800,000 persons 
perish in Egypt . .188 

Rerolt in Upper Egypt ; tbefamousoity 
of Thebee destroyed after a siege of 
three years (D<ad.;Sictt7iM) 88 

Auletes dying, learsa his kingdom to his 
ddest son, Ptolemy, and the famous 
Cleopatra (B<a<r) .51 

During adril war between Ptolemy and 
Cleopatra, Alexandria is besieged by 
Cesar, and the famous library nearly 
destroyed by fire {Blair) ... 47 

Ccaar defeats the king, who, in crossing 
the Nile, is drowned ; and the younger 
Ptolemy and Cleopatai reign 46 

Cleopatra poisons her brother (only 14 
years of age) and reigns alone 43 

fihe appears before Bfark Antony, to 
answer for this crime. Fasoinatod by 
her beauty, he follows her into Egypt 40 

Antony defeated by Ootavius Ccaar at 
the batUe of Aotium (Blair) . . 31 

Octavius enters Egypt; Antony and 
Cleopatra kill themselTee; and the 
kingdom becomes a Roman prorinoe . 30 

EGYPTIAN ERA. The old Eg]rptUn year was identical with the era of Nabonafser, 
beginning Febmarj 26, 747 B.C., and contitted of 365 days only. It was reformed, 
30 ]i.c.y at which period the commencement of the year had arriTcd, by continually 
receding, to the 29th August, which was determined to be in future the first day of 
the year. To reduce to the Christiin era, subtract 746 years, 125 days. 

ELBA, IsLB ov, taken possession of by the British, July 6, 1796 ; but it wu aban- 
doned the next year. Elba was conferred upon Napoleon (with the title of emperor 
(xmtinned) as the place of his retreat upon relinquishing the throne of France, April 
5, 1814. He secretly embarked from this island with about 1200 men in hired fe- 
loccea, on the night of Feb. 25, 1815, and landed in Provence, March 1 , to recover 
the Imperial crown. — See BuonaparUy and France. After having been quitted by 
Buonaparte, Elba was taken possession of by the Grand Duke of Florence, J uly 1815. 

ELEATIC SECT. Founded by Xenophanes, the philosopher of Colophon ; he had 
been banished to Sicily on account of his wild theory of God and nature, and his 
sect originated there. This theorist supposed that the stars were extinguished every 
morning and rekindled at night ; that eclipses were oc<*vioned by a partial extinc- 
tion of the sun ; that there were several suns and moons for the convenience of the 
dilRsrent dimates of the earth, &c., about 535 b.c. — Straho, 

ELECTIONS, BniBBET at. Various statutes have been enacted against it from time 
to time. The principal acts relating to elections commenced with the 7th of Henry 
lY., 1409. Elections were made void by bribery, in 1696, «< teq. Messrs. Sykes 
and Rnmbold were fined and imprisoned for bribery at an election, 1776. An elector 
of Durham was convicted in a penalty of 500/. in July, 1803. Mr. Swan, M. P. 
for Penryn, was fined and imprisoned, and sir Manasseh Lopez sentenced to a fine 
of 10,OOOA, and to two years' imprisonment, for bribery at Grampound, in October 
1819. The members for Liverpool and Dublin were unseated, in 1831. Among 
other elections which have lately been made void, were those of Cambridge and 
Ludlow, in May 1840.— See Bribery. 

ELECTORS. Those for members of Parliament for counties were obliged to have 
forty shillingi a year hi Und, 39 Henry VI., U60,— Ruff head's StatuUt. Among 
the lecient acts relating to elections are the following : act depriving excise and cus- 

ELB C 1^ 3 ^^^ 

tom.bouse officers, and contractors with goTemment, of their votes, 1782. Act to 
regulate polling, 9 George IV., 1828. Reform in Paiiiament bill (tee Rtform BiU), 
2 and 3 WiUiam IV., 1832. County Elections act, / William IV., 1836. 

ELECTORS OF GERMANY. Originally, all the members of the Germanic body 
inade choice of their head ; but amidst the Tiolence and anarchy which prevailed for 
several centuries in the empire, seven princes who possessed the greatest power 
assumed the eiclusive privilege of nominating the empat>r. — Dr. Robertson. An 
eighth elector was made, in 1648 ; and a ninth, in favour of the doke of Hanover, 
in 1()92. The number was reduced to eight, in 1777 ; and was increased to ten at 
the peace of Luneville, in 1801. The electorship ceased on the dissolution of the 
German empire, and when the crown of Austria was made hereditary, 1804, 1806. 
— See Germany. 

ELECTRICITY. That of amber was known to Thales, 600 b.c. Electricity was im- 
perfectly discovered a.d. 1467. It was found in various substances by Dr. Gilbert, of 
Colchester, in 1600 ; he first obtained the knowledge of its power, of conductors, 
and non-conductors, in 1 606. Ottoguerick found that two globes of brimstone con- 
tained electric matter, 1647. The electric shock was discovered at Leyden, 1745, 
and hence the operation is termed the *' Leyden phial." Electric matter was first 
found to contain caloric, or fire, and that it would fire spirits, 1766. The identity 
of electricity and lightning was proved by Dr. Franklin, about this period. The elec- 
tricity of the Aurora Borealis was discovered by means of the electric kite, in 1769. 

ELECTRO-GALYANISM. It owes its origin to the discoveries of Dr. L. Galvani, 
an eminent Italian philosopher, in 1789. Volta pursued the inquiries of this good 
man (for he was alike distinguished by his virtues and genius), and discovered the 
mode of combining the metids ; constructed what is very properly called the Voltaic 
pile ; and extended the whole science into a system which should rather be called 
Voltaism than Galvanism. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Analogies between electricity and magnetism were dis- 
covered by Oersted of Copenhagen, in 1807. This analogy was established in 1819, 
and was confirmed by subsequent experiments in England, France, and Germany. 

ELEPHANT. This animal, in the earliest times, was trained to war. The history of 
the Maccabees informs us, that **to every elephant they appointed 1000 men, armed 
with coats of mail, and 500 horse ; and upon the elephants were strong towers of 
wood," &c. The elephants in the army of Antiochus were provoked to fight by 
showing them the ** blood of grapes and mulberries." The first elephant said to 
have been seen in England, was one of enormous size, presented by the king of 
France to our Henry III., in 1238. — Baker* t Chron. 

ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES. A great festival under this name was observed by the 
Athenians and other nations : these mysteries were the most celebrated of all the 
religious ceremonies of Greece, and were instituted by Eumolpus, 1356 b.c. They 
were so superstitiously observed, that if any one revealed diem, it was supposed that 
he had called divine vengeance upon him, and he was put to death. The mysteries 
were introduced from Eleusis into Rome, and lasted about 1800 years, and were at 
last abolished by Theodosius the Great, a.d. 389. 

ELGIN MARBLES. These admirable works of ancient art were derived chiefly from 
the Parthenon, a temple of Minerva in the Acropolis at Athens, of which temple 
they formed part of the frieze and pediment, built by Phidias about 500 b.c. Lord 
Elgin began the collection of these marbles during his mission to the Ottoman Porte, 
in 1802 ; they were purchased of him by the British government for 36,000/., and 
placed in the British Museum, in 1816. 

ELL. An English measure containing a yard and a quarter ; it was so named from 
ti/na, the arm, and was fixed to this precise length by Henry I., in 1101. — Slowest 
Chron. This sovereign fixed, at the same time, the measure of the yard to the 
length of his arm. — Idem. 

ELOPEMENT. A married woman who departs from her husband, loses her dower by 
the statute of Westm. 2, c. 14 — except that her husband, without coercion of the 
church, shall become reconciled to her, 13 Edward I., 1284. — Viner*s Staiuiet, 
Earlier laws punished elopement with great severity, and in cases wherein adultery 
followed from it, it was punished with death* 

ELP Q 195 ] EMI 

£LPHIN. St. Patrick fonnded m cathedral near this place, " hy a river issuing from 
two fountains," in the fifth century, and placed over it St Asicns, whom he created 
bishop, and who soon after filled it with monks. After many centuries, and a little 
before the arrival of the English, this see was enriched with large estates, upon the 
translation of Roscommon to it. Ardcarn, Drumclive, and others of less note, were 
also annexed to EUphin ; and by these unions, it became, at length, one of the 
richest in all Ireland. It is valoed in the king's books, by an extent returned 28 
Elizabeth, at 103/. 18«. sterling. 

ELY. A church was built here by Etheldra, queen of Egfrida, king of Northumberland, 
who founded also a religious house, and planted it with riigins, and became first 
abbess herself. The Danes ruined the latter ; but the monastery was rebuilt and 
filled with monks, on whom king Edgar and many succeeding monarchs bestowed 
great privileges, and made grants of land ; so that, in process of time, the abbey of 
Ely became the richest in England. Richard, the eleventh abbot, wishing to free 
himself from the bishop of Lincoln, within whose diocese the monastery was situated, 
made great interest with Henry I. to get Elly erected into a bishopric. His successor 
was the first prelate, a.d. 1109. It is valued in the king's books at 2134/. 18<. bd, 

EMBALMING. The ancient Egyptians believed that their souls, after many thousand 
yean, would come to reinha^it their bodies, in case these latter were preserved 
entire. Hence arose their practice of embalming the dead. The Egyptian manner 
of preserving the dead has been the admiration and wonder of modem times. They 
rendered the body not only incorruptible, but it retained its ftdl proportion of size, 
symmetry of features, and personal likeness. They called the embalmed bodies 
imutnmies, some of which, buried 3000 years ago, are perfect to this day. The art 
of sudi embalming is now lost. When Nicodemus came, with Joseph of Arimathea, 
to pay the last duties to our Saviour after his crucifixion, he brought a mixture of 
myrrh and aloes to embalm his body. — John xix. 38. 

EMB.\RGO. This power is vested in the crown, but is rarely exercised except in 
extreme cases, and sometimes as a prelude to war. The most memorable instances 
of embargo were those for the prevention of com going out of the kingdom in 1766 ; 
and for the detention of aU Russian, Danish, and Swedish ships in the several ports 
of the kingdom, owing to the armed neutrality, Jan. 1 4, 1 801 . — See Armed Neutralitff» 

EMBER WEEKS. Observed in the Christian church in the third century, to implore 
the blessing of God on the produce of the earth by prayer and fasting. Ember 
Days, three of which fall in these weeks, and in which penitents sprinkle the ashes 
(embers) of humiliation on their heads. Four times in each year were appointed for 
these acts of devotion, so as to answer to the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, 
and winter. 

EMBROIDERY. Its invention is usually ascribed to the Phrygians ; but we learn 
from Homer, and other ancient authors, that theSidonians particularly excelled in this 
decorative species of needle-work. Of this art very early mention is made in the 
Scriptures.— .£«o</ti» xxxv. 35, and xxxviii. 23. An ancient existing specimen of 
beautifDl embroidery is the Bayeux tapestry, worked by Matilda, the queen of 
William I. of England.— See Bayeux Tapettry. 

CMERALD. The precious stone of a green colour is found in the East and in Pern ; 
inferior ones in other places. It has been alleged that there were no trae emeralds 
in Europe before the conquest of Pern ; but there is a genuine emerald in the Paris 
Museum, taken from the mitre of Pope Julius II. who died in 1513, and Pern was 
not eonquered till 1545; hence it is inferred that this emerald was brought from 
Africa, or the Elast. 

EMIGRATION. Of late years emigrations from Britain have been considerable. In 
the ten years ending 1830,^ the emigrations to our North American colonies. West 
Indies, Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, Swan River, Van Diemen's Land, 
&C. were, according to official retums, 154,291. In the decennial period to 1840, 
the emigrations advanced to 277,696, exclusively of the vast numbers that preferred 
settling in the United States of America. 

EMINENCE. A spiritual dignity in the Roman states, conferred upon cardinals by a 
decree of pope Urban YIIl., dated January 10, 1630, previously to which time they 
had the title of IllustritHmi.—Athe, The grand-master of MalU also obtained this 
title. — Pardon, 

EMI C ^^ 3 ^^O 

EMIR. A title of dignity among the Turks and Pernans, first giren to caliphs. This 
rank was first awarded to the descendants of Mahomet, by his daughter Fatimay aboat 
A.D. 650. — RicauL To the emirs only was originally given the privilege of wearing 
the green turban. It is also given to lugh officers (another title being joined). 

EMLY. An ancient Irish see, supposed to have been founded by St. Patrick, and 
formerly endowed with large possessions. Emiy was called Imelaca-Ibair ; and SL 
Ailbe was the first bishop in 448 : ancient historians mention it as having been, 
about this time, a great and flourishing dty ; but Emly is now an inconsiderable 
village. In 1568, the see was united to the archiepiscopal see of CasheL 

EMPALEMENT. This barbarous and dreadful mode of putting criminals to death is 
mentioned by Juvenal, and was often inflicted in Rome, particulariy by the monster 
Nero. The victim doomed to empalement u spitted through the body on a stake 
fixed upright ; and this punishment is still used in Turkey and Arabia. The dead 
bodies of murderers were sometimes staked in this manner, previously to being 
buried, in England. — Southern, Williams (who committed suicide) the murderer 
of the Marr family, in Ratdifie Highway, London, Dec. 8, 1811, was staked in hii 
ignominious grave. This practice has been since abolished with us. — See Burying Atint, 

EMPEROR. Originally a title of honour at Rome, conferred on victorious genenis, 
who were first saluted by the soldiers by that name. Augustus Cesar was the firrt 
Roman emperor, 27 B.C. Valens was the first emperor of the Eastern empire, a.o. 
364. Charlemagne was the first emperor of Germany, crowned by Leo III. a.d. 800. 
Ottoman I., founder of the Turkish empire, was the first emperor of Turkey, 1296. 
The Czar of Russia was the first emperor of that country, 1722. Don Ptodro lY. of 
Portugal was the first emperor of Brazil, in 1825. 

EMPIRICS. They were a set of early physicians who contended that all hypothcticsl 
reasoning respecting the operations of the animal economy was useless, and that 
experience and observation alone were the foundation of the art of medicine. The 
sect of Empirics was instituted by Acron of Agrigentum, about 473 b.c 

ENAMELLING. The origin of the art of enamelling is doubtful. It was practised 
by the Egyptians and other eariy nations ; and was known in England in the time 
of the Saxons. At Oxford is an enamelled jewel which belonged to Alfred, and 
which, as appears by the inscription, was made by his order, in his reign, about a.d. 887. 

ENCAUSTIC PAINTING, known to the ancients. This Tcry beautiful art, after 
having been lost, was restored by Count Caylus and M. Bacbelier, a.d. 1749. 

ENCYCLOPiEDIA. The first work to which this designation was expressly given, 
was that of Abulfaraius, an Arabian writer, in the thuh^enth century. Blany were 
published as early as the fifteenth century, but none alphabetically. Chamben' 
Dictionary was the first of the circle of arts and sciences, in EngUmd, first pub- 
lished in 1728. — See Cyclopmdia* 

ENGHIEN, Battle of, fought by the British under William III. and the French 
under Marshal Luxemburg, who were victorious, August 3, 1692. William hsd 
put himself at the head of the confederated army in ^ Netherlands, and leagued 
himself with the Protestant powers upon the Continent against the ambition of 
Louis XIY. and in the end he triumphed. A victory obta&ed here by the greet 
Cond6, first gave the ducal title to a prince of the house of Bourbon Ccmd^. The 
duke D'EngUen was shot by torch-light, immediately after condemnation by a military 
court, at Vincennes, March 20, 1804. The body was exhumed, March 20, 1816. 

ENGINEERS. This name is of modern date, as engineers were formeriy called 
Trench.masters. Sir William Pelham officiated as trench-master in 1622. The 
chief engineer was called camp- master-general in 1634. Captain Thomas Rudd hsd 
the rank of chief engineer to the king, about 1650. The corps of engineers wss 
formerly a civil corps, but was made a military force, and directed to rank with the 
artillery, April 25, 1 787. It has a colonel-in-chief, and a second, and five oolond- 
commandants, and twenty colonels. The Association of Civil Engineers was estab- 
Ushed in 1828. 

ENGLAND. See Britain. So named by order of Egbert, first king of England, in a 
general coundl held at Winchester, a.d. 829. This appellative had been used as 
far back as a.d. 688, but had never been, until then, ratified by any assembly of the 
nation. It came from Anglet, a tribe of Saxons, and lond, the Sizon for country. 




•ENGLAND, camHmigd. 

Flnt hottito appMranoe ci the Dvam 

vpoB flM ooMt. (Bee Dana) . ajk 78S 
Tbigr «ntar Um ThamM wHh a fleet of 
380 nlU and deeUuj Caatarbuiy and 
London by Are .851 

Baoond Mviaa of InnMlans . . 867 

Beign of Alfrad, who defeatt the in- 

▼adera in 56 pitched battlee . 871 

[The UnHwaltjr of Oxford is laid to ha^e 

been fSMmded aboat this time.] 
Alfred'a body of laws framed . 800 

Hie fMieral maytj made, and the roUa 

deposited at Winoheater . . 866 

He dhridee Rngland into counties . 900 
UBlTsnity of Gambridge fonnded. (See 

Coatbridge) .915 

Qsneral miwanrs of the Danes . lOOS 

Bwqrn, UBf of Denmark, arrires in 
Wngland, andaTenfss the death of his 
oountryxnen. Bthelred IL flies to Nor- 
mandy for protection . . .1003 
Bthelred xeoalled from exHe .1014 
The Iteies again raTage England and 

eomplete Ita oonqoeet . 1017 

The Saxon line rostored . . . 1048 

Bra of the oonqoesl The Norman line 

begins hi William L .1066 

Jnstiees of peaoe first appointed . . 1076 
Hew surrey ci England; Domesday- 
book conunsnoed, lOiO co m pleted. 
(See Doomsdajf Book, . 1066 

The empress Maud, daughter of Henry 
L, daims the sanoession on the death 

of hsr father 1135 

fihe lands in England Sept. 1139 

Is crowned alDVlnohester March % 1141 
la deflated ; retirss to France . . . 1147 
Beianis,and concludes apeace^ through 

her son, with Stephen .1153 

The Saxon line reetored . . .1154 

Murder of Becket at the altar. (See 

Bsekgf$ mwdtr) . .1171 

Conquest of Ireland by Henry n. . .1173 
Rngland divided Into drouits for the ad- 
ministration of justice . 1176 
English laws digested by OhmTille . 1181 
Biehard L joins the crusaders. (See ar- 

tUkbCrusaderi) .... 1191 
He Is madepsinnar by Henry VL of 

Germany . . . • Dec. 1199 
Is ransomed by his sottfeots for the sum 

of 400,0001. 1194 

JHem H mtm droit made the motto of 
Bngland by Richard L (Bee Dieu tt 

wkmdr<rit) 1198 

Hormandy is lost to England In the 

reign of John 1S04 

Bngland pot under an interdict by the 

popc^ and king John excommunicated 1206 
Magna Charta, or the great Charter of 
Bngliah Liberty, obtained b7 the ba- 
rons. (See Mag, Ch,^ . 1915 
Gold flrst coined in Rngland. (See Coin 

and Ootd) 1S57 

The Conmume <tf England summoned to 
parliament. (See Parliawttnt) . . 1965 

The principality of Wales united to 

England by Edward L a.i>. 1983 

Death of Roger Bacon . 1294 

Murder of Edward IL at Berkeley 

casUe, {whi^^tee) . . 1397 

Art of wearing brought to England. 

(See Weawing) .... 1331 

Edward IIL takee Calais, after a year's 

siega (See Calais) ... 1347 

Order of the Garter InsUtuted . 1350 

Edward the Black Prince takes the 
Frencdi king prisoner, at the battle of 
Poitiers {which tee) .... 1356 
Law pleadings in English . . 13C9 

Death of Wickliffe .1385 

Murder of Richard IL at Pomfret castle, 

{which $ee) 1399 

The line of Lancaster . 1389 

Order of the Bath instituted by Henry 

IT. (SeeBaM) 1309 

Henry IV. marries Joan of Nararre . 1403 
France conquered by Henry V., who is 

made regent of the kingdom . . 1417 
Marries Catherine of France . 1420 

Henry VI. crowned at Paris . Dec. 1430 
He marrlee Margaret of Anjon . . 1445 
Henry is deposed by Edward. Line of 

York. (See Towton) . . . . 1461 
Margaret and her son made prisoners at 

Tewkesbury . May 4, 1471 

The prince killed fai cool blood. May 21, 1471 
Henry murdered . . . June 20, 1471 
The civil wars between the houses of 
York and Lanosster terminate by the 
death of Richard UL at Boeworth, 
{which tect and Rons) . . . 1485 
BeoTj VIL marries Elizabeth, daughter 

of Edward IT. 1486 

Court of Star-chamber instituted. (See 

Star-chamber) .... 1487 

Yeomen of the Guard, being the first 
appearance of a standing army in 
England, InsUtuted by Henry VIL . 1488 
Henry sells the sovereignty over France 

to Louis 1499 

Gardening introduced Into England ge- 
nerally, Ihmi the Netherlands . . 1500 
Desth of prince Arthur . . . 1509 

Shillings first oofaied. (See ihiUinge) . 1503 
Henry VIU. marries Catherine of 

Spain, widow of his brother Arthur 1509 
Interview with Francis I. at Ardree, Pas 
de Calais. (See Field of the Cloth of 
Gold) . . May 31, 1520 

First geographical map of England 

drawn. (See article 3fap«) . . 1520 
Henry VHI. receives the title of <• De- 
fender of the Faith,** {which eee) . 1521 
Is styled *• Head of the Church" . . 1532 
He divorces Catherine . 1539 

The Pope's authority in England Is 

abolished 1533 

Era of the reformation . . . . 1534 
Sir Thomas More beheaded .1535 

Anna Boleyn beheaded . . . 1536 

Queen Jane Seymour dies . . . 1537 

* The varlooa o cc ui ie u css of a remarkable character relating to England, not noticed in this plAce, 
vfll be fbnnd under fhdr respective heads through tho rolume. 

EN a 



•ENGLAND, continued. 

The first authnriBed editSon ci the Saored 

Volume printed . . . a.d. 1&39 
Cromwell, lord Esuex, beheaded • 1540 

Amie of Cleves divorced . . . 1540 
Queen Catharine Howard and lady 

Kochford beheaded .... 1542 
The title of * • King of Ireland ** confirmed 

to the English sorereigns by act of 

parliament 1543 

Henry marriee Catherine Parr, widow 

of lord Latimer .... 1543 

Protectorate of Edward Seymour, dnke 

of8omer8et 1547 

Edward VL promotes the Reformation 

during his short reign . . 1546 

Interest fixed at 10 per cent • . .r 1547